Discussion:
ARMENIAN GENOCIDE: Truth First, Then Reconciliation Says The Head of DNC Howard Dean
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Anti-Virus
2005-08-23 04:05:48 UTC
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Truth First, Then Reconciliation Says Visiting Howard Dean
YEREVAN (ANCA/RFE-RL)--Former US presidential candidate Howard Dean
ended a two-day visit to Armenia this weekend with a pledge to drum up
greater support among fellow Democrats in US Congress to pass
legislation recognizing the Armenian genocide.

Dean, who now heads the Democratic National Committee, criticized the
Bush administration for its failure to publicly refer to the 1915-1918
mass killings and deportations of Armenians as a genocide. He said
Washington should not fear antagonizing the government of Turkey.

"The truth is that the Armenian genocide took place 90 years ago," the
former governor of Vermont told reporters after laying a wreath at
Yerevan's hilltop memorial to some 1.5 million victims of the genocide.
"Over a million people were killed. There is no question that the
United States should recognize this."

"Sometimes facts are inconvenient," he said, commenting on the Bush
administration's stance on the issue. "...Every country does things
wrong once in a while. Our country enslaved millions of Africans for a
long time. So we have to look back at the past. If you want to have
reconciliation, you first have to have the truth."

Dean pledged to recognize the Armenian genocide during his unsuccessful
campaign to secure the Democratic Party's nomination in the last
elections. Massachusetts Senator John Kerry, who unexpectedly defeated
Dean in the Democratic primaries, gave similar promises.

Dean went on to express his support for a draft congressional
resolution that calls on Bush to "accurately characterize the
systematic and deliberate annihilation of 1,500,000 Armenians as
genocide" in his annual messages to the US-Armenian community. "The
Democrats do not control the House [of Representatives] or the Senate
or, unfortunately, the White House," he said. "But when I get home I
will be speaking with the Democratic leadership of the House and ask
them to support this resolution. And if we get a few Republicans we can
pass it."

The Armenian Genocide Resolution, which was formally introduced on June
14 by Representatives George Radanovich (R-CA), Adam Schiff (D-CA), and
Congressional Armenian Caucus Co-Chairs Frank Pallone (D-NJ) and Joe
Knollenberg (R-MI), calls on the President Bush to ensure US foreign
policy reflects appropriate understanding of the Armenian Genocide. The
resolution includes thirty detailed findings from past US hearings,
resolutions, and Presidential statements, as well as references to
statements by international bodies and organizations.

Dean, who many Democrats hope will help to revive their party's
fortunes, said that the existence of the influential Armenian-American
community was a key reason for his decision to visit Armenia. His
meetings on Friday with President Robert Kocharian and other senior
officials in Yerevan were organized by the Armenian Revolutionary
Federation. The meetings focused on US-Armenian relations and the
situation in the region.

"It is very important for us in the United States to have a strong
Armenia," said Dean. "We want Armenia to succeed as a democratic state
and I think Armenia has done well in the last ten years. There is more
that needs to be done, but I'm very pleased by the progress and I hope
the progress will continue."
mark rivers
2005-08-23 04:41:22 UTC
Permalink
Terrorist Armenians raped, tortured, massacred millions of innocent and
defenceless Turks, Jews, Kurds, Arabs and other non-Armenians in
Ottoman Eastern Anatolia during WWI (with direct and generous support
from their allies, the victors of WWI including Czarist Russia) to
ethnically cleanse the area for an Armenian homeland which never
existed.

The rest of the Ottoman Armenian population either very blindly
followed their terrorist leaders or remained totally complacent. That
is why another thug of Armenian anti-Turkish Hatred Inc says the
following:



"No sir, you will not find Armenians who will express disapproval or
distress for the assassination of Turkish governmental officials. It is
unfortunate that the attitude of the Turkish government vis-a-vis
Armenian demands dictates that more people have to die in pursuit of
justice. ... It is not uncommon to find those within the Armenian
diaspora who actually applaud these violent actions. "


David Davidian <***@urartu.SDPA.org> | The life of a people is a sea,
and
S.D.P.A. Center for Regional Studies | those that look at it from the
shore
P.O. Box 2761, Cambridge, MA 02238 | cannot know its depths.
->> Boston'dan Van'i istiyoruz <<- | -Armenian
proverb

http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/intro/index.html

ARMENIAN TERRORISM

INTRODUCTION


As a bridge between Asia and Europe, with its straits connecting The
Black Sea with the Mediterranean and its geopolitical situation at a
point where the Central Asian, Caucasian and Middle Eastern natural
energy sources intersect, Turkey draws the attention of the entire
world.

The Ottoman Empire in the past and Turkey at present has always been an
arena for which intrigues were incessantly designed. The colonialist
superpowers wishing to eradicate the Ottoman Empire from the world by
dividing it did not fail to use in their schemes also the Armenians who
coexisted in peace with the Turks for so many centuries.

There are today just like in the past, several countries striving to
secure themselves political and economic benefits at the expense of
Armenian community. Monuments accusing Turks and Turkey of having
committed genocide are being erected in some countries; decisions
intending to recognise the so called genocide are brought into the
parliamentary agenda in several countries and even voted for in some
others. Issues that need to be left to historians are turned into means
of self interest by the politicians.

The Armenians who were ousted from one place to the other, pushed into
wars, and treated as third rate citizens throughout the history by the
Romans, Persians and Byzantines. After the advent of Turks into
Anatolia, they benefited from the just, humane, tolerant and unifying
traditions and beliefs of their new neighbours. The period that lasted
until the end of the nineteenth century when the apogee of these
developments and relations was attained, was the golden age of
Armenians. In fact, the Armenians were by far the greatest
beneficiaries of the opportunities offered by the Ottoman Empire to all
industrious, capable, honest and straightforward citizens of the
non-Moslem communities. Being exempted from the military service and to
a large extent from taxation, they had the opportunity to excel
themselves in trade, agriculture, craftsmanship and administration and
therefore were rightly called the "loyal nation" because of their
loyalty and ability to interact with the Ottomans. There were so many
Armenians who spoke Turkish, who even conducted their rites in this
language , who rose to topmost public service posts such as the
Ministries and Under-Secretariats of State for the Public Works, Navy,
Foreign Affairs, Finance, Treasury, Posts and Telegraph and Minting.
There were some who even wrote books in Turkish and foreign languages
on the Problems of the Ottoman Empire .

With the start of the decline of the Ottoman Empire, the European
powers began to intervene in its affairs and degeneration became
evident in the peaceful Turkish-Armenian relations. Great effort was
displayed by the instigators whom the Western powers planted into the
Ottoman Empire under clerical guise, to create a schism between Turks
and Armenians in the religious, cultural, commercial, political and
social fields. Thus, bloody clashes arose, in which the blunt of pain
was borne by the Turks, and thousands of Armenians and Turks lost their
lives in the revolts that broke out in Eastern Anatolia and spread all
the way to Istanbul.

Though there were many Armenians fighting in the Ottoman armies against
the enemy or serving in the rear ranks during the World War I, a
considerable number had sided with the foes on the battlefronts and
launched massacres against the population without distinction of women,
children and the aged. Their toll was hundreds of thousands of Moslems
and ruin in Eastern Anatolia.

The measures adopted by the Ottoman Empire to stop this violence were
presented to the rest of the world under a completely different light
and the Armenians, misguided by the promises and instigation of the
Western Powers started to undermine the country where they had led a
privileged life more than a thousand years.

The Hinchak, Tashnak, Toward Armenia, Young Armenians, Union and
Salvation, Ramgavar, Paramilitaries, Black Cross societies and Hinchak
Revolutionary Committee, which were established out of Anatolia, formed
organisations urging the people for an armed revolt. These activities
were the bloody uprisings that cost thousands of Turkish and Armenian
lives.

During World War I, the Ottoman Empire was fighting against Russian
armies in Eastern Anatolia, where the Armenian revolt was at its peak;
and also against Armenian forces which supported the Russians. On the
other hand, behind the lines it had to continue to fight against
Armenian guerrillas that were burning Turkish villages and towns and
attacking military convoys and reinforcements. In spite of this
violence, the Ottoman Empire tried to solve the Armenian problem for
months by taking local measures. Meanwhile, an operation was made
against the Armenian guerillas and 2345 rebels were arrested for high
treason. When it became evident that the Armenian community was also in
rebellion against the state, the Ottoman Empire proceeded with the last
resort of replacing only those Armenians in the region who actively
participated in the rebellion. With this measure, the Ottoman Empire
also intended to save the lives of the Armenians who were living in a
medium of civil war because Turks started to counter-attack the
Armenians who had performed bloody atrocities against Turkish
communities.

Today, Armenia and some states using Armenians for their economic and
political benefits have launched a massive propaganda campaign to
present the replacement decision and the 24 April arrests as genocide
to the world public opinion.

At the end of the World War I, when the armies of Allied States
occupied The Ottoman Empire and the British officials among them
arrested 143 Ottoman political and military leaders and intellectuals
for "having committed war crimes toward Armenians" and exiled them
to Malta where a trial was launched. However, the massive scrutiny made
on the Ottoman, British, American archives in order to find evidence to
incriminate these 143 persons failed to produce even the least iota of
proof against them. In the end, the detainees in Malta were released
without trial and even any indictment in 1922.

The United States archives contain an interesting document sent to Lord
Curzon on 13 July 1921 by Mr. R.C. Craigie, the British Ambassador in
Washington. The message was as follows: "I regret to state that there
is nothing that may be used as evidence against the Turkish detainees
in Malta. There are no events that may constitute adequate proofs. The
said reports do not appear to contain even circumstantial evidence that
could be useful to reinforce the information held by His Majesty's
Government against the Turks."

On 29 July 1921, the legal advisers in London decided that the intended
indictments drawn up against the persons on the British Foreign
Ministry's list were semi-political in nature and therefore these
individuals should be treated separately from the Turks detained as
criminals of war.

They also stated the following: "No statements were hitherto received
from the witnesses to the effect that the indictments intended against
the detainees are correct. Likewise it does not need to be restated
that finding witnesses after so long a time is highly doubtful in a
remote country like Armenia which is accessible only with great
difficulties." This statement was made also by none other than the
legal advisers in London of His Majesty's Government.

Yet, the efforts to smear the image of Turks with genocide claims did
not come to an end as the British press published certain documents
attempting to prove the existence of a massacre claimed to have been
perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire while efforts were being made to
start a lawsuit in Malta. It was stated that the documents were found
by the British occupation forces in Syria, led by General Allenby. The
inquiries subsequently made by the British Foreign Office revealed,
however, that these documents were fakes prepared by the Armenian
Nationalist Delegation in Paris and distributed to the Allied
representatives.

The Armenian Diaspora, who left no stone unturned to keep the genocide
claims on the agenda despite all these facts, resorted to terrorism in
the end. The so-called Armenian issue, which started to attract the
attention of the world and Turkish public opinion through the smearing
campaign launched by the Armenians against Turkey after 1965, in the
'70s turned into terrorist attacks directed against the Turkish
representations abroad. In Santa Barbara on January 27, 1973, the first
individual terrorist attack was launched by an aged Armenian named
Gurgen (Karekin) Yanikian. He murdered Mehmet Baydur and Bahadir Demir,
the Turkish Consul General and Vice Consul in Los Angeles, and these
murders turned into an organised campaign after 1975. The attacks
against Turkish embassies, officials and institutions abroad gradually
intensified.

A major increase in the attacks was noted after 1979 when an internal
unease started in Turkey. The Armenian terrorists staged a total of 110
attacks at 38 cities of 21 countries. 39 of these acts were committed
by small arms, 70 of them were realised by bombs and one was an
outright occupation. 42 Turkish diplomats and 4 foreigners were killed
and 15 Turks and 66 foreigners were wounded in these incidents.

As these actions received a strong reaction from the world public
opinion, the Armenian terrorist organisations changed their tactics in
1980 and began to co-operate with the PKK terrorist group which was
pushed into the scene by the Eruh and ªemdinli attacks as the ASALA
and Armenian operations were stopped. The documents and evidence from
Beqaa and Zeli camps show that the PKK and ASALA militants were trained
there together.

The success achieved by the Turkish security forces made the Armenian
terrorism pursue the so called genocide claims through the Armenian
Diaspora and attempt to make the world believe in the existence of such
an event by inducing several parliaments to adopt resolutions and laws
which recognise it.

The goal of these terrorists is to plant into minds of people the
existence of a genocide, to force Turkey to recognise it, to receive
indemnity from Turkey and, finally, to snatch from Turkey the land
needed for realising the dream of Great Armenia


++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relations/index.html


TURCO - ARMENIAN RELATIONS

Throughout history, hundreds, thousands...millions of people lived on
these lands. At times, their existence was marked by battles, and at
others, peace reigned over them. The Armenians too, were among the
inhabitants of these lands. They were ruled by the Persians, the
Macedonians, the Seleucids, the Romans, Partians, Byzantines and
Arabs...were constantly exiled from one region to the other, and were
accorded third-class citizenship until the Turks gained sovereignty
over Anatolia, in 1071. After this date, fighting gradually diminished
and Byzantine persecution left its place to the just, tolerant,
humanitarian and unifying beliefs and traditions of the Seljuks. The
years of peace and calm enjoyed by Armenians under the hegemony of the
Seljuks reached a climax under the rule of the Ottomans...a period that
can be defined as the 'Golden Age'... Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, who
put an end to Byzantine rule, allowed the foundation of the Armenian
Patriarchate, an unprecedented move for the Armenians to whom he
granted freedom of conscience and faith. The transformation of the
Armenian Episcopate in Western Anatolia to the Istanbul Patriarchate,
following a decree he issued in 1461, is clear evidence of the vision
and tolerance displayed by Mehmed and of the subsequent Ottoman Sultans
toward other faiths.

As a matter of fact, the present day Armenian Patriarch Mesrob II was
according due rights to those who in turn had taken a similar stand
toward the Armenians throughout their 'Golden Age' by saying: " We can
duely grasp the significance of tolerance between different religions
and cultures, as well as the value of this incident dating back to 538
years, by taking into account the tensions witnessed throughout the
world on the threshold of a new millennium, the ongoing wars beyond our
borders in particular."

Following the reign of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, Turco-Armenian
relations continued excellently until the end of the 19th century. In
fact, Armenians were by far, the greatest beneficiaries of the
opportunities offered by the Ottoman Empire to all industrious,
efficient, honest and productive subjects of the non-muslim
communities. Being exempted from the military service and to a great
extent from taxation, the Armenians had the opportunity to make headway
in trade, agriculture, craftsmanship and administration, and by reason
of their loyalty to the Empire, as well as their ability to intermingle
with other subjects, they had duely attained the title of 'loyal
people'.



++++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/armenian_issue/index.html

ARMENIAN TERRORISM

HOW THE ARMENIAN ISSUE CAME ABOUT

A drastic change was witnessed in Turco-Armenian relations with the
decline of the Ottoman Empire towards the end of the 19th century. As a
result of activities carried out by instigators infiltrating the
Ottoman territories from the West, mostly under a clerical guise,
Armenians began to pull themselves away from the Turkish community in
the religious, cultural, commercial, political and social fields.
Armenians who used Turkish as their language, who conducted their
religious sermons in Turkish and even those who had attained high
positions within the Empire, such as cabinet ministers,
undersecretaries and the like, collaborated with the enemy forces in a
bid to attain the downfall of the Ottoman State.

It is during this period that the Armenians began to present themselves
as an 'oppressed community' and claimed that their sovereignty rights
over Anatolia had been seized by the Turks, this with the aim of
securing the backing of the West. States aspiring to attain their goals
by exploiting the Armenians, did in fact encourage such propaganda and
helped to create public opinion in a drive to have a say in the
sanctions to be imposed on Turkey, and to be able to intervene when
necessary. Thus, all initiatives with the pretext of supporting the
Armenians and safeguarding their rights found serious backing within
their own public opinion.

Once they lost their privileged status, with the Reformation Bill
granting equal status to muslims and non-muslims alike, the Armenians
asked Russia not to withdraw from Eastern Anatolia, which she had
invaded during the 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russian war; that autonomy be
granted to these territories, or that reformation be conducted in line
with their interests. These stipulations found the partial backing of
Russia, and henceforward the Armenian issue began to assume an
international dimension with the Yesilkoy Agreement, formerly known as
the Hagia Stephanos Agreement, signed at the end of the Ottoman-Russian
war and the subsequent Berlin Agreement. Thus, foreign powers aspiring
o divide the country, started intervening in Turco-Armenian relations.

Once, efforts to organize Ottoman Armenians to take action against the
State, by means of committees set up in Anatolia as a result of
activities carried out by missionaries proved futile, it was then
decided that Russian Armenians set up such committees in regions
outside the boundaries of the Ottoman State. Thus, the moderately
militant Hinchak, with socialist tendencies, was set up in Geneva in
1887, followed by the extremist and pro-independence Tashnak Committee
set up in Tbilisi in 1890, favouring terror, rebellions and struggle to
achieve its goals. These committees had been targeted at ' liberating
Anatolian territory and the Ottoman Armenians'. Attempts to launch a
revolt, instigated by the Istanbul-based Hinchaks and aimed at
provoking the Ottoman Armenians by drawing the attention of European
nations to the Armenian issue, were followed by acts carried out by
Tashnaks who had launched a political struggle. These attempts,
masterminded by committees outside the Ottoman lands were supported by
missionaries positioned in Anatolia.


++++++++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/24041915/index.html

ARMENIAN TERRORISM

APRIL 24, 1915

The Ottoman government, against numerous rebellions that began after
1890 and promptly following Armenian massacres which resulted in the
murder of tens of thousands of Turks, contented with informing most
important persons of Armenian congregation and Armenian deputies that
"Government will take the necessary precautions if Armenians continue
to stab in the back and assassinate the Turks". However, it became a
necessity to secure behind the borders because the army was in war at
various fronts, the events did not stop but increased and assaults
towards defenseless Turkish women and children increased.

With this aim, on April 24, 1915 the Armenian Committees were closed
and 2345 of their directors were arrested due to the crime of carrying
out activities against the government. April 24, which is commemorated
annually as the "Anniversary of Armenian Massacre" by the Armenians
abroad is this date when the 2345 revolutionary committee members were
arrested and it has no relation with deportation.

However, the Armenian revolutionary committee members who propagandize
even the unfounded events by exaggeration, promptly made a move to
propagandize these mentioned arrests. As a matter of fact, Ecmiyazin
Catholicos Kevork sent the telegraph below to the President of USA:

"Dear President, according to the last news we got from Turkish
Armenia, the massacre began there and an organized terror endangered
the presence of the Armenian people. At this critical moment, I am
addressing to the noble feelings of your Excellency and great American
Nation and in the name of humanity and Christianity belief requesting
you to promptly interfere by means of your great Republic's diplomatic
representatives and protect my people in Turkey who are left to
violence of the Turkish fanaticism.

Kevork, Archbishop and Catholicos of all Armenians."

Pursuant to the telegraph of Archbishop Kevork, Russia's Washington
Ambassador got in contact with USA and thus, April 24, which is the day
when Armenian committee members dealing with illegal works were
arrested was propagandized to world's public opinion as "the day on
which Turks massacred Armenians".

REFERENCE:
Gürün, Kamuran, Ermeni Dosyasi, TTK Basimevi, Ankara, 1983, s.210-211



++++++++++++++++++++++++++







http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/diplomats/index.html

ARMENIAN TERRORISM

TURKISH DIPLOMATS KILLED BY ARMENIAN TERRORISTS

TURKISH DIPLOMATS KILLED BY THE ARMENIAN TERRORISTS DURING THEIR DUTY

The main targets of Armenian terror organizations, ASALA in particular,
were now being chosen from among Turkish diplomats abroad. The first of
the series of terrorist attacks was carried out against Mehmet Baydar,
the Turkish Consul General in Los Angeles and his Deputy, Bahadir
Demir. The assassinations were perpetrated by an Armenian by the name
of Gurgen Yanikan in 1973. This individual action turned into organized
Armenian terror as of 1975 and further escalated as of 1979. 110 acts
of terror were carried out by Armenian terrorists in 38 cities of 21
countries. 39 of these were armed attacks, 70 of them bomb attacks and
one was an occupation. 42 Turkish diplomats and 4 foreign nationals
were assassinated in these attacks, while 15 Turks and 66 foreign
nationals were wounded.



Tarih Location / Responsibility Name
27.01.1973 Santa Barbara / Consul General Mehmet BAYDAR
Santa Barbara / Consul Bahadir DEMIR
22.10.1975 Vienna / Ambassador Danis TUNALIGIL
24.10.1975 Paris / Ambassador Ismail EREZ
Paris / Driver Talip YENER
16.02.1976 Beirut / First Secretary Oktar CIRIT

09.06.1977 Vatican City / Ambassador Taha CARIM
02.06.1978 Madrid / Ambassador's wife Necla KUNERALP
Madrid / Retired Ambassador Besir BALCIOGLU
12.10.1979 The Hague / Ambassador's son Ahmet BENLER
22.12.1979 Paris / Tourism Counsellor Yilmaz ÇOLPAN
31.07.1980 Athens / Administrative Attache Galip ÖZMEN
Athens / Administrative Attaché's daughter Neslihan ÖZMEN
17.12.1980 Sydney / Consul General Sarik ARIYAK
Sydney / Security Attaché Engin SEVER

04.03.1981
Paris / Counsellor for Labour Affairs Resat MORALI
Paris / Counsellor for Religious Affairs Tecelli ARI
09.06.1981 Geneva / Secretary M.Savas YERGÜZ
24.09.1981 Paris / Security Attaché Cemal ÖZEN
28.01.1982 Los Angeles / Consul General Kemal ARIKAN
08.04.1982 Ottawa / Counsellor for Commercial Affairs Kani GÜNGÖR
04.05.1982 Boston / Honorary Consul General Orhan GÜNDÜZ
07.06.1982 Lisbon / Administrative Attaché Erkut AKBAY
27.08.1982 Ottawa /Colonel, Military Attaché Atilla ALTIKAT
09.09.1982 Bourgas / Administrative Attaché Bora SÜELKAN
08.01.1983 Lisbon / Administrative Attaché's wife, wounded in the
armed assault directed against her husband Erkut Akbay on 07 06 1982,
died on 08 01 1983 Nadide AKBAY
09.03.1983 Belgrade / Ambassador Galip BALKAR
14.07.1983 Brussels / Administrative Attaché Dursun AKSOY
27.07.1983 Lisbon / Counsellor's wife Cahide MIHÇIOGLU
28.04.1984 Teheran / Secretary's wife Isik YÖNDER
20.06.1984 Vienna / Attaché for Labour Affairs Erdogan ÖZEN
19.11.1984 Vienna / International Official Enver ERGUN
07.10.1991 Athens / Press Attaché Çetin GÖRGÜ
11.12.1993 Baghdad / Administrative Attaché Çaglar YÜCEL
04.07.1994 Athens / Embassy Counsellor Haluk SIPAHIOGLU


MEHMET BAYDAR

27 January 1973

Los Angeles/USA

The Armenian assaults against Turkish citizens started in 1973 when
Mehmet Baydar and Bahadir Demir, Turkish Consul General and Consul in
Los Angeles, were murdered by a 78-year-old American Armenian named
Gurgen (Karakin) Yanikian.

Inviting Baydar and Demir to the Baltimore Hotel in Santa Barbara by
declaring that he wished to give a painting of Abdulhamid as a gift to
Turkey, Yanikian shot the two Turkish diplomats dead. He was arrested
for murder and sentenced to life imprisonment, Yanikian was paroled on
31 December 1984 and died shortly afterwards.

This incident, constituting the first assault against the Turkish
diplomats, launched a chain of murders and became a template for the
subsequent attacks by Armenian terrorists.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BAHADIR DEMIR
27 January 1973

Los Angeles/USA

The Armenian assaults against Turkish citizens started in 1973 when
Mehmet Baydar and Bahadir Demir, Turkish Consul General and Consul in
Los Angeles, were murdered by a 78-year-old American Armenian named
Gurgen (Karakin) Yanikian.

Inviting Baydar and Demir to the Baltimore Hotel in Santa Barbara by
declaring that he wished to give a painting of Abdulhamid as a gift to
Turkey, Yanikian shot the two Turkish diplomats dead. He was arrested
for murder and sentenced to life imprisonment, Yanikian was paroled on
31 December 1984 and died shortly afterwards.

This incident, constituting the first assault against the Turkish
diplomats, launched a chain of murders and became a template for the
subsequent attacks by Armenian terrorists.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DANIS TUNALIGIL
Vienna/Austria

22 October 1975

Turkey's Vienna Ambassador Danis Tunaligil was murdered by three
terrorists raiding the Embassy.

When the Turkish Airline Office in Beyrouth was bombed on 20 February
1975, the letter left in the location by ASALA's Esir Yanikian group
that undertook the attack's responsibility declared that they would
fight against the imperialists for the Armenians' rightful case and
that the attacks would aim at Turkey, Iran and United States and that
this case was only a beginning.

On 22 October 1975, three persons bearing automatic weapons forced
their way into the Turkish Embassy in Vienna, neutralised the guards
and entered the Ambassador's office. Receiving an affirmative reply
to their question in Turkish to Danis Tunaligil if he were the
Ambassador, they shoot him with automatic weapons. Tunaligil died on
the spot and the murderers rapidly left the premises and fled in an
automobile.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ISMAIL EREZ
Paris/France

24 October 1975

Turkey's Paris Ambassador Ismail Erez and his driver Talip Yener were
murdered in the vicinity of the Embassy. The Ambassador's car was
ambushed at around 13.30 hours at the Bir Hakeim Bridge on Seine River
and Ismail Erez and his driver Talip Yener were murdered by automatic
weapon fire. The attack

was owned by an organisation that called itself the Armenian Genocide
Justice Commandos.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TALIP YENER
Paris/France

24 October 1975

Turkey's Paris Ambassador Ismail Erez and his driver Talip Yener were
murdered in the vicinity of the Embassy. The Ambassador's car was
ambushed at around 13.30 hours at the Bir Hakeim Bridge on Seine River
and Ismail Erez and his driver Talip Yener were murdered by automatic
weapon fire. The attack

was owned by an organisation that called itself the Armenian Genocide
Justice Commandos.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

OKTAR CIRIT
Beyrouth/Lebanon

16 February 1976

Turkey's Beyrouth Embassy First Secretary Oktar Cirit became the
victim of Armenian terrorism while sitting at a hall. The attack was
owned by the ASALA, which made its name known for the first time.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TAHA CARIM
Rome/Italy

9 June 1977

Turkey's Vatican Ambassador Taha Carim was killed by the cross fire
of two terrorists in front of the Embassy's residence. The attack was
owned this time by the Armenian Genocide Justice Commandos
organisation.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NECLA KUNERALP
Madrid/Spain

2 June 1978

Three terrorists opened fire on the car of Turkey's Madrid Ambassador
Zeki Kuneralp whose wife Necla Kuneralp and retired Ambassador Besir
Balcioglu lost their lives in this attack owned by the organisation
that called itself the Armenian Genocide Justice Commandos
organisation. For the first time in this incident, a foreigner had lost
his life in an attack directed against Turks. That was the
Ambassador's driver Antonio Torres.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BESIR BALCIOGLU

Madrid/Spain

2 June 1978

Three terrorists opened fire on the car of Turkey's Madrid Ambassador
Zeki Kuneralp whose wife Necla Kuneralp and retired Ambassador Besir
Balcioglu lost their lives in this attack owned by the organisation
that called itself the Armenian Genocide Justice Commandos
organisation. For the first time in this incident, a foreigner had lost
his life in an attack directed against Turks. That was the
Ambassador's driver Antonio Torres.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

AHMET BENLER
The Hague/Netherlands

12 October 1979

Ahmet Benler, son of Turkey's The Hague Ambassador Özdemir Benler,
was killed in an armed attack. This case was owned separately by the
ASALA and the Armenian Genocide Justice Commandos organisation.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

YILMAZ COLPAN
Paris/France

22 December 1979

Turkey's Paris Tourism Counsellor Yilmaz Colpan was murdered as a
result of the attack by a terrorist. This case was the second attack in
Paris of the Armenian terrorism. A person calling the news agencies
thereafter said that the Armenian Genocide Justice Commandos was
responsible for the assaults in Rome, Madrid and Paris and added that
it was killing the Turkish diplomats because Turkey did not grant the
rights of Armenians.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

GALIP ÖZMEN
Athens/Greece

31 July 1980

Turkey's Athens Embassy Administrative Attaché Galip Özmen and his
14-year-old daughter Neslihan Özmen were killed in an armed attack by
a terrorist while his wife Sevil Özmen and son Kaan Özmen survived
though seriously wounded. The attack was owned this time by the ASALA.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NESLIHAN ÖZMEN
Athens/Greece

31 July 1980

Turkey's Athens Embassy Administrative Attaché Galip Özmen and his
14-year-old daughter Neslihan Özmen were killed in an armed attack by
a terrorist while his wife Sevil Özmen and son Kaan Özmen survived
though seriously wounded. The attack was owned this time by the ASALA.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SARIK ARIYAK
Sydney/Australia

17 December 1980

Turkey's Sydney Consul General Sarik Ariyak and his security guard
Engin Sever became the victims of Armenian terrorism.

Aside from this case,

- Dogan Türkmen, Turkey's Ambassador to Switzerland, came out alive
from the attack on 6 February 1980 in Bern,

- Fire was opened on 17 April 1980 on the official car of Turkey's
Vatican Ambassador Vecdi Türel. Both Türel and his security guard
Tahsin Güvenc were wounded in this attack, and

- Selcuk Bakkalbasi, the Press Attaché of Turkish Embassy in Paris,
was wounded in an armed attack on 26 September 1980.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ENGIN SEVER
Sydney/Australia

17 December 1980

Turkey's Sydney Consul General Sarik Ariyak and his security guard
Engin Sever became the victims of Armenian terrorism.

Aside from this case,

- Dogan Türkmen, Turkey's Ambassador to Switzerland, came out alive
from the attack on 6 February 1980 in Bern,

- Fire was opened on 17 April 1980 on the official car of Turkey's
Vatican Ambassador Vecdi Türel. Both Türel and his security guard
Tahsin Güvenc were wounded in this attack, and

- Selcuk Bakkalbasi, the Press Attaché of Turkish Embassy in Paris,
was wounded in an armed attack on 26 September 1980.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

RESAT MORALI
Paris/France

4 March 1981

Resat Morali and Tecelli Ari, Counsellors of Labour and Religious
Affairs at the Turkish Embassy in Paris were attacked by two terrorists
when they were taking their car in front of the Labour Attaché's
office. Morali was killed on the spot while the Religious Affairs
Attaché Ari succumbed to death at the hospital where he was rushed
with serious wounds. The attack was owned by ASALA in this third
murderous attack of the Armenian terrorism and Turkey gave a protest
note to France for not properly protecting the Turkish diplomats.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TECELLI ARI
Paris/France

4 March 1981

Resat Morali and Tecelli Ari, Counsellors of Labour and Religious
Affairs at the Turkish Embassy in Paris were attacked by two terrorists
when they were taking their car in front of the Labour Attaché's
office. Morali was killed on the spot while the Religious Affairs
Attaché Ari succumbed to death at the hospital where he was rushed
with serious wounds. The attack was owned by ASALA in this third
murderous attack of the Armenian terrorism and Turkey gave a protest
note to France for not properly protecting the Turkish diplomats.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

M. SAVAS YERGÜZ
Geneva/Switzerland

9 June 1981

Mehmet Savas Yergüz, Secretary of the Turkish Consul General in
Geneva, lost his life in an armed attack shortly after leaving the
office for going home. The attack was owned by the ASALA. Mardiros
Camgozian, the Lebanese Armenian terrorist arrested after the attack,
received a 15-year imprisonment sentence.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CEMAL ÖZEN
Paris/France

24 September 1981

Four Armenian terrorists occupying the premises housing the Turkish
Consulate General and the office of Cultural Attaché, hostaged 56
Turkish officials and citizens and killed security guard Cemal Özen
who attempted to attack and wounded Consul General Kaya Inal. The
terrorists wanted Turkey to release 12 political detainees and to send
them to Paris. As they realised that this demand would not be complied
with, they surrendered to the police some 15 hours after. Turkey warned
France once more and France demented the attack that was owned by the
ASALA. Four Armenian terrorists named Vasken Sakoseslian, Kevork
Abraham Gozlian, Aram Avedis Basmacian and Agop Abraham Turfanian,
received 7-year imprisonment sentences. The court verdict received a
large dissentment in Turkey.

Also in 1981,

- Turkey's Copenhagen Labour Attaché Cavit Demir came out with small
arm wounds on 2 April in the lift of the apartment house where he
lived, and

- Turkey's Rome Embassy Second Secretary Gökberk Ergenekon survived
with minor wounds an attack that was directed against him on 25 October
on a street.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

KEMAL ARIKAN
Los Angeles/USA

28 January 1982

Turkey's Los Angeles Consul General Kemal Arikan was killed by the
Tashnak militant Hampig Sasunian, who was sentenced to life
imprisonment.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ORHAN GÜNDÜZ
Boston/USA

5 May 1982

Turkey's Boston Honorary Consul General Orhan Gündüz was killed in
an armed attack.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ERKUT AKBAY
Lisboa/Portuga

7 June 1982

Turkey's Lisbon Embassy Administative Attaché Erkut Akbay died as a
result of an armed attack on his car. His wife Nadide Akbay succumbed
later to death at the hospital where she was brought with corporeal
wounds.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NADIDE AKBAY
Lisboa/Portuga

7 June 1982

Turkey's Lisbon Embassy Administative Attaché Erkut Akbay died as a
result of an armed attack on his car. His wife Nadide Akbay succumbed
later to death at the hospital where she was brought with corporeal
wounds.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ATILLA ALKIKAT
Ottawa/Canada

27 August 1982

Atilla Alkikat, the Military Attaché at the Turkish Embassy in Ottawa,
was killed in an armed assault.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BORA SÜELKAN

Bourgos/Bulgaria

9 September 1982

Bora Süerlan, Administrative Attaché of the Turkish Consulate General
in Bourgos, was killed by a terrorist attack.

Also in 1982,

- Kani Güngör, Commercial Attaché in the Ottawa Embassy of Turkey,
was wounded in an attack on 8 April,

- Kemal Demirer, Rotterdam Consul General of Turkey, was wounded in an
attack in front of his residence on 21 July. He came out of this attack
with minor wounds and the attacker was arrested while trying to get
away.

- On 7 August, two ASALA terrorists made an armed attack in Esenboga
Airport of Ankara. There were eight casualties and seventy two injuries
in this attack, constituting the first within Turkey of the Armenian
terrorism.






--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

GALIP BALKAR

Beograd/Yugoslavia

9 March 1983

An armed assault was made against Turkey's Belgrade Ambassador Galip
Balkar on 9 March 1983 by two terrorists. Mortally wounded in this
attack, Balkar died on 11 March. A Yugoslavian student also lost his
life in this incident. Terrorists Kirkor Levonian and Raffi Alexander
were sentenced to 20 years of imprisonment on 9 March 1984, exactly one
year after the incident.




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DURSUN AKSOY

Bruxelles/Belgium

14 July 1983

Turkey's Brussels Embassy Administrative Attaché Dursun Aksoy was
murdered by Armenian terrorists.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CAHIDE MIHCIOGLU

Lisboa/Portugal

27 July 1983

The Lisbon Embassy of Turkey was occupied and those within the building
were hostaged by five Armenian terrorists. Cahide Mihcioglu, wife of
Embassy Counsellor Yurtsev Mihcioglu, was killed during this incident.
The Portuguese police saved the hostages by an operation and killed all
five terrorists. The attack was owned by an organisation that called
itself the Armenian Revolutionary Army, which threatened with death the
Portuguese Prime Minister Mario Soarez because of the death of the
terrorists.

On 16 June, a terrorist opened fire on the people at the Grand Bazaar
in Istanbul. Two persons were killed and twenty-one were wounded in
this attack of which the author was killed on the spot. It was later
ascertained that he was an Armenian.

A bomb exploded in front of the Turkish Airlines office in Paris-Orly
Airport. Two Turks, four Frenchmen, one American and one Swedish died
and sixty-three persons, of whom twenty-eight were Turks were wounded
in this attack, named later as the "Orly massacre".



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ISIK YÖNDER

Teheran/Iran

28 April 1984

Isik Yönder, husband of Turkey's Teheran Embassy Secretary Sadiye
Yönder, who was a businessman doing trade with Iran, was killed by an
ASALA militant.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ERDOGAN ÖZEN

Wien/Austria

19 November 1984

Turkey's Vienna Embassy Labour Attaché Erdogan Özen was killed as a
result of the explosion of a bomb planted in his car. This incident was
owned by the Armenian Revolutionary Army.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ENVER ERGUN

Wien/Austria

19 November 1984

Enver Ergün, an official at the UN Representation of Turkey, was
killed as a result of the explosion of a bomb planted in his car. This
incident too was owned by the Armenian Revolutionary Army.

A terrorist trying to plant a bomb on the car of Isil Ünel, Turkey's
Teheran Embassy Deputy Commercial Attaché, was blown to pieces as the
bomb exploded in his hands on 28 March 1984.

The next day, Hasan Servet Öktem and Ismail Pamukcu, First Secretary
and Deputy Attaché of the Turkish Embassy in Teheran, were wounded in
an armed assault in front of their houses



+++++++++++++++++++++++++=






http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/chronology/index.html

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

CHRONOLOGY

1022 Basileios II annexed Armenian territories in the Byzantine Empire
and 40.000 Armenians were deported to Anatolia.

1046 The Armenian sovereigns were killed by Byzantine Emperor
Constantine IX.

1054 Seljukian Sultan Tugrul Bey gave the Armenians autonomy.

1098 The Armenians collaborated with the Crusaders.

1461 Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror invited Armenian Bishop Hovakim to
Istanbul and he was honoured by the title of "Patriarch". Later
some privileges were given to the Armenians.

1790 The First official Armenian school was opened by two Armenians
Amira Miricanyan and Shnork Migirdic, in Istanbul, at Kumkapi.

1823 The Bezciyan School was founded by an Armenian called Artin
Bezciyan in Istanbul, Kumkapi.

1824 Patriarch Karabet has taken Armenian Grammar School Kumpkapi under
his protection.

1853 (October, 22) Armenian Commission of Education was founded.

1876 The Ottoman Assembly accepted the first Armenian deputies.

1877 (December, 7) Armenian National Council decided on forcing their
people to join the Army and fight.

1878 (April, 13) The Armenian Patriarch of Istanbul, Nerses has sent a
note to British Secretary of Foreign Affairs saying that they would not
live together with the Turks any longer.

1878 (July, 13) The Treaty of Berlin was signed. Article 61 about the
Ottoman Armenians was added to the treaty.

1878 (August, 3) The British Secretary of Foreign Affairs Lord
Salisbury sent an instruction to the British Ambassador Layard and
informed him that the Ottoman Government should begin making reforms in
the Eastern Anatolia.

1890 (June, 20) Revolt of Erzurum

(July) Kumkapi Demonstration

First Sason Revolt

1892 - 1893 Merzifon, Kayseri and Yozgat Revolts

1895 (September, 30) Sublime Porte (Government's Gate) Event in
Istanbul.

1895 (November) The Armenian attempt for a revolt in Maras.

1896 (October, 30) Armenian Uprising in Istanbul

1896 (June, 1) First Van Revolt

1896 (August, 26) Raid of the Ottoman Bank

1902 Armenian philologist H. Acaryan published a book called "The
Effects of Turkish Language on Armenian Language and The Turkish Words
in Armenian".

1904 Second Sason Revolt

1905 (July, 1921) The Assassination attempt against Sultan Abdulhamid
II in Yildiz Mosque.

1908 Armenian newspaper "Jamanak" was statrted to be published.

Second National Council has opened and some of the Armenian Committee
members were elected deputies.

1909 (April, 14) Armenian Revolt in Adana.

1915 (April, 15) Second Van Revolt

(April, 24) Armenian Committees working against the Ottoman Government
were closed. The 2345 members of those committees were arrested.

(May, 3) Armenian Massacres in Van.

(May, 27) The Law of Relocation was passed.

1918 (February, 1) Armenian secret society member Arshak committed
massacres in Bayburt.

(April, 25) Armenian militants killed 750 Muslims in Subatan village of
Kars City.

(May, 1) An Armenian militant named Arshak killed 60 Muslims including
children in Kars City.

1919 (November, 20) Two Armenian high category bureaucrats of the
Ottoman government, Bogos Nubar Pasha and Sherif Pasha signed
Armenian-Kurd independence document.

1920 (January, 12) An Armenian mounted unit has tortured Muslims in the
Arapdar village of Antep City.

(December, 2) Treaty of Gumru was signed.

1921 (March, 15) An Armenian terrorist assassinated Talat Pasha in
Berlin.

(March, 16) The Moscow Treaty was signed.

(March, 18) Misak Torlakyan killed the Minister of Internal Affairs of
Azerbaijan, Cevanshir Han, in Istanbul.

(October, 13) Kars Agreement was signed.

(December, 6) Armenians killed Sait Halim Pasha in Rome.

1922 (July, 22) Cemal Pasha was killed by Armenians, in Tbilisi.

1923 Armenian Munib Boya entered the Turkish National Assembly as a
deputy.

(June, 24) The Lausanne Treaty was signed.

1934 Franz Werfel published his novel "Forty Days in Musa
Mountain" in USA.

1935 (December, 15) In Pangalti church an Armenian Group burned
Werfel's novel "Forty Days in Musa Mountain" declaring that book
"utters maliciously false statements about the Turkish Nation".

1936 After the publication of Franz Werfel's "Forty Days in Musa
Mountain" in France, it caused a lot of reactions in the Turkish
press.

1937 Cevat Rifat Atilhan, "Musa Dagi" adinda kitap yazarak, Franz
Werfel'in eserinin gerçekleri yansitmadigini bildirdi.

1937 Werfel'in, "Musa Dag'da Kirk Gün" adli eserinin filme alinmasinin
engellenmesi, ABD Disisleri Bakanligi nezdinde gündeme geldi.

1943 Armenian Berc Türker Keresteci entered the Turkish National
Assembly as a deputy from Afyonkarahisar.

1957 Migirdich Shellefyan was elected as a deputy from Istanbul in the
27 October elections.

1964 (December 24) The Cypriot Minister of Foreign Affairs, Kypriano
applied to UN Council of Security to get the approval of "the
Armenian Issue" against Turkey.

1965 (April 24) Armenians had organised a demonstration against Turkey,
in San Paulo, Brazil.

1969 (April 24) Armenians made a demonstration in front of the Turkish
Embassy in London.

1973 (January 27) An Armenian terrorist, Migirdic Yanikyan killed
Mehmet Baydar, Turkish Consul General for Los Angeles and his assistant
Bahadir Demir.

1975 (January 20) ASALA was founded.

1975 (October 22) The Turkish Ambassador in Vienne Danis Tunaligil was
killed by Armenian terrorists.

1975 (October 24) The Turkish Ambassador in Paris Ismail Erez and a
police officer Talip Yener were killed by Armenian terrorists.

1976 (February 16) The First Secretary of Turkish Embassy in Beirut
Oktay Cerit was killed by the Armenian terrorists.

1976 (May 28) Turkish diplomatic bureau in Zurich was bombed. An
Armenian called Noubar Soufoyan was arrested and condemned to 15 years
in prison.

1977 (May 29) Istanbul Yesilkoy Airport and Sirkeci Station were
bombed. Four people died and 31 people were injured. The attacks were
undertaken by the "Extreme Armenian Movement Groups".

1977 (June 9) The Turkish Ambassador in Vatican Taha Carim was killed
by the Armenians.

1978 (January 3) The Turkish Embassy in Brussels was bombed. The attack
was undertaken by "Armenian New Resistance Organisation".

1978 (June 2) In Madrid, the Turkish Ambassador Zeki Kunaralp's wife
Necla Kunaralp and the ex Ambassador Besir Balcioglu were killed by the
Armenians.

1978 (July 8) In Paris, the Turkish Diplomatic Bureau and the Tourism
Bureau were bombed. The attacks were undertaken by the "Armenian
Genocide Justice Committee"

1978 (August 6) Turkish General Consulate for Geneva was bombed. The
attacks were undertaken by the "The Armenian New Resistance
Organisation".

1978 (December 17) The Geneva Bureau of Turkish Airlines was bombed by
ASALA.

1979 (April 15) The Greek government approved "The Monument of
Armenian Revenge" to be erected in Nea Simirna Square in Athens.

1979 (August 22) Assistant Consul Niyazi Adali in Geneva was
assassinated by ASALA, in attack three other people were killed.

1979 (August 27) Turkish Airlines Bureau in Frankfurt was bombed by
ASALA.

1979 (October 4) Turkish Airlines Bureau in Copenhagen was bombed by
ASALA.

1979 (October 12) The son of Ozdemir Benler, the Turkish Ambassador in
Amsterdam, Ahmet Benler was killed in La Hague.

1979 (December 22) The Tourism Counsellor of Paris Embassy Yilmaz
Copan was killed by Armenians.

1980 (January 10) ASALA bombed Turkish Airlines' Bureau in Tehran.

1980 (February 6) Ambassador Dogan Turkmen was injured in an armed
attack in Bern.

1980 (March 10) Armenian terrorists bombed the Turkish Airlines Bureau
in Rome. Two Italians died; 14 Italians injured.

1980 (April 8) During meeting in Sayda, ASALA declared the Kurds as
their blood brothers by claiming there were resemblances between the
two communities.

1980 (April 17) The Turkish Ambassador in Vatican Vecdi Turel was
attacked by the Armenians, and his police officer Tahsin Guvenc was
injured.

1980 (April 19) ASALA attacked the Turkish Consulate in Marseille.

1980 (June 31) The Turkish Administrative Attaché Galip Ozmen and his
daughter Neslihan Ozmen were killed by the Armenian terrorists.

1980 (August 5) The Turkish Consulate in Lyon was stormed by the
Armenian terrorists and Kadir Atilgan, Ramazan Sefer, Kavas Bozdag and
Huseyin Toprak were killed.

1980 (September 26) Turkish Press Attaché in Paris Selcuk Bakkalbasi
was attacked by the Armenians and he was badly injured.

1980 (November 10) ASALA attacked to Turkish Consulate in Strasbourg.

1980 (December 17) Turkish Ambassador in Sidney, Sarik Arkyan and his
police officer Engin Saver were killed.

1981 (January 13) Armenian terrorists had put a bomb into the car of
Ahmet Erbeyli Counselor of Finance in Paris Embassy. He survived by
chance.

1981 (March 4) The Administrative counsellor of Turkish Embassy in
Paris, Resat Morali and imam Tecelli Ari were killed by the Armenians.

1981 (April 3) The Armenians shot Cavit Demir the administrative
counsellor of the Turkish Embassy in Copenhagen; he was luckily
survived with injuries.

1981 (June 9) The Secretary of the Turkish Embassy in Geneva Mehmet S.
Yerguz was killed by ASALA.

1981 (September 24) The Armenian terrorists stormed the General
Consulate in Geneva; and killed police officer Cemal Ozen.

1981 (October 3) The Second Secretary of Turkish Embassy in Rome was
attacked by Armenian terrorists; he was badly injured.

1981 (November 27) "Armenian Students Union in Europe" and
"Kurdish Students Association in Europe" made a joint declaration
in London.

1982 (January 28) The Turkish General Consulate in Los Angeles, Kemal
Arikan was killed by two Armenians Harry Sasunyan and Kirkor Saliba.

1982 (April 8) Commerce Counselor in Ottawa Embassy Kemalttin Kani
Gungor was injured by an armed attack.

1982 (May 5) The Turkish honorary Consul for USA Boston Region Okan
Gunduz was killed by Armenians.

1982 (June 7) Erkut Akbay the administrative attaché in Lisbon
Embassy was killed. On the same day, Atilla Altikat the military
attaché in Ottawa, Bora Süelkan the administrative attaché to
Bulgaria and chargé d'affaires of Lisbon Embassy Yurtsev Mihcioglu and
his wife Cahide Mihcioglu were attacked. Turkish Ambassador in Canada
Coskun Kirca was attacked as well.

1982 (August 7) Ankara Esenboga Airport was bombed by three Armenian
terrorists. Three police officers and nine civil people died.
Seventy-eight people were injured. A terrorist called Levon Ekmekciyan
was arrested.

1982 (August 10) An Armenian named Artin Penik burned himself to
protest Esenboga Airport Incident.

1983 (January 29) Levon Ekmekciyan was found guilty of 1982 Esenboga
Airport incident and he was executed in Ankara.

1983 (January 29) Harut Levonyan and Rafi Elbekyan attacked to the
Turkish Ambassador in Yugoslavia and a man from Belgrade who was
passing by was killed.

1983 (June 15) Some terrorists of ASALA organisation attacked Turkish
Airlines office in Paris Orly Airport. The attack resulted in the death
of four Frenchmen, two Turks, an American and a Swedish person. In the
incident sixty people were injured.

1983 (June 27) Five Armenian terrorists who raided the Turkish Embassy
in Lisbon were died.

1985 (March 12) Turkish Embassy in Ottawa was raided by three Armenian
terrorists. One of the Canadian civil guards was shot dead. Ambassador
Coskun Kirca survived with injuries.

1991 (January 21) Armenians attacked to Hacilar City. Three Soviet
soldiers and two Azeris were killed. The terrorists killed an Azeri
journalist Savatin Askerova.

1991 (April 13) In Karabagh, Armenians and Azeris fought. The
Armenians bombarded Azeri villages.

1991 (April 23) The Armenians bombarded Azeri villages in Susa region.
Three Azeris were killed, three houses were destroyed, and three houses
were demolished.

1991 (April 26) Four Azeri civil guardians were killed. The attack was
undertaken by "Karabakh Warriors".

1991 (September 23) Armenia declared its independence.

1991 (December 26) Soviet Union was dissolved. Armenia gained its
legal independence.

1996 Levon Petrosyan was elected as the President of Armenia for the
second time.

1997 (March 20) One of the leaders of Tashnaksutium Rober Kocaryan
became the prime minister of Armenia.

1997 (December 20) The Armenians celebrated the 160th year of Surp
Agapyan Hospital together with New Year's fest.

1998 The President of Turkey Suleyman Demirel received Ara Kocunyan the
editor of "Jamanak" newspaper in the of 90th anniversary of the
newspaper, in his resident.

1998 (February) The President of Armenia Levon Ter-Petrosyon resigned.
Thus Robert Kocaryan has found a way for presidency. Petrosyan was
protested by the extreme nationalists with his peaceful approaches in
Karabagh.

1998 (February) Elcibey the leader of Azerbeyjan People's Front
evaluated the resignation of Petrosyan, and he said Kocaryan revolted
against Azerbeyjan with the Russian assistance in Karabagh.

1998 (March 30) Kocaryan was elected the President of Armenia.

1998 (July) Abdullah Ocalan the leader of the PKK terrorist
organization demanded a special village from Armenia for the use of his
organization.

1998 (October 14) Mesrob Mutafyan, became the 84th Patriarch of the
Turkish Armenians.



++++++++++++++++++++++++==



http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/album/index.html


Pictures of Armenian terrorists



++++++++++++++++++++++++



http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/archive/index.html


Photocopies of original Ottoman documents



++++++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/references/index.html

ARMENIAN TERRORISM

REFERENCES

Ahmed Rüstem Bey-, La Guerre Mondiale et la Question
Turco-Arménienne, Berne 1918.

Ahmet Refik-, Iki Komite-Iki Kitâl, Istanbul 1919; Yeni Türkçesi:
Hamide Koyukan, Iki Komite Iki Kitâl, Kebikeç Yayinlari, Ankara 1994.

Ahmet Refik-, Kafkas Yollarinda: Hâtiralar ve Tahassüsler, Öncü
Kitap, Ankara 1992.

AKÇORA, Ergünöz-, Van ve Çevresinde Ermeni Isyanlari (1896-1916),
Türk Dünyasi Arastirmalari Vakfi Yayinlari, Istanbul 1994.

ANADOL, Cemal-, Tarihin Isiginda Ermeni Dosyasi, Turan Kitabevi,
Istanbul 1982.

Armenian Question: Facts and Documents, Azerbaijan Publishing House,
Baku 1992.

Armenians Terrorism: A Threat to Peace, Akdeniz University
Publications, Antalya 1985.

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey (1912-1926),
Bogaziçi University Publications, Istanbul 1984.

Armenians in Ottoman Documents (1915-1920), The Turkish Republic Prime
Ministry General Directorate of State Archives Departmant of Ottoman
Archives Publication, Publication no: 25, Ankara 1995.

Arsiv Belgelerine Göre Kafkaslar'da ve Anadolu'da Ermeni Mezâlimi I
(1906-1918), Ankara 1995, II (1919), Ankara 1995, III (1919-1920),
Basbakanlik Devlet Arsivleri Genel Müdürlügü Yayinlari, Ankara 1997

ASAF, Mehmet-, 1909 Adana Ermeni Olaylari ve Anilarim, Hazirlayan:
Ismet Parmaksizoglu, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayinlari, Ankara 1982.

ATAÖV, Türkkaya-, A Brief Glance at the "Armenian Question", Ankara
1984.

ATAÖV, Türkkaya-, A "Statement" Wrongly Attributed to Mustafa Kemal
Atatürk, Ankara 1984.

ATAÖV, Türkkaya-, Talât Pasa'ya Atfedilen Andonian "Belgeler"i
Sahtedir, Ankara 1984.

ATAÖV, Türkkaya-, The Andonian "Documents" Attributed to Talât Pasha
Are Forgeries, Ankara 1984.

ATAÖV, Türkkaya-, The "Armenian Question" Conflict, Trauma &
Objectivity, Ankara 1997.

BANOGLU, Niyazi Ahmet-, Ermeni'nin Ermeni'ye Zulmü, Ankara 1976.

BASAR, Zeki-, Ermenilerden Gördüklerimiz, Atatürk Üniversitesi
Yayinlari, Ankara 1974.

Cemal Pasa-, Hâtirât (1913-1922), Istanbul 1922.

ÇARK, Y.G.-, Türk Devleti Hizmetinde Ermeniler (1453-1953), Istanbul
1953.

ÇULCU, Murat (Haz.)-, Ermeni Entrikalarinin Perde Arkasi: Torlakyan
Davasi, Kastas Yayinlari, Istanbul 1990.

AKDES, Nimet Kurat-, Türkiye ve Rusya, Ankara 1990.

Armenian Violence and Massacre in the Caucasus and Anatolia Based on
Archives (1906-1918), The Turkish Republic Prime Ministry General
Directorate of State Archives Departmant of Ottoman Archives
Publication,, Publication No: 23, Ankara 1995.

Armenian Violence and Massacre in the Caucasus and Anatolia Based on
Archives (1919), The Turkish Republic Prime Ministry General
Directorate of State Archives Departmant of Ottoman Archives
Publication, Publication No: 24, Ankara 1995.

Armenian Violence and Massacre in the Caucasus and Anatolia Based on
Archives (1919-1920), The Turkish Republic Prime Ministry General
Directorate of State Archives Departmant of Ottoman Archives
Publication, Publication No: 34, Ankara 1997.

Armenian Violence and Massacre in the Caucasus and Anatolia Based on
Archives (1920-1922), The Turkish Republic Prime Ministry General
Directorate of State Archives Departmant of Ottoman Archives
Publication, Publication No: 35, Ankara 1998.

Armenians in Ottoman Documents (1915-1920), Basbakanlik Devlet
Arsivleri Genel Müdürlügü Osmanli Arsivi Daire Baskanligi
Yayinlari, Yayin Nu: 14, Ankara 1994.

Arsiv Belgelerine Göre Kafkaslar'da ve Anadolu'da Ermeni Mezalimi
(1906-1918), Devlet Arsivleri Genel Müdürlügü Osmanli Arsivi Daire
Baskanligi Yayin Nu: 23, Ankara 1995.

Arsiv Belgelerine Göre Kafkaslar'da ve Anadolu'da Ermeni Mezalimi
(1919), Devlet Arsivleri Genel Müdürlügü Osmanli Arsivi Daire
Baskanligi Yayin Nu: 24, Ankara 1995.

Arsiv Belgelerine Göre Kafkaslar'da ve Anadolu'da Ermeni Mezalimi
(1919-1920), Devlet Arsivleri Genel Müdürlügü Osmanli Arsivi Daire
Baskanligi Yayin Nu: 34, Ankara 1997.

Arsiv Belgelerine Göre Kafkaslar'da ve Anadolu'da Ermeni Mezalimi
(1920-1922), Devlet Arsivleri Genel Müdürlügü Osmanli Arsivi Daire
Baskanligi Yayin Nu: 35, Ankara 1998.

BARDAKJIAN, Kevork-, "Istanbul Ermeni Patrikliginin Dogusu", Ermeni
Sorunu ve Bursa Ermenileri, Bursa 2000.

BEYDILLI, Kemal-, "1828-1829 Osmanli-Rus Savasinda Dogu Anadolu'dan
Rusya'ya Göçürülen Ermeniler", TTK Belgeler, nr.17 (1988)

BRAUDE, B.-Lewis, B.-, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, New
York, London 1982.

BRITAIN, Great-, The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire:
Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Secretary of State
For Foreign Affairs, London 1916.

CAHIT, Yalçin H.-, Talât Pasa'nin Hâtiralari, Yenigün Yayinlari,
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Yayinlari, Ankara 1986.
mark rivers
2005-08-23 04:42:04 UTC
Permalink
Terrorist Armenians raped, tortured, massacred millions of innocent and
defenceless Turks, Jews, Kurds, Arabs and other non-Armenians in
Ottoman Eastern Anatolia during WWI (with direct and generous support
from their allies, the victors of WWI including Czarist Russia which
also created the mess in the Middle East, including the fake state of
Iraq, millions of people are suffering from now) to ethnically cleanse
the area for an Armenian homeland which never existed.

The rest of the Ottoman Armenian population either very blindly
followed their terrorist leaders (who were ".. craven and mean-spirited
and exel in nothing except drinking." - Marco Polo), or remained
totally complacent.

Another thug of Armenian anti-Turkish Hatred Inc indicates typical
Armenian behavior correctly:

"No sir, you will not find Armenians who will express disapproval or
distress for the assassination of Turkish governmental officials. It is
unfortunate that the attitude of the Turkish government vis-a-vis
Armenian demands dictates that more people have to die in pursuit of
justice. ... It is not uncommon to find those within the Armenian
diaspora who actually applaud these violent actions. "


David Davidian <***@urartu.SDPA.org> | The life of a people is a sea,
and
S.D.P.A. Center for Regional Studies | those that look at it from the
shore
P.O. Box 2761, Cambridge, MA 02238 | cannot know its depths.
->> Boston'dan Van'i istiyoruz <<- | -Armenian
proverb



http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/genocide.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

WHAT DOES "GENOCIDE" MEAN?

This term refers to a well defined crime, the definition of which has
been given in an international convention made after the Second World
War: the "Convention of Prevention and Repression of Crime of
Genocide", approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in
its resolution of December 9, 1948 and which went into effect on
January 11, 1951, convention Turkey has signed and ratified this
agreement.

In the convention the definition of the crime of genocide consists of
three elements: for one thing, there has to be a national, ethnic,
racial or religious group. Then, this group has to be subjected to
certain acts listed in the convention: the "murder of the members of
the group, and forced transfer of the children of one group into
another group and subjecting the members of a group to conditions which
-will eventually bring about their physical destruction". But the third
element is the most important: there has to be "an intention of
destroying", in part or as a whole the said group. This key-description
helps to differentiate between genocide and other forms of homicide,
which are the consequences of other motives such as in the case of
wars, uprisings etc. Homicide becomes genocide when the latent or
apparent intention of physical destruction is directed at members of
any national, ethnic, racial or religious groups simply because they
happen to be members of that group. The concept of numbers only becomes
significant when it can be taken as a sign of such an intention against
the group. That is why, as Sartre said in speaking of genocide on the
occasion of the Russell Tribunal on the Vietnam War, that one must
study the facts objectively in order to prove if this intention exists,
even in an implicit manner.

(23) Prof. SOYSAL, Mumtaz, The Orly Trial, 19 February - 2 March 1985,
Statement and Evidence Presented at the Trial,

Ankara University, Faculty of Political Sciences, 1985



+++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/april.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

APRIL 24, 1915

The Ottoman government, against Armenian revolts starting from 1890's
and Armenian massacres which resulted with murders of tens of thousands
of Turks, informed high members of Armenian congregation and the
Armenian deputies that "Government will take necessary measures, if
the Armenians continue to stab back the Ottoman State and to kill
Turks". The Ottoman government's efforts to stop the events could
be clarified with documents.

However, it became a necessity to secure the behind lines as the army
was in war more than one fronts, the events did not stop on the
contrary they increased. The Armenian attacks on innocent and
defenseless Turkish women and children became a vital problem.

Under these circumstances, on April 24, 1915 Armenian Committees were
closed by the Ottoman Government and 2345 leaders of these committees
were arrested due to their antigovernmental activities. April 24, which
is commemorated annually as "Anniversary of Armenian so-called
Genocide" by Armenians abroad is this date when 2345 revolutionary
committee members were arrested and this day is irrelevant with the
Relocation Implementation.

However, Armenian revolutionary committee members always used this a
propaganda rule by distorting and exaggerating the facts. As a matter
of fact, Ecmiyazin Catholicos Kevork sent a telegraph to the President
of USA, stating:

"Dear President, we have been informed that in Turkish Armenia,
massacres began and the lives of the Armenians are in danger. At this
delicate moment, I address to the noble feelings of Excellency and the
great American Nation and in the name of humanity and Christianity, I
invite you to interfere Turkey by your Great Republic's diplomatic
representatives and protect my people who were left to fanatic violence
of the Turks.

Kevork, Archbishop and Catholicos of all Armenians."

Russian Ambassador for Washington's contacts with the US government
followed Kevork's telegraphs. Thus, 24 April, the day, which the
Armenian committee members were arrested for their illegal activities
was begun to be referred as "the day of so-called Armenian genocide
by Turks".

REFERENCE:

Gürün, Kamuran, Ermeni Dosyasi, TTK Basimevi, Ankara, 1983, s.210-211



++++++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/relocation.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

WHAT IS "RELOCATION"? DOES IT MEAN "GENOCIDE"?

The Arabic originated word "tehcir" means "emigration /
immigration", it definitely not means "deportation" or
"exile". Hence the law commonly known as the "Tehcir Law" is
the same as "Temporary Law On The Military Measures To Be Taken For
Those Who Resist The Governmental Acts And Supplementation's." The
word used to explain the implementation in line with this law is
"tenkil" in the Ottoman language and means "transport- not the
equivalent of "deportation", "exile" or "proscription" in
Latin originated languages.

The relocation, which was started with the orders of Talaat Pasha, and
approved by the Government and the Parliament as a measure against the
Armenian riots and massacres, which had arisen in a number of places in
the Country - pre - dominantly in Van province, was only
implemented only in the regions in which such riots and massacres
affected the security of the fronts directly. The first area was
Erzurum, Van and Bitlis Vicinities which formed the rear part of the
Caucasian - Iran Front; and the second was Mersin - Iskenderun
Region which formed the rear part of the Sina Front. In both of these
regions, Armenians had collaborated with the enemy and involved in
activities to facilitate the enemy's invasion.

Later, the scope of the immigration was widened in order to include the
Armenians in the other provinces, who rioted, collaborated with the
enemy and screened the activities of Armenian Gangs. Although the
Catholic and Protestant Armenians were excluded from immigration at the
beginning, later those whose harmful activities were observed, were
also relocated.

Since 1915, numerous papers, reports, books, etc. were written and
published about the immigration implementation. The Armenians, by using
false documents have succeeded to deceit the World for a long time. The
rumor about Armenian holocaust (!) which expressed at first as three
hundred thousand and later increased to three million has no basis at
all. In fact, although English and French authorities have extensively
studied the Ottoman archives during their occupation in Istanbul have
failed to find even a single document hinting about such holocaust.

Had the Ottoman State intended to make genocide on Armenians; could not
they realize such an act at the places where the Armenians live? Why
would it be necessary "to immigrate" them for such an intention?
Why did they undertake the significant fiscal and material costs of
their security, safety, health and food of the immigrating Armenians?
During this immigration and re-settlement process which lasted
approximately 1,5 year from May 1915 until October 1916, why would the
central and local administrations take measures to ensure the lives and
properties of Armenians in spite of the difficult war circumstances? In
addition, would it be necessary to accept great administrative,
military and financial burden -as if opening a new front- to protect
and secure these people?

The answers to these questions shall be sufficient to understand the
real intention of the Ottoman State. Also there is no logical
explanation that why the Ottoman State suddenly changed its policy
towards a community which had always been called as "millet-i
sadika" (loyal people) due to their being really faithful to the
Government. Hence the party whose attitude had changed was not the
Ottoman Government, but the Armenians who were deceived by the
independence promises of Russia and the Entente States.

In conclusion, it can be said that the Armenian Immigration which was a
necessary measure to ensure the State Security and Safety is among one
of the most successful transportation and re-settlement processes; and
has no intention whatsoever to annihilate Armenians.

Reference:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gerekceler (1915),
TTK Yayini, Ankara, 2001.


++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/demographic.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

WHAT WAS THE DEMOGRAPHIC DATA BEFORE AND AFTER RELOCATION?

The Armenian committee members always distort and exaggerate the facts
about Armenian population before and after the Relocation
Implementation. They try to create a basis for their false claims by
using war records, official records, church statistics and, reports of
foreign missionaries. Some of numbers that is given about the Armenian
population in the Ottoman territories are sometimes exceed to the total
Armenian population of the Diaspora.

Armenian Population before the Relocation:

There are many different claims about Armenian population in the
Ottoman territories; some figures are as follow:

1.British Annual Register 1917 1.056.000 (1)

2.Patriarch Ormanyan 1.579.000 (2)

3.The Armenian historian Kevork Aslan 1.800.000 (3) (In "Armenia and
Armenians", Aslan states the Armenian population in Anatolia 920.000,
in Clicia (Adana, Sis, Maras) 180.000, in the other Ottoman territories
700.000, total 1.800.000)

4.German Priest Johannes Lepsius 1.600.000 (4)

5.Cuinet
1.045.018 (5)

6.The French Yellow Book 1.475.011 (6)

7.The Armenian historian Basmajian 2.280.000 (7)

8.Patriarch Nerses Varjabedyan 1.150.000 (8)

Official Ottoman census statistics are as follows:


The Ottoman Directory of Statistics was founded in 1892 The first
director of the branch was Nuri Bey. Between 1892-1897 a Jewish
Ottoman, Fethi Franco was appointed for the duty. From 1897 until 1903,
an Armenian director was in charge, called Migirdic Shabanyan. Later,
Mr. Robert an American was appointed (1903-1908). Between, 1908-1914
Mehmet Behic was the general director. (9)

As it is seen, in a very chaotic period when the Ottoman government was
facing with the Armenian Issue on the international arena, the Ottoman
Statistics were under the control of foreigners. At this point, the
Ottoman statistics should be considered as the most objective documents
about the Armenian population living in Ottoman territories.

* Ottoman census statistics for 1893 1.001.465

* Ottoman census statistics for 1906 1.120.748

* Ottoman census statistics for 1914 1.221.850 (10)

An evaluation of the three sources clarifies that, during the First
World War, the Armenian population in the Ottoman territories was
approximately 1.250.000.

The numbers of the Armenians, subjected to relocation was controlled
from their departure until their arrival, between June 9, 1915 and
February 8, 1916. The figures below are taken from pertinent Ottoman
documents (11):


TOWN RELOCATED NOT RELOCATED
------------------ --------- -------------
Adana (2) 14.000 15-16.000

Ankara (Central)(3) 21.236 733

Aydin(4) 250 -

Birecik(5) 1.200 -


Diyarbakir(6) 20.000 -

Dörtyol(7) 9.000 -

Erzurum(8) 5.500 -

Eskisehir(9) 7.000 -

Giresun(10) 328 -

Görele 250 -

Aleppo(11) 26.064 -

Haymana(12) 60 -

Izmir(13) 256 -

Izmit(14) 58.000 -

Kal'acik(15) 257 -

Karahisari sahib(16) 5.769 2nd 222

Kayseri(17) 45.036 4.911

Keskin 1.169 -

Kirsehir(18) 747 -

Konya(19) 1.900 -

Kütahya(20) 1.400 -

Mamuretülaziz(21) 51.000 4.000

Maras(22) - 8.845

Nallihan 479 -

Ordu 36 -

Persembe 390 -

Sivas(23) 136.084 6.055

Sungurlu 576 -

Sürmene 290 -

Tirebolu 45 -

Trabzon(24) 3.400 -

Ulubey 30 -

Yozgat(25) 10.916 -

TOTAL 422.758 32.766


On the other hand, in the telegraph sent by the Director of Immigrants
and Tribe Placement, ªükrü Bey on October 18, 1915 notified that
"the number of the Armenians transported to Aleppo was about 100.000.
(36) Meanwhile, it is understood from the records that an Armenian
population of 120.000 people gathered in Diyarbakir as of September 18,
1915 and an Armenian population of 136.084 people gathered in Cizre as
of September 28, 1915 to be sent to Musul and Zor region. (37) In a
coded telegraph sent by ªükrü Bey from Nizip on November 3, 1915, it
is expressed that transportation continued in a regular manner. (38)

As it is from the figures given above, the Armenian population
subjected to relocation was 438.758 and 382.148 of these safely reached
their new destinations. (40)

The number of casualties had occurred as follows: 500 people on the
road between Erzurum and Erzincan; 2000 in Meskene, between Urfa and
Aleppo and 2000 others on the outskirts of Mardin were massacred in
attacks launched by bandits or nomadic Arabs. Another 5000 people were
killed in attacks on convoys passing through Dersim. (41) It was
understood from these documents that many people had also fallen victim
to hunger while on the road. (42) Apart from these, some 25-30 thousand
people had lost their lives when struck by fatal diseases such as
typhoid and dysentery. (43) In all, an estimated 40 thousand casualties
had been registered during relocation.

The remaining 10-16 thousand people were made at stay in provinces they
had reached, when the implementation of relocation was brought to an
end. For instance, on April 26, 1916, orders were given to provide the
return to and the settlement in the province of Konya of those
Armenians setting out form the province to new destinations. (44) On
the other hand, many other Armenians are believed to have fled to
either Russia or to Western countries, including the Unites States.

As a matter of fact, according to the pertinent documents, 50.000 of
the Armenian soldiers serving in the Ottoman Army joined the Russian
forces, and some other 50.000 Armenian soldiers went to America to be
trained in the US Army to fight against the Turkish Army. In fact, the
letter of an Armenian called Murad Muradyan- who was an advocate in
Elazig later immigrated to America - shows such information. (45) In
the concerned letter, Muradyan mentions that some Armenians were
escaped to Russia and America and later 50.000 of those trained
soldiers went to Caucassia. As it can be understood from all the
concerned documents, many of Armenian subjects of the Ottoman State
were scattered through various countries especially to U.S.A. and
Russia, before and during the war. For example, Artin Hotomyan who was
a tradesman in America sent a letter to the Chieftain of Security on
January 19, 1915 and stated that thousands of Armenians migrated to
U.S.A. and they were facing with hunger and hardships. (46)

REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf-; Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gercekler (1915),
TTK Yayini, Ankara 2001.

FOOTNOTES

1) Annual Record of Britannica, 1917

2) Uras, Esat, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Ermeni Meselesi, Istanbul 1987

3) Aslan, Kevork, Ermenistan ve Ermeniler, Istanbul 1914.

4) Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

5) Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

6) 1893-1897 Ermeni Isleri, Paris, 1897 Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

7) Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

8) Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

9) Mazici, Nursen, Belgelerle Uluslar arasi Rekabette Ermeni
Sorunu, Istanbul 1987.

10) see. Karpat, Kemal, H. Ottoman Population 1830-1914
Demographic and Social Characteristic, The University Of Wisconsin
Press, 1985 London.

11) Armenians of Kastamonu, Balikesir, Antalya, Istanbul, Urfa,
Protestants and Catholics, the sick people, teachers, orphans and women
with no guardian were not subjected to relocation.

12) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number 68/77 (appendix-XXII).

13) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number 68/77 (appendix -XXII).

14) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number 69/250.

15) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number 68/101.

16) The number of the immigrants from Diyarbakir is not determined. It
is estimated that 20.000 Armenians were relocated from Diyarbakir.

17) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/89.

18) code. number54/162

19) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/72

20) Giresun, Perºembe, Ulubey, Sürmene, Tirebolu, Ordu and Görele
are given in the same document (see. DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/41).

21) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/76.

22) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/66.

23) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number69/260.

24) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/67 (Appendix-XXIV)

25) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/79

26) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/73.

27) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/75 (Appendix-XXV).

28) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/66.

29) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number69/34.

30) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/93.

31) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/70 (Appendix-XXVII).

32) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/41.

33) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/84 (Appendix-XXVII).

34) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/41.

35) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/66.

36) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/80 (Appendix-XXVIII).

37) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/71 (Appendix-XXIX); 2nd Branch,
number68/84.

38) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/101.

39) The number of Armenians transferred from Aleppo is approximately
100.000 (see. DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/80).

40) The figures can slightly differ.

41) Coded telegraphs that were sent to the governors of Trabzon,
Erzurum, Sivas, Diyarbakir, Elazig, Bitlis, Maras and Canik dated June
26, 1915. (code., number 54-A/112).

42) code., number 57/110.

43) see. DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number68/81; see. code., number 57/51.

44) code., number 63/119.

45) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number2F/14.

46) see. DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number2F/94.


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/casualties.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

DID ARMENIAN CASUALTIES AMOUNT TO 1.5 MILLION?

Armenian propagandists claim that as many as 1,5 million Armenians died
as the result of so-called "genocide". Like the rest of their claims,
this also is imaginary, with the number claimed being increased over
years. At first, immediately following the war the Armenians claimed
that as many as 600,000 had been killed. Later they raised it to
800,000 and now they talk about 1,5 million and tomorrow they may talk
even about three million. The 1918 edition of Encyclopedia Britannica
said that 600,000 Armenians had been killed; in its 1968 edition this
was raised to 1,5 million.

How many Armenians did die? It is impossible to determine the number
exactly, since no complete death records were kept during those years.
The only basis on which even an estimate can be made is the actual
Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire at the time. Even here
figures vary widely, with the Armenians claiming far more than other
sources:

Claimed Armenian Population

1.British Annual Register 1917 1.056.000 (1)

2.Patriarch Ormanyan 1.579.000 (2)

3.The Armenian
historian Kevork Aslan 1.800,000 (3)

(In "Armenia and Armenians", Aslan states the Armenian population
in Anatolia 920.000, in Clicia (Adana, Sis, Maras) 180.000, in the
other Ottoman territories 700.000, total 1.800.000)

4.German Priest Johannes Lepsius 1.600.000 (4)

5.Cuinet 1.045.018
(5)

6.The French Yellow Book 1.475.011 (6)

7.The Armenian historian Basmajian 2.280.000 (7)

8.Patriarch Nerses Varjabedyan 1.150.000 (8)

Official Ottoman census statistics are as follows:


The Ottoman Directory of Statistics was founded in 1892. The first
director of the branch was Nuri Bey. Between 1892-1897 a Jewish
Ottoman, Fethi Franco was appointed for the duty. From 1897 until 1903,
an Armenian director was in charge, called Migirdic Shabanyan. Later,
Mr. Robert an American was appointed (1903-1908). Between, 1908-1914
Mehmet Behic was the general director. (9)

As it is seen, in a very chaotic period when the Ottoman government was
facing with the Armenian Issue on the international arena, the Ottoman
Statistics were under the control of foreigners. At this point, the
Ottoman statistics should be considered as the most objective documents
about the Armenian population living in Ottoman territories.

* Ottoman census statistics for 1893 1.001.465

* Ottoman census statistics for 1906 1.120.748

* Ottoman census statistics for 1914 1.221.850 (10)

An evaluation of the three sources clarifies that, during the First
World War, the Armenian population in the Ottoman territories was
approximately 1.250.000.

The Armenian population subjected to relocation was 438.758 and 382.148
of these safely reached their new destinations. (11) The number of
casualties had occurred as follows: 500 people on the road between
Erzurum and Erzincan; 2000 in Meskene, between Urfa and Aleppo and 2000
others on the outskirts of Mardin were massacred in attacks launched by
bandits or nomadic Arabs. Another 5000 people were killed in attacks on
convoys passing through Dersim. (12) It was understood from these
documents that many people had also fallen victim to hunger while on
the road. (13) Apart from these, some 25-30 thousand people had lost
their lives when struck by fatal diseases such as typhoid and
dysentery. (14) In all, an estimated 40 thousand casualties had been
registered during relocation.

The remaining 10-16 thousand people were made at stay in provinces they
had reached, when the implementation of relocation was brought to an
end. For instance, on April 26, 1916, orders were given to provide the
return to and the settlement in the province of Konya of those
Armenians setting out form the province to new destinations. (15) On
the other hand, many other Armenians are believed to have fled to
either Russia or to Western countries, including the Unites States.

As a matter of fact, according to the pertinent documents, 50.000 of
the Armenian soldiers serving in the Ottoman Army joined the Russian
forces, and some other 50.000 Armenian soldiers went to America to be
trained in the US Army to fight against the Turkish Army. In fact, the
letter of an Armenian called Murad Muradyan- who was an advocate in
Elazig later immigrated to America - shows such information. (16) In
the concerned letter, Muradyan mentions that some Armenians were
escaped to Russia and America and later 50.000 of those trained
soldiers went to Caucassia. As it can be understood from all the
concerned documents, many of Armenian subjects of the Ottoman State
were scattered through various countries especially to U.S.A. and
Russia, before and during the war. For example, Artin Hotomyan who was
a tradesman in America sent a letter to the Chieftain of Security on
January 19, 1915 and stated that thousands of Armenians migrated to
U.S.A. and they were facing with hunger and hardships. (17)

REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf-; Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gercekler (1915),
TTK Press, Ankara 2001.

FOOTNOTES

1) British Annual Record for 1917

2) Uras, Esat, Tarihte Ermeniler ve Ermeni Meselesi, Istanbul,
1987

3) Aslan, Kevork, Ermenistan ve Ermeniler, Istanbul, 1914.

4) Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

5) Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

6) 1893-1897 Ermeni Iºleri, Paris, 1897 Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

7) Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

8) Uras, Esat, a.g.e.

9) Mazici, Nursen, Belgelerle Uluslar arasi Rekabette Ermeni
Sorunu, Istanbul 1987.

10) see Karpat, Kemal, H. Ottoman Population 1830-1914 Demographic and
Social Characteristic, The University Of Winsconcin Press, 1985 London.

11) Some figures can be slightly change.

12) Coded telegraphs from governors of Trabzon, Erzurum, Sivas,
Diyarbakir, Elazig, Bitlis Maras, Canik, June 26, 1915 (code, number.
54-A/112). Telegraphs from governors of Eregli and Musul (June, 8 1915
coded telegraph sent to Konya province, code, numberr.57/337; Zor
province February 3, 1916, code, number.60/219).

13) code, number.57/110.

14) see DH. EUM. 2. branch, numberr.68/81; see. code., number. 57/51.

15) code, number. 63/119.

16) DH. EUM. 2. ªube, nr.2F/14.

17) Bkz. DH. EUM. 2. ªube, nr.2F/94.


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/ottoman.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

DID THE OTTOMAN GOVERNMENT REFRAIN FROM AN INVESTIGATION?

The Ottoman Empire indicated its intent, by verbal notes addressed on
26th March 1916, to receive two jurists from each of Denmark, Norway,
Spain, Sweden and Switzerland as countries not involved in the World
War I. This initiative, of which the documents are reproduced in the
last part of this document, was blocked by an intervention from the
United Kingdom and as a result the formation of the committee of
jurists and the investigation of the subject were blocked (1).

This move is an indication of the fact that there was nothing against
the international law in the acts and deeds of the Ottoman Empire and
an expression of self-confidence. In fact, the prevention of this
investigation seems to be motivated by the wish to conceal the actual
criminals and descriptions. Had this committee been established, the
arrows of accusation now aimed to Turkey would hit the real targets and
the insubstantial claims would be burried.

The initiatives launched by the Ottoman State did not come to an end
with this move as the Sublime Port requested, by its cable dated 7th
March 1920(2), the Allied Powers and Admiral Bristol to inquire into
the matter, to elucidate the facts and to inform the Turkish and world
public opinions of the outcome. This cable was a request "for an
immediate in situ examination by an international committee of the
purported massacre of Armenians and the acquittal of the Turkish nation
from the propaganda with malice aforethought". This plea was
published also in all the dailies as an open letter. Similarly, a group
of foreign reporters, led by Ahmet Refik, was dispatched to Eastern
Anatolia for an in-depth survey(3).

Would a State that had committed a crime against humanity risk the
consequences of such initiatives? This example and several others to be
described later will reveal beyond any shade of doubt how far the
injustice made to the Turkish nation and history and how these indecent
these insinuations were from a humane viewpoint.


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/talat_pasha.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

DID TALAT PASHA SEND SECRET TELEGRAMMES ORDERING GENOCIDE?

Armenian propaganda claiming that so-called genocide was an Ottoman
government policy requires proof that such a decision was in fact made.
For this purpose the Armenians produced a number of telegrams
attributed to Talat Pasha supposedly found by British forces commanded
by General Allenby when they seized Aleppo in 1918. It was claimed that
they were found in the office of an Ottoman official named Naim Bey,
and that they could be destroyed only because the British occupation
came with unexpected speed. Samples of these telegrams were published
in Paris in 1920 by an Armenian author named Aram Andonian, (38) and
they also were presented at the Berlin trial of the Armenian terrorist
Tehlirian, who killed Talat Pasha. Nevertheless, the court neither
considered these documents as "evidence" nor was involved in any
decision claiming the authenticity of them. These documents were,
however, entirely fabricated, and the claims deriving from them
therefore cannot be sustained. They were in fact published by the Daily
Telegraph of London in 1922, (39) which also attributed them to a
discovery made by Allenby's army. But when the British Foreign Office
enquired about them at the War Office, and with Allenby himself, it was
discovered that they had not been discovered by the British army but,
rather, had been produced by an Armenian group in Paris. In addition,
examination of the photographs provided in the Andonian volume shows
clearly that neither in form, script or phraseology did they resemble
normal Ottoman administrative documents, and that they were, therefore,
rather crude forgeries.

Following the Entente occupation of Istanbul, the British and the
French arrested a number of Ottoman political and military figures and
some intellectuals on charges of war crimes. In this they were given
substantial assistance by the Ottoman Liberal Union Party, which had
been placed in power by the Sultan after the war, and which was anxious
to do anything it could to definitively destroy the Union and Progress
Party and its leaders, who had long been political enemies. Most of the
prisoners were sent off to imprisonment in Malta, but the four Union
and Progress leaders who had fled from the country just before the
occupation were tried and sentenced to death in absentia in Istanbul.
Three other Government officials were sentenced to death and executed,
but it was discovered later that the evidence on which the convictions
had been based was false.

In the meantime, the British looked everywhere to find evidence against
those who had been sent to Malta. Despite the complete cooperation of
wome enthusraztic supporters such as the Ottoman Liberal Union (38)
ANDONIAN, Aram, Documents Qfficiels concernant les Massacres Armmiens,
Paris, Armenian National Delegation, 1920. (39) Daily Telegraph, 29 May
1922. government, nothing incriminating could be found among the
Ottoman government documents. Similar searches in the British archives
were fruitless. Finally, in desperation, the British Foreign Office
turned to the American archives in Washington, but in reply, one of
their representatives, R. C. Craigie, wrote to Lord Curzon:

"I regret to inform your Lordship that there was nothing therein which
could be used as evidence against the Turks who are at present being
detained at Malta ...no concrete facts being given which could
constitute satisfactory incriminating evidence.... The reports in
question do not appear in any case to contain evidence against these
Turks which would be useful even for the purpose of corroborating
information already in the possession of His Majesty's
Government.''(40)

Uncertain as to what should be done with prisoners, who already had
been held for two years, without trial and without even any charges
being filed or evidence produced, the Foreign Office applied for advice
to the Law Officers of the Crown in London, who concluded on 29 July,
1921:

"Up to the present no statements have been taken from witnesses who can
depose to the truth of the charges made against the prisoners. It is
indeed uncertain whether any witnesses can be found." (41)

At this time the "documents" produced by Andonian were available, but
despite their desperate search for evidence, which could be presented
in a court of law, the British, never used them because it was evident
that they were forgeries. As a result, the prisoners were quietly
released in 1921, without charges ever having been filed or evidence
produced.

It is useful to reiterate that the main elements in the chain of
evidence constructed in proving that Andonian's "documents" were all
patent forgeries:

1. To show that his forgeries were in fact "authentic Ottoman
documents" Andonian relied on the signature of the Governor of Aleppo,
Mustafa Abdiilhalik Bey, which he claimed was appended to several of
the "documents" in question. By examining several actual specimens of
Mustafa Abdülhalik Bey's signature as preserved on contemporary
official documents, it is established that the alleged signatures
appended to Andonian's "documents" were forgeries.

2. In one of his forged documents, Andonian dated the note and
signature attributed to Mustafa Abdülhalik Bey. Again, by a comparison
with authentic correspondence between the Governor (40) 13 July 1921;
British Foreign Office Archives 371/6504/8519 (41) British Foreign
Office Archives 371/6504/E8745

Aleppo and the Ministry of the Interior in Istanbul, on the date in
question, it is proven that the Governor of Aleppo on that date was
Bekir Sami Bey, not Mustafa Abdulhalik Bey.

3. Consistently, Andonian's forgeries attest to the fact that he was
either totally unaware of, or carelessly neglected to account for, the
differences between the Muslim Rumi and Christian calendars. The
numerous errors he made as a result of this oversight are, in and of
themselves, sufficient to prove the fabricated nature of his
"documents". Among other things, the errors Andonian made in this
respect served to destroy the system of reference numbers and dates
that he concocted for his "documents".

4. By way of a detailed comparison of the entries made in the Ministry
of the Interior's Registers of outgoing Ciphers, wherein are recorded
the date and reference number of every ciphered communication sent out
by the Ministry, with the dates and reference numbers placed by
Andonian on his forgeries, it is proven that his so-called "ciphered,
telegrams" bear no relationship whatsoever to the actual ciphers sent
by the Ministry to Aleppo in the period in question.

5. Again, by comparing the Turkish "originals" of Andonian's " ciphered
telegrams" with actual examples of contemporary Ottoman ciphered
messages, it is shown that the number groupings he employed bear no
relationship to the actual ciphers the Ottomans were using in that
period. Thus, in his attempt to make his forgeries appear credible, he
created a whole series of unusable, non-existent ciphers. Further, from
the dates he affixed to his forgeries in this category, the Ottomans
would have had to use the same ciphers over a six-month period which
was impossible. By publishing a series of documents instructing
officials to change the ciphers they were using, it is shown that, in
fact, the Ottomans were changing their cipher codes on average once
every two months during the war years.

6. By comparing the manner in which the common Islamic injunction,
Besmele, was written on Andonian's two forged letters with numerous
examples of the way in which it appears on authentic contemporary
Ottoman documents, it is suggested that Andonian's clumsy forgery of
this term may well have stemmed from the fact that non-Muslims, even
those who knew Ottoman Turkish, did not employ this injunction.

7. A number of examples from Andonian's forgeries show that it is
simply inconceivable that any Ottoman official could have used such
sentence structures and make such grammatical errors. In the same vein,
a host of expressions; allegedly uttered by prominent Ottoman officials
are used, which no Ottoman Turk would ever have used. Andonian's
intention in these instances was clear: he wanted nothing less than the
Turks themselves to be seeming to confess to crimes which he had
manufactured for them.

8. The forged documents, with two exceptions, were written on plain
paper with none of the usual signs found on the official paper used by
the Ottoman bureaucracy in this period. The fact that one of the forged
Turkish originals was written on a double-lined paper, which the
Ottomans did not even use for private correspondence, constitutes an
even more serious error on Andonian's part. Even the two forgeries
which appear at first glance to have been written on some kind of
official Ottoman stationery are actually written on blank telegraph
forms, which anyone wishing to send a telegram could pick up in any
Ottoman post office.

9. At a time when the British were frantically searching the world's
archives for anything to be used as "evidence" against the group of
Ottoman officials whom they were holding for trial as being
"responsible for the Armenian incidents", their failure to utilize
Andonian's "documents" which were readily available in their English
edition, strongly suggests that the British Government was fully aware
of the nature of these forgeries.

10. Had documents of the nature of those concocted by Andonian ever
actually existed, their confidential nature would have dictated that
they be sent by courier for security reasons; rather than through the
easily breachable public telegraph system. Likewise, had such documents
really ever been written; it is inconceivable that they could have lain
around in a file for three years, instead of being destroyed as soon as
they had been read.

11. There are also numerous differences between the French and English
editions of Andonian's book. Indeed, these variations are of such
significance that it is absolutely impossible to ascribe them to
printing errors, or errors in translation.

12. Finally, the fact that even some authors with close links to
Armenian circles, who serve as spokesmen for Armenian causes, have
indicated their own doubt as to the veracity of Andonian's "documents"
should not be overlooked. In short, from start to finish the so-called
"Talat Pasha Telegrams" are nothing more than crude forgeries,
concocted by Andonian and his associates. Moreover the Ottoman archives
contain a number of orders; whose authenticity can definitely be
substantiated, issued on the same dates, in which Talat Pasha ordered
investigations to be made to find and punish those responsible for the
attacks which were being made on the deportation caravans. It is hardly
likely that he would have been ordering massacres on one hand and
investigations and punishments for such crimes on the other.

A letter forged by Aram Andonian with the date, February 18, 1331
(March 2,1916) opens with a "bismillah" (blessing), which would never
have been written by a Moslem. The forger, Andonian, made his most
fatal mistake with the date, however. He was obviously not well enough
versed in the tricks of converting to the Rumi year of the Ottomans,
where a difference of thirteen days between the Rumi and Gregorian
calendars must be taken into account.

The date he put on the letter was off by a full year. Instead of 1330
(1915), he wrote 1331 (1916). The contents of the letter are supposed
to be evidence of the long advance planning of the resettlement
operation of 1915.(42) (42) Feigl, Erich. A Myth of Terror, 1991,
Edition zeitgeschichten-Freilassing- Salzburg, p. 85

An American aid organization called "the Near East Relief Society" was
allowed by the Ottoman Government to stay and fulfill its functions in
Anatolia during the deportations. Even following the entry of U.S.A.
into war on the side of Entente powers against Ottoman Empire, the same
organization was permitted to remain in Anatolia. This was dealt in the
reports of the American Ambassador Elkus in Istanbul. In this case, if
an order for "massacring Armenians" had been given, would the Ottoman
Government have allowed to an American organization to be witness to
the "massacres". In other words, it is ridiculous to suppose that the
Ottomans said to America: "We are massacring Armenians. Why don't you
have a look at it." Such an allegation could never be a logical
explanation of historic facts. Finally, and in the end most important,
when the war came to an end, the Armenian population still was
substantially in place in Western Anatolia, Thrace and Istanbul. Had
the Ottoman government ordered massacres, evidently they too would have
been killed. And for that matter, had the Ottoman government wanted to
eliminate all the Armenians in the Empire, it could have done so far
more easily by killing and disposing of them where they lived, rather
than undertaking a large-scale deportation of those in the Eastern war
zones under the eyes of foreign observers.

The claim, thus, that the Ottoman government ordered and carried out a
general massacre of Armenians in the Empire cannot be sustained and is
disproved by the facts.


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/archive.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

IS THERE ACCESS TO THE OTTOMAN ARCHIVES? ARE DOCUMENTS RELATED
RELOCATION CONCEALED?

Documents on all matters dealing with the relocation are accessible to
all. The Ottoman Archives in where these documents are kept are
available for the examination of all researchers since 1925 at the
Prime Ministry's State Archives. From 1925 to date, a total of 3.817
scholars, broken down into 605 from the United States, 168 from
Germany, 150 from France, 98 from Saudi Arabia, 84 from Iran, 74 from
the United Kingdom, 70 from Israel, 63 from Libya, 58 from Hungary, 52
from Argentina, 47 from Bulgaria, 47 from Egypt, 39 from the
Netherlands, 36 from Romania, 35 from Tunisia, 35 from Algeria and 28
from Canada, to whom should be added 190 Turkish citizens of Armenian
origin, studied the existing documents and carried out scientific work.

Aside from the free examination by thousands of foreigners, these
documents were also published in Turkish and English and made available
to the researchers. It should also be mentioned that the archives of
the Turkish General Staff are being published in the Military history
Documents Magazine in facsimile and modern Turkish, and being sold.

Similarly, there is another publication prepared from which the Prime
Ministry's Yildiz Palace archives was published in three volumes in
the Ottoman Turkish, English and modern Turkish.

Despite all these facts, several Turkish and foreign organisations and
nationals still claim, either intentionally or because for lack of
information that the Republic of Turkey is being incriminated for
"deliberately avoiding to make the archives available for
examination"


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/scholars.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

HOW DO SCHOLARS REACT TO ALLEGATIONS OF GENOCIDE?

ATTENTION MEMBERS OF THE U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

(May 19, 1985)

The undersigned American academicians who specialize in Turkish,
Ottoman and Middle Eastern Studies are concerned that the current
language embodied in House Joint Resolution 192 is misleading and/or
inaccurate in several respects. Specifically, while fully supporting
the concept of a "National Day of Remembrance of Man's Inhumanity to
Man," we respectfully take exception to that portion of the text, which
singles out for special recognition:

". . . the one and one half million people of Armenian ancestry who
were victims of genocide perpetrated in Turkey between 1915 and 1923 .
. .."

Our reservations focus on the use of the words "Turkey" and "genocide"
From the fourteenth century until 1922, the area currently known as
Turkey, or more correctly, the Republic of Turkey, was part of the
territory encompassing the multi-national, multi-religious state known
as the Ottoman Empire. It is wrong to equate the Ottoman Empire with
the Republic of Turkey in the same way that it is wrong to equate the
Hapsburg Empire with the Republic of Austria. The Ottoman Empire, which
was brought to an end in 1922, by the successful conclusion of the
Turkish Revolution which established the present day Republic of Turkey
in 1923, incorporated lands and people which today account for more
than twenty-five distinct countries in Southeastern Europe, North
Africa, and the Middle East, only one of which is the Republic of
Turkey. The Republic of Turkey bears no responsibility for any events
which occurred in Ottoman times, yet by naming Turkey' in the
Resolution, its authors have implicitly labeled it as guilty of
"genocide" it charges transpired between 1915 and 1923; As for the
charge of "genocide" no signatory of this statement wishes to minimize
the scope of Armenian suffering. We are likewise cognizant that it
cannot be viewed as separate from the suffering experienced by the
Muslim inhabitants of the region. The weight of evidence so far
uncovered points in the direct of serious inter communal warfare
(perpetrated by Muslim and Christian irregular forces), complicated by
disease, famine, suffering and massacres in Anatolia and adjoining
areas during the First World War. Indeed, throughout the years in
question, the region was the scene of more or less continuous warfare,
not unlike the tragedy which has gone on in Lebanon for the past
decade. The resulting death toll among both Muslim and Christian
communities of the region was immense. But much more remains to be
discovered before historians will be able to sort out precisely
responsibility between warring and innocent, and to identify the causes
for the events which resulted in the death or removal of large numbers
of the eastern Anatolian population, Christian and Muslim alike.

Statesmen and politicians make history, and scholars write it. For this
process to work scholars must be given access to the written records of
the statesmen and politicians of the past. To date, the relevant
archives in the Soviet Union, Syria, Bulgaria and Turkey all remain,
for the most part, closed to dispassionate historians. Until they
become available, the history of the Ottoman Empire in the period
encompassed by H.J. Res. 192 (1915-1923) cannot be adequately known.

We believe that the proper position for the United States Congress to
take on this and related issues is to encourage full and open access to
all historical archives and not to make charges on historical events
before they are fully understood. Such charges as those contained H.J.
Res. 192 would inevitably reflect unjustly upon the people of Turkey
and perhaps set back progress irreparably. Historians are just now
beginning to achieve in understanding these tragic events.

As the above comments illustrate, the history of the Ottoman-Armenians
is much debated among scholars, many of whom do not agree with the
historical assumptions embodied in the wording of H.J. Res. 192. By
passing the resolution Congress will be attempting to determine by
legislation which side of the historical question is correct. Such a
resolution, based on historically questionable assumptions, can only
damage the cause of honest historical inquiry, and damage the
credibility of the American legislative process.

SIGNATORIES TO THE STATEMENT ON H.J. RES. 192 ADDRESSED TO THE MEMBERS
OF THE U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

RIFAAT ABOU-EL-HAJ

Professor of History

California State University at Long Beach

SARAH MOMENT ATIS

Professor of Turkish Language & Literature

University of Wisconsin at Madison

KARL BARBIR

Associate Professor of History

Siena College (New York)

ILHAN BASGOZ

Director of the Turkish Studies Program at the Department of Uralic &
Altaic Studies

Indiana University

DANIEL G. BATES

Professor of Anthropology

Hunter College,

City University of New York

ULKU BATES

Professor of Art History

Hunter College

City University of New York

GUSTAV BAYERLE

Professor of Uralic & Altaic Studies

Indiana University

ANDREAS G. E. BODROGLIGETTI

Professor of Turkic & Iranian languages

University of California at Los Angeles

KATHLEEN BURRILL

Associate Professor of Turkish Studies

Columbia University

RODERIC DAVISON

Professor of History

George Washington University

WALTER DENNY

Associate Professor of Art History &

Near Eastern Studies

University of Massachusetts

DR. ALAN DUBEN

Anthropologist, Researcher

New York City

ELLEN ERVIN

Research Assistant Professor of Turkish

New York University

CAESAR FARAH

Professor of Islamic

& Middle Eastern History

University of Minnesota

CARTER FINDLEY

Associate Professor of History

The Ohio State University

MICHAEL FINEFROCK,

Professor of History

College of Charleston

ALAN FISHER

Professor of History

Michigan State University

CORNELL FLEISCHER

Assistant Professor of History

Washington University (Missouri)

TIMOTHY CHILDS

Professorial Lecturer at SAIS,

Johns Hopkins University

SHAFIGA DAULET

Associate Professor of Political Science

University of Connecticut

JUSTIN MCCARTHY

Associate Professor of History

University of Louisville

JON MANDAVILLE

Professor of the History of the Middle East

Portland State University (Oregon)

RHOADS MURPHEY

Assistant Professor of Middle Eastern

Languages & Cultures & History

Columbia University

PIERRE OBERLING

Professor of History

Hunter College of the City University of

New York

ROBERT OLSON

Associate Professor of History

University of Kentucky

DONALD QUATAERT

Associate Professor of History

University of Houston

WILLIAM GRISWOLD

Professor of History

Colorado State University

WILLIAM HICKMAN

Associate Professor of Turkish

University of California, Berkeley

JOHN HYMES

Professor of History

Glenville State College

West Virginia

RALPH JAECKEL

Visiting Assistant Professor of Turkish

University of California at Los Angeles

JAMES KELLY

Associate Professor of Turkish

University of Utah

PETER GOLDEN

Professor of History

Rutgers University, Newark

TOM GOODRICH

Professor of History

Indiana University of Pennsylvania

ANDREW COULD

Ph.D. in Ottoman History

Flagstaff, Arizona

MICHAEL MEEKER

Professor of Anthropology

University of California at San Diego

THOMAS NAFF

Professor of History & Director, Middle East

Research Institute

University of Pennsylvania

WILLIAM OCHSENWALD

Associate Professor of History

Virginia Polytechnic Institute

WILLIAM PEACHY

Assistant Professor of the Judaic & Near

Eastern Languages & Literatures

The Ohio State University

HOWARD REED

Professor of History

University of Connecticut

TIBOR HALASI-KUN

Professor Emeritus of Turkish Studies

Columbia University

J. C. HUREWITZ

Professor of Government Emeritus

Former Director of the Middle East

Institute (1971-1984) Columbia University

HALIL INALCIK

University Professor of Ottoman History & Member of the

American Academy of Arts & Sciences

University of Chicago

RONALD JENNINGS

Associate Professor of History & Asian Studies

University of Illinois

KERIM KEY

Adjunct Professor

Southeastern University

Washington, D.C.

DANKWART RUSTOW

Distinguished University Professor of

Political Science

City University Graduate School New York

STANFORD SHAW

Professor of History

University of California at Los Angeles

METIN KUNT

Professor of Ottoman History

New York City

AVIGDOR LEVY

Professor of History

Brandeis University

DR. HEATH W. LOWRY

Institute of Turkish Studies Inc.

Washington, D.C.

JOHN MASSON SMITH, JR.

Professor of History

University of California at Berkeley

ROBERT STAAB

Assistant Director of the

Middle East Center

University of Utah

JAMES STEWART-ROBINSON

Professor of Turkish Studies

University of Michigan

FRANK TACHAU

Professor of Political Science

University of Illinois at Chicago

DAVID THOMAS

Associate Professor of History

Rhode Island College

WARREN S. WALKER

Home Professor of English & Director of the

Archive of Turkish Oral Narrative

Texas Tech University

WALTER WEIKER

Professor of Political Science

Rutgers University

MADELINE ZILFI

Associate Professor of History

University of Maryland

ELAINE SMITH

Ph.D. in Turkish History

Retired Foreign Service Officer

Washington, D-C-EZEL

KURAL SHAW

Associate Professor of History

California State University, Northridge

FREDERICK LATIMER

Associate Professor of History (Retired)

University of Utah

BERNARD LEWIS

Cleveland E. Dodge Professor of Near

Eastern History

Princeton University


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/tplan.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

WHAT IS THE FOUR "T" PLAN?

The goal of Armenian terrorism that has never hesitated to go to such
extremes as cold-blooded murder is to make the claims of genocide
against Armenians heard and their demands known. The ultimate objective
is a "Great Armenia", for which they designed the so-called "
Four T plan" based on propaganda, recognition, indemnity and land.
The intention here is to rehabilitate the world public opinion by
making them to accept, through terrorism, the existence of genocide
against them, to force Turkey into recognising it, to receive
compensation in monetary terms and finally to seize from Turkey the
land needed for realising a Great Armenia.

The claims underlying "the Four T Plan" are the following:

- The Turks invaded Armenia and seized its land.

- They applied a systematic massacre against Armenians since the
1877-1878 war.

- They resorted to a planned genocide against Armenians from 1915
onward.

- Talat Pasha issued secret orders to apply genocide on the
Armenians.

- 1,5 million Armenians lost their lives through genocide.

It is necessary to make a brief study on the claims and the historical
developments of Turkish-Armenian relations so as to understand how
preposterous the insinuations are and which clandestine interests
underlie them.


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/force.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

IS THE SÉVRES TREATY STILL IN FORCE?

The Armenian propagandists claim that the Sévres Agreement, which
provided for the establishment of an Armenian State in eastern
Anatolia, is still legally in force, and use it to base their claims
for the "return" of "Armenian lands". In fact, this agreement was never
put into force. It was superseded and replaced by the Treaty of
Lausanne, and thus no longer has the force of law. In addition, after
the Tashnaks established an Armenian Republic in Erivan on 28 May 1918,
it signed the Batum Treaty of 4 June, 1918 with the Ottoman Government.
This treaty was described by Foreign Minister Hadisian of the Armenian
Republic as involving the full disavowal on the part of the latter of
all claims on the territory or people of the Ottoman Empire including
its Armenians and the lands claimed by the Armenian nationalists:

"The Armenians of Turkey no longer think of separating from the Ottoman
Empire. Their problems no longer are even the concern of relations
between the Armenian Republic and the Ottomans Relations between the
Ottoman Empire and the Armenian Republic are excellent, and they must
remain that way in future. All Armenian political parties feel the same
way. Continuation of this good neighbourly spirit is one of the
principal points of the program recently announced by the Armenian
Government, of which I am Foreign Minister. "(43).

Even the Tashnak organ Hairenik stated on 28 June 1918:

"Russia's policy of hostility toward Turkey emboldened the Armenians of
the Caucasus; that is why the Caucasus Armenians were involved in
clashes between two friendly races. Thank goodness that this situation
did not last too long. Following the Russian Revolution, the Armenians
of the Caucasus understood that their security could be achieved only
by having good relations with Turkey, and they stretched out their
hands to Turkey. Turkey also wanted to forget the events of the past,
and grasped the out-stretched hand in friendship. We agree that the
Armenian Question has been resolved and left to history. The mutual
feelings of suspicion and enmity created by foreign agents should be
eliminated.''(44)

These declarations make it clear that the Armenian Issue was closed by
the agreements concluded, following World War I; that- the events that
had taken place were the responsibility of the Russians and Armenians,
not of the Turks, and that if anyone had been mistreated it was the
Turks, no-one else. It is true that the World War I settlement was
reopened for a time by the Armenian Republic. Despite the Tashnak
declarations, Armenian bands began to raid into eastern Anatolia in the
summer of 1918. On 28 May 1919, in the first anniversary of the
foundation of the Armenian Republic by the Tashnaks, it declared that
"Armenia has annexed Eastern Anatolia" thus laying claim to the
territories of eastern Anatolia which had been returned to the Ottoman
Empire following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. To examine the Armenian
claims and recommend a settlement, American President Wilson sent an
American investigation committee to Anatolia in the fall of 1919 under
the leadership of General James G. Harbord. It toured through Anatolia
during September and October, and then reported to Congress that:

"The Turks and Armenians lived in peace side by side for centuries;
that the Turks suffered as much as the Armenians at the time of the
deportations; that only 20% of the Turkish villagers who went to war
would be able to return to their homes: that at the start of World War
I and before the Armenians never had anything approaching a majority of
the population in the territories called Armenia; that they would not
have a majority even if all the relocated Armenians were returned; and
the claims that returning Armenians would be in danger were not
justified. "(45) As a result of this report, in April 1920 the American
Congress rejected the proposal, which had been made to establish an
American Mandate over Anatolia for the purpose of

enabling the Armenians to establish their own state in the East.

On 10 August 1920 the Armenians joined in signing the long-hoped-for
Treaty of

Sévres, which provided that the Ottoman government would recognize the
establishment of an

independent Armenian state, with boundaries to be determined by
President Wilson. This treaty

was, however, signed only by the Ottoman Government in Istanbul, while
most Turks, and

most of the country accepted the leadership of the Ankara government,
led by Mustapha

Kemal, who actively opposed the treaty and its provisions.

In the meantime, following the Armistice of Mondros which concluded the
fighting of World War I in 1918, the province ofAdana was occupied by
the French. The British occupied Urfa, Marash and Antep but later left
these also to the French. As French forces occupied these provinces, in
south and southeast Anatolia, they were accompanied by Armenians
wearing French uniforms, who immediately began to ravage Turkish
villages and massacred large numbers of Turks. These atrocities stirred
the Turks of the area to resist, once again leading to the spreading of
propaganda in Europe that Turks were massacring Armenians. This time,
however, since the French themselves were forced to send the Armenians
to the rear to end the atrocities, the Armenian claims were evidently
false, and no-one really believed them.

After the American Congress rejected a Mandate over Anatolia, the
Armenian Republic in the Caucasus, starting in June 1920, attacked
Turkey, sending guerrilla bands as well as organized army units into
eastern Anatolia, and undertaking widespread massacres of the settled
population. The Ankara government moved to the defense in September,
and within a short time the Armenian forces were routed, eastern
Anatolia was regained, and order and security re-established. By the
Treaty of Gumru (Alexandropol) signed by the Ankara Government and the
Armenian Republic on 3 December 1920, both sides accepted the new
boundaries and acknowledged that the provisions of the Treaty of
Sévres were null and void. The Armenians also renounced all
territorial claims against Turkey. Shortly after this the Red Army
entered Erivan and established the Soviet Armenian Government. However
through a revolt in Erivan on 18 February 1921 the Tashnaks once again
took over control of Armenia. The new Vratzian Government sent a
committee to Ankara on 18 March asking for Turkish assistance against
the Bolsheviks, a strange event indeed considering that only two years
ago the Tashnaks had organized an Armenian invasion of Turkey. The
Tashnak government did not last very long, however, and the Soviets
soon regained control of Erivan. On 16 March 1921 Turkey signed the
Moscow Treaty with the Soviet Union, by which the boundaries between
Turkey and the Soviet Union were definitively drawn. As arranged in
this agreement, on 13 October 1921 Turkey signed the K-ars Agreement
with Soviet Armenia, confirming the new boundaries between the two as
well as their agreement that the provisions of the Treaty of Sévres
were null and void once and for all. The situation on the southern
front was settled by the Treaty of Ankara signed with France on 20
October 1921. France evacuated not only its own troops, but also the
Armenian guerillas and volunteers who had cooperated with them, and
most of the Armenians who had gathered at Adana in the hope of
establishing an Armenian state there. Many of these Armenians were
settled in Lebanon. This agreement made possible the subsequent return
of Hatay to Turkey, thus fulfilling the provisions of the Turkish
national pact, which had been drawn up by Mustapha Kemal, and the
leaders of the Turkish War for Independence. All these settlements
effectively nullified Armenian ambitions for a state in eastern
Anatolia. The Treaty of Lausanne, signed on 24 July 1923 in place of
the Treaty of Sévres, did not even mention the Armenians, which is why
Armenian nationalists even today try to resurrect the Sévres treaty
which never really was put into force.

NOTES:

(43) SCHEMSI, Kara, op. cit., p. 31.

(44) SCHEMSI, Kara, op. cit., pp. 31- 32.

(45) URAS, Esat, po. Cit., pp. 682-683


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/oppressed.html

ARMENAIAN TERRORISM

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

WERE ARMENIANS OPPRESSED AND SUBJECTED TO ATROCITIES BY THE TURKS
THROUGHOUT HISTORY

Armenian propagandists have claimed that the Turks mistreated
non-Muslims, and in particular Armenians, throughout history in order
to provide support for their claims of "Genocide" against the Ottoman
Empire, since it would otherwise be difficult for them to explain how
the Turks, who had lived side by side with the Armenians in peace for
some 600 years, suddenly rose up to massacre them all. The Armenians
moreover, have tried to interpret Turkish rule in terms of a constant
struggle between Christianity and Islam, thus to assure belief in
whatever they say about the Turks on the part of the modern Christian
world.

The evidence of history overwhelmingly denies these claims. We already
have seen that the contemporary Armenian historians themselves related
how the Armenians of Byzantium welcomed the Seljuk conquest with
celebrations and thanksgivings to God for having rescued them from
Byzantine oppression. The Seljuks gave protection to an Armenian
Church, which the Byzantines had been trying to destroy. They abolished
the oppressive taxes which the Byzantines had imposed on the Armenian
churches, monasteries and priests, and in fact exempted such religious
institutions from all taxes. The Armenian community was left free to
conduct its internal affairs in its own way, including religious
activities and-education, and there never was any time at which
Armenians or other non-Muslims were compelled to convert to Islam. The
Armenian spiritual leaders in fact went to Seljuk Sultan Melikshah to
thank him for this protection. The Armenian historian Mathias of Edessa
relates that,

"Melikshah's heart is full of affection and good will for Christians;
he has treated the sons of Jesus Christ very well, and he has given the
Armenian people affluence, peace, and happiness."

After the death of the Seljuk Sultan Kilich Arslan, the same historian
wrote,

"Kilich Arslan's death has driven Christians into mourning since he was
a charitable person of high character. "

How well the Seljuk Turks treated the Armenians is shown by the fact
that some Armenian noble families like the Tashirk family accepted
Islam of their own free will and joined the Turks in fighting
Byzantium.

Turkish tradition and Muslim law dictated that non-Muslims should be
well treated in Turkish and Muslim empires. The conquering Turks
therefore made agreements with their non-Muslim subjects by which the
latter accepted the status of zhimmi, agreeing to keep order and pay
taxes in return for protection of their rights and traditions. People
from different religions were treated with an unprecedented tolerance
which was reflected into the philosophies based on good will and human
values cherished by great philosophers in this era such as Yunus Emre
and Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi who are well-known in the Islamic world
with their benevolent mottoes such as having the same view for all 72
different nations" and "you will be welcome whoever you are, and
whatever you believe in". This was in stark contrast to the terrible
treatment which Christian rulers and conquerors often have meted out to
Christians of other sects, let alone non-Christians .such as Muslims
and Jews, as for example the Byzantine persecution of the Armenian
Gregorians, Venetian persecution of the Greek Orthodox inhabitants of
the Morea and the Aegean islands, and Hungarian persecution of the
Bogomils.

The establishment and expansion of the Ottoman Empire, and in
particular the destruction of Byzantium following Fatih Mehmed's
conquest of Istanbul in 1453 opened a new era of religious, political,
social, economic and cultural prosperity for the Armenians as well as
the other non-Muslim and Muslim peoples of the new state. The very
first Ottoman ruler, Osman Bey (1300 -1326), permitted the Armenians to
establish their first religious center in western Anatolia, at Kutahya,
to protect them from Byzantine oppression. This center subsequently was
moved, along with the Ottoman capital, first to Bursa in 1326 and then
to Istanbul in 1461, with Fatih Mehmet issuing a ferman definitively
establishing the Armenian Patriarchate there under Patriarch Hovakim
and his successors. As a result, thousands of Armenians emigrated to
Istanbul from Iran, the Caucasus, eastern and central Anatolia, the
Balkans and the Crimea, not because of force or persecution, but
because the great Ottoman conqueror had made his empire into a true
center of Armenian life. The Armenian community and church thus
expanded and prospered as parts of the expansion and prosperity of the
Ottoman Empire.

The Gregorian Armenians of the Ottoman Empire, like the other major
religious groups, were organized into millet communities under their
own religious leaders. Thus the ferman issued by Fatih Mehmet
establishing the Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul specified that the
Patriarch was not only the religious leader of the Armenians, but also
their secular leader. The Armenians had the same rights as Muslims, but
they also had certain special privileges, most important among which
was exemption from military service. Armenians and other non-Muslims
generally paid the same taxes as Muslims, with the exception of the
Poll Tax (Harach or Jizye), which was imposed on them in place of the
state taxes based particularly on Muslim religious law, the Alms Tax
(Zakat) and the Tithe (Ötür), from which non-Muslims were exempted.
The Armenian millet religious leaders themselves assessed and collected
the Poll Taxes from their followers and turned the collections over to
the Treasury officials of the state.

The Armenians were allowed to establish religious foundations (vakif)
to provide financial support for their religious, cultural, educational
and charity activities, and when needed the Ottoman state treasury gave
additional financial assistance to the Armenian institutions which
carried out these activities as well as to the Armenian Patriarchate
itself. These Armenian foundations remain in operation to the present
day in the Turkish Republic, providing substantial financial support to
the operations of the Armenian church.

By Ottoman law all Christian subjects who were not Greek Orthodox were
included in the Armenian Gregorian millet. Thus the Paulicians and
Yakubites in Anatolia as well as the Bogomils and Gypsies in the
Balkans were counted as Armenians, leading to substantial disputes in
later times as to the total number of Armenians actually living in the
Empire.

The Armenian community expanded and prospered as a result of the
freedom granted by the sultans. At the same time Armenians shared, and
contributed to, the Turkish-Ottoman culture and ways of life and
government to such an extent that they earned the particular trust and
confidence of the sultans over the centuries, gaining the attribute
"the loyal millet". Ottoman Armenians became extremely wealthy bankers,
merchants, and industrialists, while many at the same time rose to high
positions in governmental service. In the 19th century, for example,
twenty-nine Armenians achieved the highest governmental rank of Pasha.
There were twenty-two Armenian ministers, including the Ministers of
Foreign Affairs, Finance, Trade and Post, with other Armenians making
major contributions to the departments concerned with agriculture,
economic development, and the census. There also were thirty-three
Armenian representatives appointed and elected to the Parliaments
formed after 1826, seven ambassadors, eleven consul-generals and
consuls, eleven university professors, and forty-one other officials of
high rank.

Over the centuries Armenians also made major contributions to Ottoman
Turkish art, culture and music, producing many artists of first rank
who are objects of praise and sources of pride for Turks as well as
Armenians in Turkey. The first Armenian printing press was established
in the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.

Thus the Armenians and Turks, and all the various races of the Empire
lived in peace and mutual trust over the centuries, with no serious
complaints being made against the Ottoman system or administration
which made such a situation possible. It is true that, from time to
time, internal difficulties did arise within some of the individual
millets. Within the Armenian millet disputes arose over the election of
the patriarch between the "native" Armenians, who had come to Istanbul
from Anatolia and the Crimea, and those called "eastern" or "foreign"
Armenians, who came from Iran and the Caucasus. These groups often
complained against each other to the Ottomans, trying to gain
governmental support for their own candidates and interests, and at the
same time complaining about the Ottomans whenever the decisions went
against them, despite the long-standing Ottoman insistence on
maintaining strict neutrality between the groups. The gradual triumph
of the "easterners" led to the appointment of non-religious individuals
as Patriarchs, to corruption and misrule within the Armenian millet,
and to bloody clashes among conflicting political groups, against which
the Ottomans were forced to intervene to prevent the Armenians from
annihilating each other.

These internal disputes, as well as the general decline of religious
standards within the Gregorian millet led many Armenians to accept the
teachings of foreign Catholic and Protestant missionaries sent into the
Empire during the 19th century, causing the creation of separate
millets for them later in the century. The Armenian Gregorian leaders
asked the Ottoman government to intervene and prevent such conversions,
but the Ottomans refrained from doing so on the grounds that it was an
internal problem which had to be dealt with by the millet and not the
state. Bloody clashes followed, with the Gregorian patriarchs Chuhajian
and Tahtajian going so far to excommunicate and banish all Armenian
protestants. Later on, serious clashes also emerged among the Armenian
Catholics as to the nature of their relationship with the Pope, with
the latter excommunicating all those who did not accept his supremacy,
forcing the Ottomans finally to intervene and reconcile the two
Catholic groups in 1888.

The freedom granted and the great tolerance shown by the Ottomans to
non-Muslims was so well known throughout Europe that the empire of the
sultans became a major place of refuge for those fleeing from religious
and political persecution. Starting with the thousands of Jews who fled
from persecution in Spain following its re-conquest in 1492, Jews fled
to the Ottoman Empire from the regular pogroms to which they were
subjected in Central and East Europe and Russia. Catholics and
Protestants likewise fled to the Ottoman Empire, often entering the
service of the sultans and making major contributions to Ottoman
military and governmental life. Many of the political refugees from the
reaction that followed the 1848 revolutions in Europe also fled for
protection to the Ottoman Empire.

The claims that the Ottomans misruled non-Muslims in general and the
Armenians in particular thus are disproved by history, as attested by
major western historians, from the Armenians Asoghik and Mathias to
Voltaire, Lamartine, Claude Farrére, Pierre Loti, Noguères Ilone
Caetani, Philip Marshall Brown, Michelet, Sir Charles Wilson, Politis,
Arnold, Bronsart, Roux, Grousset Edgar Granville Garnier, Toynbee,
Bernard Lewis, Shaw, Price, Lewis Thomas, Bombaci and others, some of
whom could certainly not be labelled as pro-turkish. To cite but a few
of them:

Voltaire:

"The great Turk is governing in peace twenty nations from different
religions. Turks have taught to Christians how to be moderate in peace
and gentle in victory. "

Philip Marshall Brown

"Despite the great victory they won, Turks have generously granted to
the people in the conquered regions the right to administer themselves
according to their own rules and traditions. "

Politis who was the Foreign Minister in the Greek Government led by
Prime Minister Venizelos:

"The rights and interests of the Greeks in Turkey could not be better
protected by any other power but the Turks. "

J. W. Arnold:

"It is an undeniable historic fact that the Turkish armies have never
interfered in the religious and cultural affairs in the areas they
conquered. "

German General Bronsart:

"Unless they are forced, Turks are the world's most tolerant people
towards those of other religions. "

Even when Napoleon Bonaparte sought to stir a revolt among the Armenian
Catholics of Palestine and Syria to support his invasion in 1798 -1799,
his Ambassador in Istanbul General Sebastiani replied that "The
Armenians are so content with their lives here that this is
impossible."


++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/1890.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

DID THE TURKS ENGAGE IN MASSACRING THE ARMENIANS AS OF 1890's?

The so-called "Armenian Question" is generally thought of as having
begun in the second half of the nineteenth century. One can easily
point to the Russo-Turkish war (1877 - 78) and the Congress of Berlin
(1878) which concluded the war as marking the emergence of this
question as a problem in Europe. In fact, however, one must really go
back to Russian activities in the East starting in the 1820's to
uncover its origins. Czarist Russia at the time was beginning a major
new imperial expansing force across Central Asia, in the process
overrunning major Turkish Khanates in its push toward the borders of
China and the Pacific Ocean. At the same time, Russian imperial
ambitions turned southward as the Czars sought to gain control of
Ottoman territory to extend their landlocked empire to the
Mediterranean and the open seas. As an essential element of this
ambition, Russia sought to undermine Ottoman strength from within by
stirring the national ambitions of the Sultan's Christian subject, in
particular those with whom it shared a common Orthodox religious
heritage, the Greeks and the Slavs in the Balkans and the Armenians. At
the same time that Russian agents fanned the fires of the Greek
Revolution and stirred the beginnings of Pan-Slavism in Serbia and
Bulgaria, others moved into the Caucasus and worked to secure Russian
influence over the Catholicos of the Armenian Gregorian church of
Echmiadzin, to which most Ottoman Gregorians had strong emotional
attachments. The Russians used the Catholicos' jealousy of the Istanbul
Patriarch to gain his support to such an extent that Catholicos Nerses
Aratarakes himself led a force of 60,000 Armenians in support of the
Russian army that fought Iran in the Caucasus in 1827 -1828 and, in
the process capturing most of Iran's Caucasus possessions, including
those areas where the Armenians lived. This new Russian presence along
the borders of eastern Anatolia, combined with the support of the
Catholicos, enabled them to extend their influence among Armenians in
the Ottoman Empire. Russian pressure in Istanbul finally got the
Patriarch to add the Catholicos' name to his daily prayers starting in
1844, furthering the latter's ability to influence Ottoman Armenians in
Russia's favor in the years that followed. Most Ottoman Armenians were
still too content with their lot in the Sultan's dominions to be
seriously influenced by this Russian propaganda. The lands abandoned by
those who immigrated to Russia were turned over to Muslim refugees
flooding into the Empire running away from persecution in Russia and
Eastern Europe. This led to serious land disputes when many of the
Armenian emigrants, or their descendants, unhappy with life in Russia,
sought to return to the Ottoman Empire in the 1880's and 1890's.

The Russians were not the only foreign power seeking to protect-the
Ottoman Christians. England and France sponsored missionary activities
that converted many Armenians to Protestantism and Catholicism
respectively, leading to the creation of the Armenian Catholic Church
in Istanbul in l830 and the Protestant Church in 1847. However these
developments were not directly related to the development of the
"Armenian Question", except perhaps as indications of the rising
discontent within the Gregorian church which the Russians were seeking
to take advantage of in their own way.

On the other hand, the Reform Proclamation of 1856 was of major
importance. While not abolishing the separate congressions and churches
and the institutions that they supported, the Ottoman government now
provided equal rights for all subjects regardless of their religion, in
the process seeking to eliminate all special privileges and
distinctions based on religion, and requiring the communities to
reconstitute their internal regulations in order to achieve these
goals. Insofar as the Armenians were concerned, the result was the
Armenian Community Regulation, drawn up by the Patriarchate and put
into force by the Ottoman government on 29 March 1862. Of particular
importance the new regulation placed the Armenian comunnity under the
government of a council of 140 members, including only 20 churchmen
from the Istanbul Patriarchate, while 80 secular representatives were
to be chosen from the Istanbul community and 40 members from the
provinces. The Reform Proclamation of 1856 led England and France to be
more interested in Armenians which in return intensified the interests
of Russia in the same ethnic group. Their concern was based on their
own imperialist interests rather than their affection for Armenians.
Russia now sought to gain Armenian support for undermining and
destroying the Ottoman state by promising to create a "Greater Armenia"
in eastern Anatolia, which would cover substantially more territory
between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean than the Armenians ever had
ruled or even occupied at any time in their history.

It was against this background that the Ottoman-Russian war (1877 - 78)
awakened Armenian dreams for independence with Russian help and under
Russian guidance. Toward the end of the war, the Armenian Patriarch of
Istanbul, Nerses Varjabedian, got in touch with the Russian Czar with
the help of the Catholicos of Echmiadzin, asking Russia not to return
to the Ottomans the east Anatolian lands occupied by Russian forces.
Immediately after the war, the Patriarch went to the Russian camp,
which by then was at San Stephano, immediately outside Istanbul, and in
an interview with the Russian Commander, Grand Duke Nicholas, asked
that all of Eastern Anatolia be annexed to Russia and established as an
autonomous Armenian state, very much like the regime then being
established for Bulgaria, but that if this was not possible, and the
lands in question had to be returned to the Ottomans, at least Russian
forces should not be withdrawn until changes favoring the Armenians
were introduced into the governmental and administrative organization
and regulations of these provinces. The Russians agreed to the latter
proposal, which was incorporated as Article 16 of the 'Treaty of San
Stephano. Even as the negotiations were going on at San Stephano,
moreover, the Armenian officers in the Russian army worked frantically
to stir discontent among the Ottoman Armenians, urging them to work to
gain "the same sort of independence for themselves as that secured by
the Christians of the Balkans." This appeal gained considerable
influence among the Armenians of Eastern Anatolia long after the
Russian forces were withdrawn.

The Treaty of San Stephano did not, however, constitute the final
settlement of the Russo-Turkish war. Britain rightly feared that its
provisions for a Greater Armenia in the East would inevitably not only
establish Russian hegemony in those areas but also, and even more
dangerous, in the Ottoman Empire, and through "Greater Armenia" to the
Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, where they could easily threaten the
British possessions in India. In return for an Ottoman agreement for
British occupation of Cyprus, therefore, to enable it to counter any
Russian threats in Eastern Anatolia, Britain agreed to use its
influence in Europe to upset the provisions of San Stephano, arranging
the Congress of Berlin to this end. As a result of its deliberations,
Russia was compelled to evacuate all of Eastern Anatolia with the
exception of the districts of Kars, Ardahan and Batum, with the
Ottomans agreeing to institute "reforms" in the eastern provinces where
Armenians lived under the guarantee of the five signatory European
powers. From this time onward, England in particular came to consider
the "Armenian Question" as its own particular problem, and to regularly
intervene to secure its solution according to its own ideas.

A committee sent by the Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul attended the
Congress of Berlin, but it was so unhappy at the final treaty and the
Powers' failure to accept its demands that it returned to Istanbul with
the feeling that "nothing will be achieved except by means of struggle
and revolution." Russia also emerged from the Congress without having
achieved its major objectives, and with both Greece, and Bulgaria being
left under British influence. It therefore renewed with increased vigor
its effort to secure control of Eastern Anatolia, again seeking to use
the Armenians as a major instrument of its policy. Now, however, it was
resisted in this effort by the British, who also sought to influence
and use the Armenians by stirring their national ambitions, though in
this respect, in the words of the French writer Rene Pinon, who is in
fact known with his pro-Armenian views, "Armenia in British hands would
become a police station against Russian expansion." Whether under
Russian or British influence, however, the Armenians became pawns to
advance imperial ambitions at Ottoman expense.

It was British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli and the Tories who
defended Ottoman integrity against Russian expansion at the Congress of
Berlin. But with the assumption of power by William E. Gladstone and
the Liberals in I880, British policy toward the Ottomans changed
drastically to one which sought to protect British interests by
breaking up the Ottoman Empire and creating friendly small states under
British influence in its place, one of which was to be Armenia. In
pursuit of this policy, the British press now was encouraged to refer
to eastern Anatolia as "Armenia"; British consulates were opened in
every corner of the area to provide opportunities for contact with the
local Christian population; the numbers of Protestant missionaries sent
to the East was substantially increased; and in London an
Anglo-Armenian Friendship Committee was created to influence public
opinion in support of this new endeavour. The way how Russia and Great
Britain used Armenians as a tool for their own ambitions has been
adequately documented by numerous Armenian and other foreign sources.
Thus, the French Ambassador in Istanbul Paul Cambon reported to the
Quai d'Orsay in 1894 that "Gladstone is organizing the dissatisfied
Armenians, putting them under discipline and promising them assistance,
settling many of them in London with the inspiration of the propaganda
committee." Edgar Granville commended that "There was no Armenian
movement in Ottoman territory before the Russians stirred them up.
Innocent people are going to be hurt because of this dream of a Greater
Armenia under the protection of the Czar," and "the Armenian movements
intend to attach Eastern Anatolia to Russia." The Armenian writer
Kaprielian declared proudly in his book "The Armenian Crisis and
Rebirth that "the revolutionary promises and inspirations were owed to
Russia." The Tashnak newspaper Hairenik in its issue of 28 June 1918
stated that "The awakening of a revolutionary spirit among the
Armenians in Turkey was the result of Russian stimulation." The
Armenian Patriarch Horen Ashikian wrote in his History of Armenia "The
protestant missionaries distributed in large numbers to various places
in Turkey made propaganda in favor of England and stirred the Armenians
to desire autonomy under British protection. The schools that they
established were the nurseries of their secret plans." And the Armenian
religious leader Hrant Vartabed wrote that "'The establishment of
protestant communities in Ottoman territory and their protection by
England and the United States shows that they did not shrink from
exploiting even the most sacred feelings of the West, religious
feelings, in seeking civilization", going on to state that the
Catholicos of Echmiadzin Kevork V was a tool of Czarist Russia and that
he betrayed the Armenians of Anatolia.

In pursuit of these policies, starting in 1880 a number of Armenian
revolutionary societies were established in Eastern Anatolia, like the
Black Cross and Armenian societies in Van and the National Guards in
Erzurum. However these societies had little influence, since the
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire still lived in peace and prosperity and
had no real complaints against Ottoman administration. With the passage
of time, therefore, these and other such Armenian societies within the
Empire fell into inactivity and largely ceased operations. The Armenian
nationalists therefore moved to center their organizations outside
Ottoman territory, establishing the Hunchak Committee at Geneva in 1887
and the Tashnak Committee at Tiflis in 1890, both of which declared to
be their basic goal the "liberation" from Ottoman rule of the
territories of Eastern Anatolia and the Ottoman Armenians.

According to Louise Nalbandian, a leading Armenian researcher into
Armenian propaganda, the Hunchak program stated that:

"Agitation and terror were needed to "elevate the spirit" of the
people. The people were also to be incited against their enemies and
were to "profit" from retaliatory actions of these same enemies. Terror
was to be used as a method of protecting the people and winning their
confidence in the Hunchak program. The party aimed at terrorizing the
Ottoman government, thus contributing toward lowering the prestige of
that regime and working toward its complete disintegration. The
government itself was not to be the only focus of terroristic tactics.
The Hunchaks wanted to annihilate the most dangerous of the Armenian
and Turkish individuals who were then working for the government as
well as to destroy all spies and informers. To assist them in carrying
out all of these terroristic acts, the party was to organize an
exclusive branch specifically devoted to performing acts of terrorism.
The most opportune time to institute the general rebellion for carrying
out immediate objectives was when Turkey was engaged in war. "

K. S. Papazian wrote of the Tashnak Society:

"The purpose of the A. R. Federation (Tashnak) is to-achieve political
and economic freedom in Turkish Armenia, by means of rebellion ...
terrorism has, from the first, been adopted by the Tashnak Committee of
the Caucasus, as a policy or a method for achieving its ends. Under the
heading "means" in their program adopted in 1892, we read as follows:
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Tashnak), in order to achieve
its purpose through rebellion, organizes revolutionary groups. Method
no. 8 is as follows: To wage fight, and to subject to terrorism the
Government officials, the traitors, ... Method no.11 is: To subject the
government institutions to destruction and pillage. "

One of the Tashnak founders and ideologues, Dr. Jean Loris-Melikoff
wrote that:

"The truth is that the party (Tashnak Committee) was ruled by an
oligarchy, for whom the particular interests of the party came before
the interests of the people and nation.. They (the Tashnaks) made
collections among the bourgeois and the great merchants. A t the end,
when these means were exhausted, they resorted to terrorism, after the
teachings of the Russian revolutionaries that the end justifies the
means. "

The same policy was described by .the Tashnak ideologue Varandian, in
History of the Tashnakzoutune (Paris, 1932).

Thus as Armenian writers themselves have freely admitted, the goal of
their revolutionary societies was to stir revolution, and their method
was terror. They lost no time in putting their programs into operation,
stirring a number of revolt efforts within a short time, with the
Hunches taking the lead at first, and then the Tashnaks following,
planning and organizing their efforts outside the Ottoman Empire before
carrying them out within the boundaries of the Sultan's land.

The first revolt came in Erzurum in 1890. It was followed by the
Kumkapi riots in Istanbul the same year, and then risings in Kayseri,
Yozgat, Corum and Merzifon in 1892 - 1893, in Sasun in 1894, the Zeytun
revolt and the Armenian raid on the Sublime Porte in 1895, the Van
revolt and occupation of the Ottoman Bank in Istanbul in 1896, the
Second Sasun revolt in 1903, the attempted assassination of Sultan
Abdulhamid II in 1905, and the Adana revolt in 1909. All these revolts
and riots were presented by the Armenian revolutionary societies in
Europe and America as the killing of Armenians by Turks, and with this
sort of propaganda message they stirred considerable emotion among
Christian peoples. The missionaries and consular representatives sent
by the Powers to Anatolia played major roles in spreading this
propaganda in the western press, thus carrying out the aims of the
western powers to turn public opinion against Muslims and Turks to gain
the necessary support to break up the Ottoman Empire.

There were many honest western diplomatic and consular representatives
who reported what actually was happening, that it was the Armenian
revolutionary societies that were doing the revolting and slaughtering
and massacring to secure European intervention in their behalf.

In 1876, the British Ambassador in Istanbul reported that the Armenian
Patriarch had said to him:

"If revolution is necessary to attract the attention and intervention
of Europe, it would not be hard to do so. "

On 28 March 1894 the British Ambassador in Istanbul, Curie reported to
the Foreign Office:

"The aim of the Armenian revolutionaries is to stir disturbances, in
order to get the Ottomans to react to violence, and thus get the
foreign Powers to intervene. "

On 28 January 1895 the British Consul in Erzurum, Graves reported to
the British Ambassador in Istanbul:

"The aims of the revolutionary committees are to stir up general
discontent and to get the Turkish government and people to react with
violence, thus attracting the attention of the foreign powers to the
imagined sufferings of the Armenian people, and getting them to act to
correct the situation. "

Graves response to New York Herald reporter Sydney Whitman's
question:

"If no Armenian revolutionary had come to this country, if they had not
stirred Armenian revolution, would these clashes have occurred ", was
"Of course not. I doubt if a single Armenian would have been killed. "

The British Vice-Consul Williams wrote from Van on 4 March 1896:

"The Tashnaks and Hunchaks have terrorized their own countrymen, they
have stirred up the Muslim people with their thefts and insanities, and
have paralyzed all efforts made to carry out reforms; all the events
that have taken place in Anatolia are the responsibility of the crimes
committed by the Armenian revolutionary committees. "

British Consul General in Adana Doughty Wily wrote in 1909 "The
Armenians are working to secure foreign intervention." Russian Consul
General in Bitlis and Van; General Mayewski, reported in 1912:

"In 1895 and 1896 the Armenian revolutionary committees created such
suspicion between the Armenians and the native population that it
became impossible to implement any sort of reform in these districts.
The Armenian priests paid no attention to religious education, but
instead concentrated on spreading nationalist ideas, which were affixed
to the walls of monasteries, and in place of performing their religious
duties they concentrated on stirring Christian enmity against Muslims.
The revolts that took place in many provinces of Turkey during 1895 and
1896 were caused neither by any great poverty among the Armenian
villages nor because of Muslim attacks against them. In fact these
villagers were considerably richer and more prosperous than their
neighbors. Rather, the Armenian revolts came from three causes:

1. Their increasing maturity in political subjects;

2.The spread of ideas of nationality, liberation, and independence
within the Armenian community;

3.Support of these ideas by the western governments, and their
encouragement through the efforts of the Armenian priests. "

In another report in December 1912, Mayewski wrote that:

"The Tashnak revolutionary society is working to stir up a situation in
which Muslims and Armenians will attack each other, and thus pave the
way for Russian intervention. "

Finally, the Tashnak ideologue Varandian admits that the society
"wanted to assure European intervention," while Papazian stated that
"the aims of their revolts was to assure that the European powers would
interfere Ottoman internal affairs." At each of their armed revolts the
Armenian terrorist committees have always propagated that European
intervention would immediately follow. Even some of the committee
members believed in this propaganda. In fact, during the occupation of
the Ottoman Bank in Istanbul the Armenian terrorist Armen Aknomi
committed suicide after having waited in desperation the arrival of the
British fleet. It can be seen thus that the basis for the Armenian
revolts was not poverty, nor was it oppression or the desire for
reform; rather, it was simply the result of a joint effort on the part
of the Armenian revolutionary committees and the Armenian church, in
conjunction with the Western Powers and Russia, to provide the basis to
break up the Ottoman Empire.

In reaction to these revolts, the Ottomans did what other states did in
such circumstances, sending armed forces against the rebels to restore
order, and for the most part succeeding quickly since very few of the
Armenian populace supported or helped the rebels or the revolutionary
societies. However for the press and public of Europe, stirred by tales
spread by the missionaries and the revolutionary societies themselves,
every Ottoman restoration of order was automatically considered as a
"massacre" of Christians, while the thousands of slaughtered Muslims
being ignored and Christian claims against Muslims automatically
accepted. In many cases, the European states not only intervened to
prevent the Ottomans from restoring order, but also secured the release
of many captured terrorists, including those involved in the Zeytun
revolt, the occupation of the Ottoman Bank, and the attempted
assassination of Sultan Abdulhamid. While most of these were expelled
from the Ottoman Empire, it did not take long for them to secure forged
passports and other documents and to return to Ottoman territory to
resume their terroristic activities, with the cooperation of their
European sponsors. Whatever were the claims of the Armenian
revolutionary societies and whatever the ambitions of the imperial
powers of Europe, there was one major fact which they simply could not
ignore. The Armenians comprised a very small minority of the population
in the territories being claimed in their name, namely the six eastern
districts claimed as "historic Armenia" (Erzurum, Bitlis, Van, Elaziz,
Diyarbakir and Sivas), the two provinces claimed to comprise "Armenian
Cilicia" (Aleppo and Adana) and finally Trabzon which was later claimed
to have an outlet to the Black Sea coast. Event the French Yellow Book,
which among western sources, which made the largest Armenian population
claims, still showed them in a sizeable minority:



Total Population Total Armenian Percent of
Town Population Gregorian

Erzurum 645,702 134,967 20.90

Bitlis 398,625 131,390 32.96

Van 430,000 80,798 18.79

Elaziz 578,814 69,718 12.04

Diyarbakir 471,462 79,129 16.78

Sivas 1,086,015 170,433 15.68

Adana 403,539 97,450 24.14

Aleppo 995,758 37,999 3.81

Trabzon 1,047,700 47,200 4.50


Thus even by these extreme claims, the Armenians still constituted no
more than one third of the provinces' population. According to the
Encyclopedia Britannica of 1910, the Armenians were only 15 percent of
the area's population as a whole, making it very unlikely that they
could in fact achieve independence in any part of the Ottoman Empire
without the massive foreign assistance that would have been required to
push out the Turkish majorities and replace them with Armenian
emigrants.

Russia in fact was only using the Armenians for its own ends. It had no
real intention of establishing Armenian independence, either within its
own dominions or in Ottoman territory. Almost as soon as the Russians
took over the Caucasus, they adopted a policy of Russifying the
Armenians as well as establishing their own control over the Armenian
Gregorian church in their territory. By virture of the Polijenia Law of
1836, the powers and duties of the Catholicos of Etchmiadzin were
restricted, while his appointment was to be made by the Czar. In 1882
all Armenian newspapers and schools in the Russian Empire were closed,
and in l903 the state took direct control of all the financial
resources of the Armenian Church as well as Armenian establishments and
schools. At the same time Russian Foreign Minister Lobanov-Rostowsky
adopted his famous goal of "An Armenia without Armenians", a slogan
which has been deliberately attributed to the Ottoman administration by
some Armenian propagandists and writers in recent years. Whatever the
reason, Russian oppression of the Armenians was severe. The Armenian
historian Vartanian relates in his History of the Armenian Movement
that "Ottoman Armenia was completely free in its traditions, religion,
culture and language in comparison to Russian Armenia under the Czars."
Edgar Granville writes, "The Ottoman Empire was the Armenians' only
shelter against Russian oppression."

That Russian intentions were to use the Armenians to annex Eastern
Anatolia and not to create an independent Armenia is shown by what
happened during World War I. In the secret agreements made among the
Entente powers to divide the Ottoman Empire, the territory which the
Russians had promised to the Armenians as an autonomous or independent
territory was summarily divided between Russia and France without any
mention of the Armenians, while the Czar replied to the protests of the
Catholicos of Etchmiadzin only that "Russia has no Armenian problem."
The Armenian writer Borian thus concludes:

"Czarist Russia at no time wanted to assure Armenian autonomy: For this
reason one must consider the Armenians who were working for Armenian
autonomy as no more than agents of the Czar to attach Eastern Anatolia
to Russia. "

The Russians thus have deceived the Armenians for years; and as a
result the Armenians have been left with nothing more than an empty
dream.


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/systematic.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

DID THE TURKS PRACTICE A PLANNED AND SYSTEMATIC GENOCIDE ON ARMENIANS
IN 1915?

The beginning of World War I and the Ottoman entry into the war on
November l, 1914 on the side of Germany and Austria - Hungary against
the Entente powers was considered as a great opportunity by the
Armenian nationalists. Louise Nalbandian relates that "The Armenian
revolutionary committees considered that the most opportune time to
begin a general uprising to achieve their goals was when the Ottoman
Empire was in a state of war", and thus less able to resist an internal
attack.

Even before the war began, in August 1914, the Ottoman leaders met with
the Dashnaks at Erzurum in the hope of getting them to support the
Ottoman war effort when it came. The Dashnaks promised that if the
Ottomans entered the war, they would do their duty as loyal countrymen
in the Ottoman armies. However they failed to live up to this promise,
since even before this meeting took place, a secret Dashnak Congress
held at Erzurum in June 1914 had already decided to use the oncoming
war to undertake a general attack against the Ottoman state. The
Russian Armenians joined the Russian army in preparing an attack on the
Ottomans as soon as war was declared. The Catholicos of Echmiadzin
assured the Russian General Governor of the Caucasus, Vranzof-Dashkof,
that "in return for Russia's forcing the Ottomans to make reforms for
the Armenians, all the Russian Armenians would support the Russian war
effort without conditions." The Catholicos subsequently was received at
Tiflis by the Czar, whom he told that "The liberation of the Armenians
in Anatolia would lead to the establishment of an autonomous Armenia
separated from Turkish suzerainty and that this Armenia could be
realized under with the protection of Russia." Of course the Russians
really intended to use the Armenians to annex Eastern Anatolia, but the
Catholicos was told nothing about that.

As soon as Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire, the Dashnak
Society's official organ Horizon declared:

"The Armenians have taken their place on the side of the Entente
states without showing any hesitation whatsoever; they have placed all
their forces at the disposition of Russia; and they also are forming
volunteer battalions. "

The Dashnak Committee also ordered its cells that had been preparing to
revolt within the Ottoman Empire:

"As soon as the Russians have crossed the borders and the Ottoman
armies have started to retreat, you should revolt everywhere. The
Ottoman armies thus will be placed between two fires: of the Ottoman
armies advance against the Russians, on the other hand, Armenian
soldiers in Ottoman soldiers should leave their units with their
weapons, form bandit forces, and unite with the Russians. "

The Hunchak Committee instructions to its organizations in the Ottoman
territory were:

"The Hunchak Committee will use all means to assist the Entente states,
devoting all its forces to the struggle to assure victory in Armenia,
Cilicia, the Caucasus and Azerbaijan as the ally of the Entente states,
and in particular of Russia. "

And even the Armenian representative to Van in the Ottoman Parliament
for Van, Papazyan, soon turned out to be a leading guerilla fighter
against the Ottomans, publishing a proclamation that:

"The volunteer Armenian regiments in the Caucasus should prepare
themselves for battle, serve as advance units for the Russian armies to
help them capture the key positions in the districts where the
Armenians live, and advance into Anatolia, joining the Armenian units
already established there."

As the Russian forces advanced into Ottoman territory in eastern
Anatolia, they were led by advanced units composed of volunteer Ottoman
and Russian Armenians, who were joined by the Armenians deserting the
Ottoman armies and went over to the Russians. Many of these also formed
bandit forces with weapons and ammunition which they had for years been
stocking in Armenian and missionary churches and schools, going on to
raid Ottoman supply depots both to increase their own arms and to deny
them to the Ottoman army as it moved to meet this massive Russian
invasion. Within a few months after the war began, these Armenian
guerilla forces, operating in close coordination with the Russians,
were savagely attacking Turkish cities, towns and villages in the East;
massacring their inhabitants without mercy, while at the same time
working to sabotage the Ottoman army's war effort by destroying roads
and bridges, raiding caravans, and doing whatever else they could to
ease the Russian occupation. The atrocities committed by the Armenian
volunteer forces accompanying the Russian army were so severe that the
Russian commanders themselves were compelled to withdraw them from the
fighting fronts and send them to rear guard duties. The memoirs of all
too many Russian officers who served in the East at this time are
filled with accounts of the revolting atrocities committed by these
Armenian guerillas, which were savage even by the relatively primitive
standards of war then observed in such areas.

Nor did these Armenian atrocities effect only Turks and other Muslims.
The Armenian guerillas had never been happy with the failure of the
Greeks and Jews to fully support their revolutionary programs. As a
result in Trabzon and vicinity they massacred thousands of Greeks,
while in the area of Hakkari it was the Jews who were rounded up and
massacred by the Armenian guerillas. Basically the aim of these
atrocities was to leave only Armenians in the territories being claimed
for the new Armenian state; all others therefore were massacred or
forced to flee for their lives so as to secure the desired Armenian
majority of the population in preparation for the peace settlement.

Leading the first Armenian units who crossed the Ottoman border in the
company of the Russian invaders was the former Ottoman Parliamentary
representative for Erzurum, Karekin Pastirmaciyan, who now assumed the
revolutionary name Armen Garo. Another former Ottoman parliamentarian,
Hamparsum Boyaciyan, led the Armenian guerilla forces who ravaged
Turkish villages behind the lines under the nickname "Murad",
specifically ordering that "Turkish children also should be killed as
they form a danger to the Armenian nation." Another former Member of
Parliament, Papazyan, led the Armenian guerilla forces that ravaged the
areas of Van, Bitlis and Mush.

In March 1915 the Russian forces began to move toward Van. Immediately,
on April 11,1915 the Armenians of Van began a general revolt,
massacring all the Turks in the vicinity so as to make possible its
quick and easy conquest by the Russians. Little wonder that Czar
Nicholas II sent a telegram of thanks to the Armenian Revolutionary
Committee of Van on April 21,1915, "thanking it for its services to
Russia." .The Armenian newspaper Gochnak, published in the United
States, also proudly reported on May 24,1915 that "only, 1,500 Turks
remain in Van", the rest having been slaughtered.

The Dashnak representative told the Armenian National Congress
assembled at Tiflis in February 1915 that "Russia provided 242,000
rubles before the war even began to arm and prepare the Ottoman
Armenians to undertake revolts", giving some idea of how the
Russian-Armenian alliance had long been preparing to undermine the
Ottoman war effort. Under these circumstances, with the Russians
advancing along a wide front in the East, with the Armenian guerillas
spreading death and destruction while at the same time attacking the
Ottoman armies from the rear, with the Allies also invading the Empire
along a wide front from Galicia to Irak, the Ottoman decision to deport
Armenians from the war areas was a moderate and entirely legitimate
measure of self defense.

Even after the revolt and massacres at Van, the Ottoman government made
one final effort to secure general Armenian support for the war effort,
summoning the Patriarch, some Armenian Members of Parliament, and other
delegates to a meeting where they were warned that drastic measures
would be taken unless Armenians stopped slaughtering Muslims and ceased
to undermine the war effort. When there was no evident lessening of the
Armenian attacks, the government finally acted. On April 24,1915 the
Armenian revolutionary committees were closed and 235 of their leaders
were arrested for activities against the state. It is the date of these
arrests that in recent years has been annually commemorated by Armenian
nationalist groups throughout the world in commemoration of the
so-called "genocide" that they claim took place at this time. No such
genocide, however, took place, at this or any other time during the
war: In the face of the great dangers, which the Empire faced at that
time, great care was taken to make certain that the Armenians were
treated carefully and compassionately as they were relocated, generally
to Syria and Palestine if they came from southern Anatolia, and to Irak
if they came from the north. The Ottoman Council of Ministers thus
ordered :

"When those of the Armenians resident in the aforementioned towns and
villages who have to be moved are transferred to their places of
settlement and are on the road, their comfort must be assured and their
lives and property protected; after their arrival their food should be
paid for out of Refugees' Appropriations until they are definitively
settled in their new homes. Property and land should be distributed to
them in accordance with their previous financial situation as well as
their current needs; and for those among them needing further help, the
government should build houses, provide cultivators and artisans with
seed, tools, and equipment. "

And it went on to specify :

"This order is entirely intended against the extension of the Armenian
Revolutionary Committees; therefore do not execute it in such a manner
that might cause the mutual massacre of Muslims and Armenians. "

"Make arrangements for special officials to accompany the groups of
Armenians who are being relocated, and make sure they are provided with
food and other needed things, paying the cost out of the allotments set
aside for emigrants. "

"The food needed by the emigrants while travelling until they reach
their destinations must be provided ... for poor emigrants by credit
for the installation of the emigrants. The camps provided for
transported persons should be kept under regular supervision; necessary
steps for their well being should be taken, and order and security
assured Make certain that indigent emigrants are given enough food and
that their health is assured by daily visits by a doctor... Sick
people, poor people, women and children should be sent by rail, and
others on mules, in carts or on foot according to their power of
endurance. Each convoy should be accompanied by a detachment of guards,
and the food shoul be supplied for each Coney should be guarded until
the destination is reached... In cases where the emigrants are
attacked, either in the camps or during the journeys, all efforts made
to repel the attacks immediately... "

Out of the some 700,000 Armenians who were transported in this way
until early 1917, certainly some lives were lost, as the result both of
large scale military and bandit activities then going on in the areas
through which they passed, as well as the general insecurity and blood
feuds which some tribal forces sought to carry out as the caravans
passed through their territories. In addition, the relocation of
Armenians took place at a time when the Empire was suffering from
severe shortages of fuel, food, medicine and other supplies as well as
large-scale plague and famine. It should not be forgotten that, at the
same time, an entire Ottoman army of 90,000 men was lost in the East as
a result of severe shortages, or that through the remainder of the war
as many as three or four million Ottoman subjects of all religions died
as a result of the same conditions that afflicted the deportees. How
tragic and unfeeling it is, therefore, for Armenian nationalists to
blame the undoubted suffering of the Armenians during the war to
something more than the same anarchical conditions which afflicted all
the Sultan's subjects. This is the truth behind the false claims
distorting historical facts by ill-devised mottoes such as the "first
genocide of the twentieth century" which Armenian propagandists and
terror groups try to revive to justify the same tactics of terror today
which brought ù such horrors to the Ottoman Empire during the last
century


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/homeland.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

IS EASTERN ANATOLIA THE HOMELAND OF ARMENIANS?

Even Armenian historians disagree on this question. Let us examine some
of their contradictory theories while looking into Anatolian history.

1.The Biblical Noah Theory. According to this idea, the Armenians
descended from Hayk, great-great grandson of the Biblical patriarch
Noah. Since Noah's Arc is supposed to have come to rest on Mount
Ararat, the advocates of this idea conclude that eastern Anatolia must
have been the original Armenian homeland, adding that Hayk lived some
four hundred years and expanded his dominion as far as Babylon. This
claim is based entirely on fables, not on any scientific evidence, and
is not worthy of further consideration. The historian Auguste Carriere
summarily dismisses it stating that "it depends entirely on information
provided by some Armenian historians, most of which was made up."

2.The Urartu Theory. Some Armenians claim that they were the
people of Urartu, which existed in eastern Anatolia starting about 3000
B.C. until it was defeated and destroyed by the Medes, with its
territory being contested for some time by Lydia and the Medes until it
finally fell under the influence of the latter. This claim has no basis
in fact. No form of the name Armenian is found in any inscription in
Anatolia dating from that period, nor was there any similarity at all
between the Armenian language and that of Urartu, the former being a
member of the Satem group oflndo European languages, while the latter
was similar to the Ural-Altaic languages. Nor were there any
similarities between their cultures. The most recent archaeological
finds in the area of Erzurum support these conclusions very clearly.
There is, therefore, absolutely no evidence at all to support the claim
that the people of Urartu were Armenian.

3.The Thracian-Phrygian Theory. The theory most favoured by Armenian
historians claims that they descended from a Thracian-Phrygian group,
that originated in the Balkan Peninsula and by the pressure oflllyrians
migrated to eastern Anatolia in the sixth century B.C. This theory is
based on the fact that the name Armenian was mentioned for the first
time in the Behistan inscription of the Mede (Persian) Emperor Darius
from the year 521 B.C., "I defeated the Armenians." If accepted, of
course, this view effectively contradicts and disproves the Noah and
Urartu theories.

(1) CARRIERE, Auguste, Moise de Khoren et la Genealogie Patriarcale,
Paris, 1896


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/invade.html

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

DID THE TURKS INVADE AND CONFISCATE ARMENIAN LANDS STARTING WITH THE
SELJUKS AND THE OTTOMANS?

The territory in which the Armenians lived together for a time never
was ruled by them as an independent, sovereign state. This territory
was ruled by others from the earliest times from which there is
evidence that Armenians lived there. From 521 to 344 B.C. it was a
province of Persia. From 334 to 215 B.C. it was part of the Macedonian
Empire. From 215 to 190 B.C. it was controlled by the Selephkites. From
190 until 220 A.D. it frequently changed hands between the Roman Empire
and the Parthians. From 220 until the start of the fifth century it was
a Sassanian province, and from then until the seventh century it
belonged to Byzantium. From the seventh to the tenth centuries it was
controlled by the Arabs. It returned again to Byzantine rule in the
tenth century and, finally, it came under the domination of the Turks
starting in the eleventh century.

The Armenians living in this territory who remained under the rule of
these various empires, could not continuously maintain any sort of
independent or unified Armenian state. At the most, a few Armenian
noble families dominated certain districts as feudal vassals of the
neighboring imperial suzerains, serving as buffers between the powerful
empires that surrounded them. Most of these Armenian "principalities"
were, thus, simply set up by local Armenian nobles within their own
feudal dominions, or by the neighboring empires, who in this way
secured their military services against their enemies. The best example
of this was the Baghratid family, long brought forward by Armenian
nationalist historians as an example of their historic independent
existence, which was in fact put in charge of its territory by the Arab
Caliphs. Some of the "Armenian" families which assumed the title of
principality at this time were, moreover, really Persian rather than
Armenian in origin. That they did not constitute any sort of
independent nation is shown in the statement of the Armenian historian
Kevork Asian:

"The Armenians lived as local notables. They had no feeling of national
unity. There were no political bonds or ties among them. Their only
attachments were to the neighboring notables. Thus whatever national
feelings they had were local."

These Armenian principalities existed for centuries under the control
of various great empires and states, often changing sides to secure
maximum advantage, and thus earning for Armenians often caustic and
critical remarks from contemporary historians, as for example the Roman
historian Tacitus, who in his Annalium liber wrote: "The Armenians
change their position relating to Rome and the Persian Empire,
sometimes supporting one and sometimes the other", concluding that they
are "a strange people."

It was as a result of these conditions, and then, the Armenians' lack
of unity and strength, their very failure to create a real state, their
weakness in relation to their neighbors, the fact that the territory in
which they lived was the scene of constant conflict among their more
powerful suzerains from all sides, that they often were deported, or
moved voluntarily, from the lands where they first lived when they
appeared in history. Thus when they fled from the Persians they settled
in the area ofKayseri, in Central Anatolia. They were deported by the
Sassanians into central Iran, by the Arabs into Syria and the Arabian
Peninsula, by the Byzantines into Central Anatolia and to Istanbul,
Thrace, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, Transylvania and the
Crimea. During the Crusades, they went to Cyprus, Crete and Italy. In
flight from the Mongols they settled in Kazan and Astrakhan in Central
Asia, and finally, they were subsequently deported by the Russians from
the Crimea and the Caucasus into the interior of Russia. As a result of
these centuries-long deportations and migrations, then, the Armenians
were widely scattered from Sicily to India and from the Crimea to
Arabia, thus forming what they call "the Armenian diaspora" centuries
before they were deported by the Ottomans in 1915.

The Armenians broke away from the Byzantine church in 451,150 years
after they accepted Christianity, leading to long centuries of
Armenian-Byzantine clashes which went on until the Turks settled in
Anatolia starting in the late 11th century, with the Byzantines working
to wipe out the Armenians and eliminate the Armenian principalities in
order to maintain Greek Orthodoxy throughout their dominions.
Contemporary Armenian historians report in great detail how the
Byzantines deported Armenians as well as using them against enemy
forces in the vanguard of the Byzantine armies. As a result of this,
when the Seljuk Turks started flooding into Anatolia starting in the
late llth century, they did not encounter any Armenian principalities;
the only force remaining to resist them was that of Byzantium. The
Seljuk ruler Alparslan captured the lands of the Armenian Principality
ofAni in 1064, but it had previously been brought to an end by the
Byzantine in 1045, nineteen years earlier, with Greeks being brought in
to replace the Armenians who had been deported. It is therefore false
to claim that the Seljuk Turks destroyed any Armenian principality, let
alone a state. This already had been done by the Byzantines, and it was
in fact the social and economic ferment that resulted which greatly
facilitated the subsequent Turkish settlement. Contemporary Armenian
historians interpret this Turkish conquest of Anatolia to have
constituted their liberation from the long centuries of Byzantine
misrule and oppression. The Armenian historian Asoghik thus reports
that "Because of the Armenians' enmity toward Byzantium, they welcomed
the Turkish entry into Anatolia and even helped them." The Armenian
historian Mathias of Edessa likewise relates that the Armenians
rejoiced and celebrated publicly when the Turks conquered his city,
Edessa (today's Urfa).

An Armenian principality did arise in Cilicia starting in 1080 but it
was the result, not of the Turkish settlement in Anatolia, as has been
claimed, but, rather, of the Byzantine destruction of the last Armenian
principalities in eastern Anatolia, which caused a flood of Armenians
fleeing into Cilicia. This principality maintained good relations with
the Turks even as it provided assistance to the Crusaders who passed
through its territory on their way to the Holy Land, while accepting
the suzerainty, first of Byzantium, and then after it declined, of the
Crusader Kingdoms, the Mongols, and, finally, the Catholic Lusignan
family which gained control of Cyprus. This sort of relationship with
"unbelievers^, however, displeased the Gregorian Armenian Church, with
the resulting internal divisions playing a significant role in the
Principality's conquest by the Mamluks of Syria and Egypt in 1375. In
the end, the most significant consequence of this last Armenian
principality was the establishment of a separate Armenian church from
the one centered at Echmiadzin, which added to the internal divisions
within Armenian Orthodoxy which remain important to the present day.

Thus, when eastern Anatolia was conquered by Fatih Mehmet II and Yavuz
Sultan Selim I, it was taken from the White Sheep Turkomans and from
the Safavids of Iran, who had occupied it after the Byzantines had
retired; while Yavuz Selim took Cilicia from the Mamluks. MIn no case,
therefore, did the Ottoman Turks conquer or occupy an existing Armenian
state or principality. In every case, these Armenians had previously
been conquered by peoples other than the Turks.

(*) ASLAN, Kevork, L'Armenie et les Armeniens, Istanbul, 1914.


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/present.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
ARE THE ARMENIANS IN TURKEY OPPRESSED AT PRESENT?

Armenian nationalist propagandists from time to time claim that the
Armenians of Turkey are being persecuted. This is done, not only to
reinforce their claims that the Turks persecuted Armenians throughout
history, but also to provide a unifying bond for Armenian action groups
and to get foreign states to intervene in Turkish internal affairs.
Like the other Armenian claims, this also is not based on fact.

The 40,000 - 50,000 Armenians living in Turkey today are in no way
separated from the remainder of the population. They are full Turkish
citizens, with the same rights and privileges as other Turkish
citizens, with their lives, liberties and happiness guaranteed by law.

The Armenians of Turkey continue to worship in their own churches and
teach in their own language in their own schools. They publish
newspapers, books and magazines in Armenian and have their own social
and cultural institutions in addition to participating fully in those
open to all Turks. The Armenian community in Istanbul has 30 schools,
17 cultural and social organizations, two daily newspapers called
Jamanak and Marmara, two sports clubs, named Shishly (ªisli) and
Taksim, and many health establishments as well as numerous religious
foundations set up to support these activities.

Most of the Turkish Armenians continue to be Gregorian, and are led by
a Patriarch. In addition there are a number of Catholic and Protestant
Armenians who have their own churches and other institutions.

The Armenians of Turkey are as free to live prosperous and happy lives
as are Turks of other religions. Many of them are prosperous merchants
as well as leading members of the arts and professions. The Armenians
of Turkey are proud to be Turkish citizens and, along with all other
Turks, deeply resent the lies about their country spread in their name
by outside Armenian nationalists. In particular they abhorred the
terrorist attacks carried out by these groups on Turkish diplomats,
citizens; and interests throughout the world.

On November 1st 1981 the Armenian Patriarch held a memorial service at
the Patriarchate to commemorate the Turkish diplomats slaughtered by
Armenian terrorists and to condemn these acts done in the name of the
Armenian people. In February 1982 the Patriarch vigorously denied the
claims made by the Council of Europe that Turkey is oppressing its
minorities, stating "The Armenians of Turkey are Turkish citizens, they
live in peace in Turkey, they practice their religion freely and
benefit from the freedom of belief." Following the Armenian terrorist
assassination of Turkish Consul-General Kemal Ankan in Los Angeles on
28 January, 1982, the Armenian Patriarch stated "The Turkish Armenians,
like all other Turkish citizens, learned of this with great sorrow",
and appealed for "all Armenians living outside Turkey to rise up
against these illegal activities and murders." Turkish Armenians
themselves thus put the lie to the claims of the Armenian
propagandists.


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/untreaty.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

WHAT IS THE PICTURE FROM THE STANDPOINT OF UN TREATY ON GENOCIDE?

The genocide concept was defined by the 1948 United Nations Convention
for the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide Crime. According to the
article 2 of this Convention, the genocide is any of the acts of
assassination of or inflicting serious physical or mental integrity on
the group members or their detainment under living conditions that
would result in its annihilation or introduction of measures preventing
births within the group or forcibly transferring the children of one
group into another in order to partially or wholly eradicating a
national, ethnical, racial or religious group. The genocide implies
acts and actions under a planned State policy.

When the issue is examined from the viewpoint of genocide Convention,
some events in the history should be recalled. For the perpetration of
such a serious crime against humanity as the genocide, there should be
a certain tendency toward it in the history of the nation concerned.
The criminality is as much a personal trait as a national one. A study
of the Turkish history reveals no traces of genocide or assimilation. A
short historical tour of horizon and a recall of the geography once
under the Ottoman rule show us that the Ottomans had penetrated well
into Europe all the way up to Vienna, controlled the whole of the North
African coast and the entire Middle East for a period from 200 to 400
years. Which nation may be said to have been exterminated during this
period? In a era when the sharia prevailed in Anatolia, creeds such as
Syriac, the oldest Christian denomination, and Yezidite that
idolatrised the fire and had their own free reins and churches were
built throughout Anatolia in the 1800s despite the fact that it was
against the religion's commandments. As a matter of fact, one of the
brothers of Sokollu Mehmet Pasha, an Ottoman Grand Vizier, was
appointed as the Patriarch of Makarije Serbian Church and led the
revival of Serbian national spirit. We find examples of genocide in the
era of intersectarian wars of Europe, in the people whose languages
were forcibly changed (Hindus and Peshtus), in Africa where the
language and religion were entirely altered and in South America when
the Europeans had set foot there.

The Turkish administration is used to coexist with the peoples of
different cultures and origins in all regions where it rules. This is
probably a feature acquired by living together with different cultures
for long periods in its history.

The Turkish State tradition has justice and preservation or cultures,
but no trace whatsoever of massacre or genocide. This is revealed in no
uncertain terms in Justin McCarthy's book titled Death and Exile, in
which examples are given of how the Balkan and Caucasian peoples had
fled to the Ottoman rule to avoid death. A question needs to be asked
to those accusing the Ottoman administration of having perpetrated
genocide: Why did the Jews and Moslems leave Spain and Portugal in
1469, why did Tokely Imre and his entourage leave Hungary and seek
refuge in the Ottoman Empire in 1680, Racozy Ferenè and his
confidantes in 1711 and Lajos Kosuth and his two thousand associates in
1849, and where had the Swedish King Charles and the remainder of his
army the same year, the Polish Prince Chartorsky in 1841 and 1856, the
Russian General Vrangel with his army of 135.000 in 1917 and even
Trotsky sought safety for life? Don't those accusing Turkey of having
committed so-called genocide in 1915 know that the Polish and German
Jews had fled to Turkey in the late '30s? Why, only after 20 or 25
years after the so-called genocide, these people preferred Turkey for
seeking asylum and finding safety?

Let us remember the genocide and assimilation events in the Balkans
some 550 years after Mohamed the Conqueror who confirmed by his firman
of 1478 the freedom of and preserving the values inherent in all human
beings and for transferring them to the following generations. The
Balkanic nations whose languages, religions, churches and schools were
put under protection under this firman ousted the Bosniacs, Albanian
Moslems, Macedonians and Bulgarian Turks from their countries in the
21st century just for creating homogenous societies. Those accusing
Turkey with genocide disregarded the massacres that continued for
months and ignored the desperate screams of women of all ages who were
raped. The Iraqi people who fled from Saddam's ire who attempted to
annihilate his own people with the mustard gas that he had obtained
from the Western weapons manufacturers had found the safety in Turkey
where they had fled. The Turkish people, despite their limited means,
shared their food with them and received without reservations all
humans persecuted in their countries. This is the clean slate that may
be shown as an example to all others of the Turkish nation, Ottomans
and the Republic of Turkey.

In his talk before the United States House of Representatives,
Professor Justin McCarthy indicated with the following words that
Turkey also had suffered great pains in the World War I but preferred
to keep them deep in its heart:

"The will to avenge is always branded in the minds of those that lose
everything in wars. There would be a far greater number of deaths if
the new Turkish Republic harped on these feelings. For this reason,
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's Government adopted a policy whereby the
losses sustained in the past were overlooked and peace treaties were
signed with its former foes because it had felt that pressure to be
applied on the Armenians and other minorities would rekindle the old
animosities and led to further wars. Thus the Turks never mentioned
their own problems. This was the best decision that could ever be
adopted under the then prevailing conditions. The point to which we
arrived today is due to the fact that nobody had spoken on behalf of
the Turks. What do you expect the Turks to think when they are unjustly
criticised for something that they had not done?"


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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/answers/allegations.html


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

HOW DO ARMENIAN CLERGYMEN ASSESS THE ALLEGATIONS OF GENOCIDE?

Dikran Kevorkian, Pastor of Kandilli Armenian Church, who took part in
7th October 2000 in the TV programme named "in a nutshell" said the
following:

The genocide and relocation denote two different concepts. The
imperialist schemes and the Armenian apolitical dream leaders (media,
churches and clergy) are the causes of this situation. The Patriarch is
a spiritual leader and a blunder is committed when his opinions are
sought in the political matters. What could ASALA and PKK do if there
were no political support behind them?

There was a German pressure on the Sublime Port for the relocation in
an attempt to shake the existing order and to secure itself an economic
benefit through the Berlin-Baghdad railroad.

With regard to assimilation, I am prepared to say this: Today, it is
only in Turkey among all countries of the world that the Armenians
manage to maintain their own identity. The Armenians in the diaspora
abroad continue their struggle for existence by changing their names
because there are efforts there to melt the Armenians in the cultural
pot.

The diaspora knows very well that the Sunday rites in all major
American churches are in English and the Armenians are gradually losing
their own language. Those who declare these things are branded to be
black sheep of the herd. It is for these reasons that we as the
Armenians living in Turkey, declare our regrets against these efforts,
because an injustice is committed to the spirit of national forces
entrusted to us by Atatürk. All this is a stratagem concocted abroad,
including the ASALA, PKK and Kocharian's declaration. We, as the
citizens of Turkey, believe that an injustice is perpetrated here. The
Armenians should know better than being scapegoats if they are
intelligent enough.

MESROB II,

(THE ARMENIAN PATRIARCH)



Mesrob II, the Armenian Patriarch, gave the following reply during a
round-table meeting at the Turkish CNN TV in October 2000 to he
question of a spectator named Henika Kiremitci who asked him how they
as the uneasy Armenian minority should act:

MESROB II - I too, feel a certain uneasiness when I feel the pulses of
our Istanbul congregation members; yet I wish to say to all members of
my church as well as to all the Armenians living in Turkey that there
is no reason for you to be uneasy. Please have confidence in the common
sense of all our citizens living here and particularly of our State and
don't feel yourselves embittered since you don't even have the
least involvement with these schemes and actions.

MESROB II,

THE ARMENIAN PATRIARCH

Patriarch Mesrob II chairing the ceremonies at the Surp Krikor
Losavoric Church in Kinaliada in the morning of 22 August delivered the
following sermon in the Surp Badarak rites presented by Hayr Sahak
Apega:

FIRST PART OF THE SERMON

There was a holy pool named Siloam at Yerusagem. At the time of Rab
Hisus, the citizens used to say that the water in the pool suddenly
churned from time to time and believed that the sick people who threw
themselves into the pool when the water churned would be healed.
Hundreds of sick people used to keep guard by the poolside and chant
prayers. One day 18 people horribly died there when one of the poolside
pillars collapsed. This incident is confirmed in the thirteenth chapter
of Lucas Bible.

Reminding this incident to his disciples, he asked them whether these
18 people were more sinful than the other congregation members and,
failing to receive any replies, said this: "No, because people may
die for many other reasons than their own faults or sins. But the
important thing here is this: everyone should be ready for the critical
moment between life and death for acts of God or other causes and
should avoid being caught unaware by the death. The greatest disaster
that we may encounter is to lose God's realm. If we want God's
affection and paternity, we should repent and approach Him. This
constitutes the focal point of the sermons of Baptist Yahya (Surp
Hovannes Migirdic) and Rab Hisus in the Bible: Repent, because God's
realm is near.

We are under the influence of the horrible earthquake of which the
Centre was Izmit. Pains suffered by the death of more than twenty
thousand people aside from the material and spiritual values are not
easy to bear. The imminence of the earthquake was known. But this is in
the human nature; we do not want to understand how late we were in
adopting appropriate measures until that moment comes. I am wondering
if the consciences of these thieve contractors are now bothering them.
And the administrators acting as if they are in a slow-motion movie? On
the other hand, is it possible not to feel grateful to the Greek
citizens who sent their blood together with monetary help or the
Israeli Government who set prize to its people and citizen even in an
other country?

Humanity precedes piousness. Surp Agop says that those who do not love
others may not love God, an invisible spirit. Those that consider
religious, lingual and racial differences are lowly miserable. Like Rab
Hisus taught in the example of Good Samaritan, all peoples are the
children of the good father in the sky and brothers of each other even
if they belong to different religions and ethnical groups. The people
should be able to display the virtue of philanthropic spirit of help.
The people who died in the Marmara earthquake, the suffering survivors
without homes are all our brothers in the God. All believers should
give the help they are capable to. It is indeed a sin to remain aloof
to such grieves and pain.

When the autumn rains begin, myriad of people who live in the open will
be getting ill. When we live in the warmth of our homes and partake our
three daily meals, we should also think of disaster-stricken brothers
and set aside a little from what God gave us. This is our first duty.

Our second duty is to repair within shortest possible time the damages
in our community schools, churches and Patriarchate building and
reinforce them against a probable new earthquake.

Doing all this, however, we should not overlook one point: This
earthquake should be an opportunity for us to question ourselves, to
renew our repentance and to socially, administratively and spiritually
renew our deeds.

SECOND PART OF THE SERMON

In the second part of my sermon, I want to mention an important issue
when the new school year approaches since our spiritual and cultural
life sustains a major erosion. This is due to snobbism and desire to
show off. It is not possible to conceive the reasons for disdaining the
community's schools and for preference particularly by the nouveau
riche group to send their children to prestige schools. These people
spread unjust rumours on the quality of the community's schools to
justify their action. Not less than eight of the graduates of our
schools gained access to the Robert College with very high scores and
the percentage of our senior high school graduates finding their way to
universities is quite high. Our senior high schools rank hundred and
fiftieth in the whole country.

Aren't these the indicators of the success rates of our schools?
Parents who refuse paying two hundred millions to our schools and send
their children to those charging two to three billion Liras make the
greatest unfairness to their off-springs by denying them the richness
of their own language, culture and spiritual wealth. I am certain that
these children will blame their parents when they grow up. There are
different makes of cars and many alternatives when you want one as good
as or better than that of your neighbour. But our community schools
have none. Our schools educate very conscientious Turkish citizens and
acquaint them with the Armenian language and literature and the basic
tenets of the Christian religion.

Don't our schools have problems? Of course they do. But so do the
other schools. Therefore, we should take an active role in the school
administrations, committees, and parent-teacher associations in order
to remove the administrators who do not perform well and who do not
renew themselves in a democratic way and replace them with better ones.
This is possible only by the efficient and learned participation of our
community. One of the direct consequences of the alienation from our
schools is the deterioration of our family order. The rate of divorces,
something unheard of until recently, rose rapidly in the last decade.
Our people married without a holy bond and those who just simply
cohabit reached almost sixty percent. We have many philanthropists
among us who provide material support and seek an outlet from the blind
alley into which our community entered. On the other hand, there are
several who simply show off and remain aloof to these problems, but
raise a lot of humdrum if they are not seated at the head tables or
seen in the pictures taken.

Who, then, be involved in these problems if not the community leaders,
intellectuals and Samaritans? I have only spiritual powers. The only
thing that I may say as your Patriarch is that I will withdraw my
benediction from every person and every family who remove their
children from their community, religion and school. Pity to those
devoid of the benefaction of the church and church fathers! Happy are
those who are bonded by the affection ties and unison of this great
family! Happy are those who are able to drink the eternity waters
through our foreseeing merciful church built under the customs and
traditions of our ancestors!

Briefly I want to say this: There are only a few weeks before the start
of the new school year. Own up your schools, support them, keep your
children in your own education institutions, encourage your beloved
teachers, have faith in your church and schools and return your
children to the community schools even if they are enrolled elsewhere
for one or two years.

MESROB II,

THE ARMENIAN PATRIARCH

Now we will reprint here the interview given to Milliyet daily's
reporter Yavuz Baydar by the Armenian Patriarch Mesrob II:

Question: There were no Armenian Patriarchs in Constantinapolis
until its conquest by Mehmed II. Why?

Mesrob II:The history of Armenian community in Constantinapolis date
back to the fourth century BC. We know that there was an Armenian
church in the sixth century within the city walls. Later, since
Byzantine was not tolerant to Christians other than the Orthodox
denomination, the Armenians held their rites in buildings outside the
walls. The spiritual leader of all Armenians in Thrace and in Europe
until Lvov was in Bursa. For this reason, an Armenian Patriarch was not
deemed necessary within Byzantine.

Question: What was the situation of the Armenian community in
Anatolia until the conquest?

Mesrob II:The history of Christian Armenians in Anatolia dates back to
the missionary work in eastern regionsd by two of the apostles of
Jesus, Saint Thaeeus and Saint Bartholomeus. In 301 AD, the Armenian
Kingdom accepted the Christianity as the official religion and the
Echmiadzine Patriarchate, considered as the Archbishop for the
Armenians was founded. We will celebrate in 2001 the 1700th anniversary
of this event. Furthermore, the Armenians dissociating themselves of
the Jerusalem Patriarchate established a separate Armenian one.

The Aktamar Patriarchate founded on the Isle of Aktamer in Van lake in
10th century was the third. The Clician one in Kozan was established in
1441. In all other regions, there were Armenian Bishopries or
Archbishopries, called "marhasas" in Ottoman.

Question:Why did Fatih the Conqueror grant a Patriarchate edict to the
Armenian community in Istanbul?

Mesrob II:After the conquest of Istanbul, Mehmet II brought large
numbers of Armenians to the city in order to populate it. Following the
recognition of Gennadios as the Greek Archbishop, the same treatment
granted to Hovagim as the Archbishop of all Armenians may perhaps be
deemed as urged by the wish to establish a balance between Christian
inhabitants.

We should bear in mind the fact that there was a large mass of people
who did not accept the Byzantine Orthodox doctrine within the Empire.
Furthermore, the Archbishop would constitute an authority for
facilitating the collection of taxes from the Armenians.

Question: We find the Armenians during the Ottoman reign as a merchant
and artisan community who were not involved on a large scale in the
existing problems. The Armenians began to get closer to the palace from
the Mahmud II period onward. In the era following the Reformation, the
Regulation on the Armenian Nation imparted a secular autonomy to the
Armenian community that produced deputies and even viziers. At the same
time, however, the dissolution trend in the Ottoman Empire was
accelerating and some Armenian political parties were revolting against
the central administration and the bitter events that were experienced
culminated in 1915. What do you think of all these discussions that
continue still?

Mesrob II: I don't think that the Armenians, at the time, were after
independence. Most of the community were followers of the Patriarchate
and the Ottoman Empire. Some were even disturbed by the plunder and
political unrest in the Eastern part of the Empire, and were requesting
the reestablishment of security. Only a minor part, the Taºnak
followers, were after independence.

The rulers of that period did a major mistake by holding the entire
minority responsible for the deeds of a just a few of them. To me, the
problem was this: the collapse of the Ottoman Empire had started and
numerous countries proclaimed their independence. And of course, some
powers of the West, took part in this chaos. Due to reasons like this,
the Turkish-Armenian relations were forced into an insecure atmosphere.
Thus, the decree on relocation was declared, which led to events called
as "the big disaster" in the history of the Armenians.

Nevertheless, it would be misleading to explain the entire history of
the Turkish-Armenian relations, up to the establishment of the Turkish
Republic, just based on this last period.

We have to study the history, from the beginning of the 5th century. We
shall not disregard that the first Armenian publishing house was
established in Istanbul and that the first Armenian book was printed
there, as well as, that the first Armenian Theatre, which was also
opened in this city. To me, the most important thing is that people
from various communities, cultures and religions lived together under
the same roof of an Empire, for more than 600 years. This is a fact to
be celebrated.

Question: Was the transition to the Republic a pain for your Church?

Mesrob II : Of course, it was. The First World War was over and the
relocation took place. Destruction effected the entire community. In
the first five years of the Republic, the community did not have a
Patriarchate. After Muslu I. Mesrob was elected as Patriarchate in
1927, a normalisation period started.

Question: What are the problems of your community and Church, today?

Mesrob II: We don't have problems, regarding religious matters. We can
perform our religious duties at any place and time, as we like to do.
The most important problem is lack of clergymen. A school of clergymen
is a must, however, we desire to solve this problem together with YÖK,
within the university system.

The community has social problems. The Declaration of 1936 forced some
limitations on our community, which are in the present time totally
obsolete and require reform. One should be allowed to donate to a
church, as other are allowed to donate to mosques. All donations of
properties to Foundations, after 1936, are to be returned to the owners
since 1970. If the ex-owners have already died, the property was
confiscated. I wish this act would be annulled soon.

Question: What is your perspective of the Turkish nation, in the eve of
2000 ?

Mesrub II: Though the atmosphere in Turkey, of which we are celebrating
the 75th anniversary, seems somehow tight and thick, I do not think
that the situation is that bad. I bear hope for the future. I feel
positive, both for the regional situation of our country and its steps
into the future. I think that we can overcome most of the problems by
revising the system.

Question: What is your opinion, concerning the discussion on secularism
?

Mesrub II: Our community shares this principle. The document of 1863
verifies our attitude. We still share this attitude. I, as the
Patriarch of the Turkish Armenians, do not have the least interest to
be a judge of a religious court solving claims of marriage, divorce,
and the right of property.

As a citizen born in the era of the Republic, I think that there is no
way to turn to the past. To me, in the eve of 2000, any attempt to of
ruling daily live with religious rules, which means a return to the
middle ages, is ridiculous.

Question: The Year 2000 Celebrations are attracting the entire
humanity, nevertheless, they have a special meaning for the Christians.
How will you contribute to the "Millennium" Celebrations in Turkey ?
Are these celebrations a big opportunity for Turkey ? Do you think that
Turkey is giving the deserved attention to this subject ?

Mesrob II: It is very important for us, however, I do not know what
importance is given by the government authorities. Look, there are 3
major Anatolian Churches in Turkey: The Armenian, the Greek and the
Syriac. As far as I know, the government did not get in touch with any
of these churches, regarding the 2000 Celebrations. We are ready for
any contributions, but if it is left to the very last moment, I am
afraid that we might encounter some undesired obstacles. I have always
said:

If Palestine and Vatican are countries of prior importance for
Christianity, Anatolia, in other words Turkey, is of secondary
importance. The tombs of half of the Apostles are in Anatolia! In 2000,
a flood of tourists will visit Israel. How many will visit Turkey? If
were are looking for a solution to our tourism crisis, we should also
consider this issue. The cultural, folkloric and religious tissue of
Turkey should be demonstrated in full range. I think that this is not
done. We should exploit this great opportunity.

MESROB II,

THE ARMENIAN PATRIARCH

Mesrob II, the Armenian Patriarch, in his speech held on a reception on
22 Mai 1999, at the Hilton Hotel:

"We are on the eve of the 3rd Millennium. We are preparing to celebrate
the beginning of a new era in the history of mankind. I think that this
is a great opportunity for all of us. An opportunity that could enable
us to realise our dream of unifying continents, cultures and nations...

A world where individual rights and freedom is respected, a world of
justice far away from any and all kind of violence is our mutual
desire.

The crossroad ahead does not only offer a great opportunity but also a
very difficult exam. The 2nd millennium that we are going to leave
behind us, is full of tragedies.

But still, there are also incidents that we will remember will with
respect in the following millenniums.

Just the one that we are celebrating today...

The establishment of the Istanbul Armenian Patriarch, is a unique
incident in the history.

Eight years after the conquest of Constantinapolis by Fatih Sultan
Mehmet, in 1461, he transformed the West Anatolian Archbishopship into
the Patriarchship of Istanbul, by a decree. This was a clear evidence
of the toleration of Fatih and the successor Ottoman Sultan, towards
different religions.

Neither before nor after Mehmed the Conqueror, the world history does
not have a second example of a Ruler who granted a religious rank to
the believers of another religions.

In the eve of a new millennium, considering the conflicts in the world
and our vicinity, we should give this incident, that took place 538
years ago deserved respect as an example of toleration between
religions and cultures.

We remember with respect, both Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror who arranged
the daily live of the Armenians in the empire, in accordance with their
beliefs and traditions, as well as our prior 83 Patriarchs, who served
at this post with loyalty, starting with Hovagim of Bursa the Istanbul
Armenian Patriarch, who was appointed in 1461.

We the Armenians in Turkey, as the major group of Christians in our
country, are celebrating the 75th anniversary of the Turkish Republic
with happiness and are hopeful for the future.
mark rivers
2005-08-23 04:42:32 UTC
Permalink
Terrorist Armenians raped, tortured, massacred millions of innocent and
defenceless Turks, Jews, Kurds, Arabs and other non-Armenians in
Ottoman Eastern Anatolia during WWI (with direct and generous support
from their allies, the victors of WWI including Czarist Russia which
also created the mess in the Middle East, including the fake state of
Iraq, millions of people are suffering from now) to ethnically cleanse
the area for an Armenian homeland which never existed.

The rest of the Ottoman Armenian population either very blindly
followed their terrorist leaders (who were ".. craven and mean-spirited
and exel in nothing except drinking." - Marco Polo), or remained
totally complacent.

Another thug of Armenian anti-Turkish Hatred Inc indicates typical
Armenian behavior correctly:

"No sir, you will not find Armenians who will express disapproval or
distress for the assassination of Turkish governmental officials. It is
unfortunate that the attitude of the Turkish government vis-a-vis
Armenian demands dictates that more people have to die in pursuit of
justice. ... It is not uncommon to find those within the Armenian
diaspora who actually applaud these violent actions. "


David Davidian <***@urartu.SDPA.org> | The life of a people is a sea,
and
S.D.P.A. Center for Regional Studies | those that look at it from the
shore
P.O. Box 2761, Cambridge, MA 02238 | cannot know its depths.
->> Boston'dan Van'i istiyoruz <<- | -Armenian
proverb



http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/terrorism/armenian.html


ARMENIAN TERROR

Following the Lausanne Treaty, the 'Armenian Issue' ceased to exist.
However, the Armenians of Diaspora, clinging firmly to their
allegations, unleashed a series of terrorist attacks on Turkish
diplomatic missions abroad as of 1970. All these attacks were
masterminded by ASALA for short, the Armenian Secret Army for the
Liberation of Armenia. Under a mask of independence, ASALA carried out
ruthless and dastardly attacks. Psychologically and logistically
supported by the Hinchaks, ASALA engaged in acts of terror against
Turkish diplomats, representation offices and other organizations.
These armed assaults rapidly escalated in a short period of time.
Armenians who had assured bases for their activities in both Europe and
the East, Syria and Lebanon in particular, continued their acts of
terror in collaboration with Greeks and Greek Cypriots. As a result of
the world wide repercussion of these armed attacks on Turkish
diplomats, Armenian terror organizations changed tactics in the 1980's
and began this time to collaborate with the separatist terror
organizaion PKK, and later abandoned the scene to this organization.

Having proclaimed the period between April 21 and 28, 1980 as the 'Red
Week', the PKK started organizing meetings to commemorate April 24 as
the so-called 'Armenian Genocide Day'. At a joint press conference held
in the Lebanese City of Sidon, the two terror organizations made public
a joint declaration. When this initiative aroused reaction, the PKK and
ASALA decided to maintain secret ties in their illegal activities. In
fact, these two organizations assumed responsibility for the bomb
attacks perpetrated on November 9 of the same year on the Turkish
Consulate General in Strasbourg and on November 19th on the Tukish
Airlines offices in Rome. Honorary membership of the Association of
Armenian Writers was conferred upon separatist terrorist leader
Abdullah Ocalan for his 'contributions to the idea of a Greater
Armenia'.



ARMENIA AND TERRORISM

The Armenians and the Turks have enjoyed peace and harmony for ten
centuries and the Armenians consisted of high socio-economic status
than the Turks. After the defeat of the Ottomans in Ottoman-Russian
Wars (1877-1878), first Hagia Stefanos Treaty was signed on 3rd March
1878 and the treaty of Berlin (13th July 1878) followed it. Both
treaties have clearly changed the attitudes of the Armenian subjects
towards the empire and Russia and some other European countries have
started to provoke them. The Armenians have organized themselves for an
independent Armenian State.

Russia, in line with their national Caucasian policy since the Tsars,
was wishing to weaken the ties of Caucasian Azerbaijan with Turkey by
establishing a strong Armenian state located between these countries.
Keeping this goal in mind, Russia's Bolshevik leader Lenin has given
the authority to the Armenian origin Caucasian Commissar Stepan
SALIMYAN to establish an Armenian State, which would be dependent on
Russia. Lenin appointed Salimyan on December 18th, 1917 with the decree
of December 30th, 1917.

On April 27th, 1920 under the influence of the Bolshevik rule in
Azerbaijan and Southern Caucasia, the Soviet Socialist Republic of
Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia, the autonomous province of Nahcivan
and the autonomous Karabag region had been established. Thus, Armenia
has come to own a state with its borders outlined. Their nationalistic
and occupational sentiments thoroughly aroused and provocated, the
Armenians, following the disintegration of the Soviet Union, have
declared their independence on August 23rd, 1990 and have commenced
attacking their neighbors with the utopic idea of forming a greater
Armenia.

In 1915, Armenians who betrayed the Turks during the World War I were
relocated. Armenians have claimed that 1,5 million Armenians had been
killed during the relocation and have been claiming that this was a
genocide. Armenia always had the utopic dream of forming a greater
Armenia. Under this pretext Armenians have demanded land, compensation
and acceptance of genocide from Turkey. In order to accomplish their
aim, they have attacked our representatives and representations abroad
and our domestic establishments between the years 1937 and 1986 by
organized terrorist ctivities and they requested the fulfillment of
their demands.

Lately, Armenians have understood that they would be unable to fulfill
their demands with terrorist activities. So they have resorted after
1986 to put pressure on Turkey on the political platform and to give
various types of support to the PKK terror organization, whose aim is
to ruin our country and thus to fulfill their land demand.

It has been realized that Armenia has given militant and logistic
support to the PKK terror organization in settlements close to our
country's borders, has helped to form camp sites within its
boundaries and that there are top officers in the PKK terror
organization who are Armenian origin.


Armenian Terrorism

The Armenian attacks, targeting our representatives, our missions and
establishments abroad, began as an "Individual Armenian Terror" by
the assassinations of our Los Angeles Consul General Mehmet BAYDAR and
Consul Bahadir DEMIR in the city of Santa Barbara on January 27th, 1973
by old Armenian named Gurgen (Karekin) Yanikan. Since 1975 this has
been followed by "Organized Armenian Terror" and it became more
violent after demonstrating a rapid increase within a short time span.

Each being different than the other, 110 attacks have taken place in 38
cities of 21 countries. Out of these 110 attacks, 39 were armed, 70
with bombings and was an occupation. In these attacks, 42 diplomatic
Turkish citizens and 4 foreigners have lost their lives, 15 Turks and
66 foreign nationals have been wounded. When we analyze the attacks by
years, we observe that the Armenian terror has shown a major increase
since 1979.

The Armenian terror organizations have finalized their active terror
actions after 1986 and have carried the Armenian matter to
international platforms. They continue their activities by providing
logistical and militant support to the PKK terrorist organization in
southeastern Anatolia.



PKK-ARMENIAN RELATIONS

Changing their tactics after the '80s as they encountered adverse
reactions from the world. Now, it was time for PKK to carry on the
mission. Their first terrorist act started at Eruh and Semdimli in 1984
while the ASALA-Armenian terror receded to the background. Some of the
tangible proofs of the ties between Armenians and PKK are the
following:

The terrorist organisation PKK announced the period from 21 to 28 April
1980 as the "Red Week" and started to organise meetings on April 24
as the anniversary of the alleged genocide against Armenians.

The PKK and ASALA terror organisations held a joint press conference on
8 April 1980 at the City of Sidon in Lebanon where they issued a
declaration. Since this drew a considerable reaction, they decided that
their relations should be maintained on a clandestine basis. The
responsibility of the attacks launched against the Turkish Consulate
General in Strasbourg on 9 November 1980 and the Turkish Airline office
in Rome on 19 November 1980 were undertaken jointly by the ASALA and
PKK.

Abdullah Öcalan, leader of the separatist terror organisation, was
elected to the honorary membership of the Armenian Authors'
Association for "his contributions to the idea of Greater Armenia".

A Kurdistan Committee was formed within the Armenian Popular Movement
like in many European countries.

On 4 June 1993, a meeting was held at the headquarters of PKK terrorist
organisation at West Beyrouth with the participation of representatives
from the Armenian Hinchak Party, ASALA and PKK.

Another striking example of the Armenian-PKK ties are the following
resolutions adopted in meetings held at two separate churches from 6 to
9 September 1993 with the participation of Lebanese Armenian Orthodox
Archbishop, officials of the Armenian Party and about 150 youth
leaders:

A somewhat sedate attitude should be reserved toward Turkey for the
time being.

The Armenian community is on the way to growth and better economic
strength.

The propaganda activities have started to make the genocide claims
better understood in the rest of the world.

The newly founded Armenian State with a constantly growing territory
will definitely avenge the ancestors of its citizens.

The Western powers and particularly the United States side with and
favour the Armenians in the combat for Nagorno Karabakh. This
opportunity should be well exploited as more and more Armenian young
men join the ranks in this fight.

The perpetual terrorist attacks in Turkey (meaning the PKK's actions)
will continue and eventually collapse the country's economy, leading
to an uprising by the entire population.

Turkey will be abolish and a Kurdish State will be formed.

Armenians will hold good relations with the Kurds and support their
fight.

Territories presently held by the Turks will the Armenian's tomorrow.

PUBLICATION ORGANS OF TERRORIST ORGANISATION PKK IN ARMENIA

The newspapers Reya Taze and Bota Redaksiyon are published in Armenia
in Cyrillic alphabet under the control of terrorist organisation PKK
with the help of PKK members coming from Turkey and Europe and carries
out propaganda for the PKK.

PKK-ASALA RELATIONS

The Armenian terrorism at international first started basis in 1973 and
began to gain impetus after the 1974 Cyprus Peace Operation with
attacks or terrorist nature against Turks and Turkish representations
abroad with sabotages and outright assaults.

Upon resurrection of the Kurdish terrorist movement that began to show
itself in a variety of legal political entities from '70s onward, the
Armenian terror organisation ASALA ceded its place in 1984 to the PKK
that killed without distinction of Turk or Kurd in a bloodthirsty
manner under the guidance of Abdullah Öcalan.

Yet in prior to that date, of the co-operation between terrorist
organisations ASALA and PKK was known manifesting in the training of
ASALA militants at PKK's trannie camps, the joint operations and
declamations by them both and training support provided at the PKK
camps by Armenian experts, not to mention the organic ties between the
terrorist organisation PKK and Armenian Tashnak Sutyun Party.

The common goal of the co-operation between the terrorist organisations
PKK and ASALA is to establish States in Turkey's Southeastern and
Eastern under the Marxist-Leninist ideology. Since, however, an
overview of the areas on which both organisations had schemes, it may
be deduced that one of these organisations acts as the other's
mercenaries.

An examination of the discovered documents revealed that the militants
of ASALA and PKK terrorist organisations underwent training at the
Bekaa and Zeli camps.

1987 AGREEMENT BETWEEN PKK AND ARMENIANS

An agreement was concluded between the separatist terror organisation
PKK and Armenians in 1987. Following are the highlights of this
agreement:

1. Armenians will be involved in training activities within the
PKK terror organisation.

2. Five thousand American Dollars per annum will be paid to the
PKK terror organisation per capita by the Armenian side.

3. The Armenians will participate in the small-scale operations.

As the Armenian component began to acquire a significantly elevated
position within the organisation as a result of this agreement, the
following resolutions were adopted in a meeting held on 18 April 1990
with a person named Hermes Samurai, reported to be the official
responsible for the PKK-ASALA relations:

1. The PKK and ASALA terrorist organisations will be under a joint
command from that date on.

2. The Armenians will undertake intelligence work on the Turkish
security forces.

3. Territories gained through the expected revolution will be
equally shared between the parties.

4. Seventy-five percent of training camp expenses will be borne by
the Armenians.

5. Operations will be conducted at the metropolitan cities in
Turkey.

The terrorist organisation PKK that moved its bases into Northern Iraq
after because of very heavy blows dealt in the transborder operations
and lost all possibilities of sheltering there is known to have entered
into arrangements for shifting some of its cadres to Iran and Armenia
where it started an active subversive operation toward Turkey.

It has also been learned that a group of European representatives of
the terrorist organisation PKK paid a visit to Armenia where they
concluded an agreement with the Armenian leaders for the unhindered
ingress to and egress from Kars region by their militants, that Armenia
offered sheltering, monetary and equipment support to the Kurdish
settlements in that country following the dissolution of the Soviet
Union and the formal proclamation of the Armenian Republic. Similarly,
a group of militants of the terrorist organisation PKK left Urmiah for
Armenia on three vehicles on 19 and 20 May 1992 for fighting against
Azerite Turks together with the Armenians.



COMMON FEATURES OF ARMENIAN TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS

The survey of the aims and strategies of the Armenian minority
organizations from a historical perspective during the phase of New
Armenian Terrorism (1973-85) shows that they had all assumed the
character, aims and functions of terrorist organization. Their
activities were directed towards the objectives of inciting and
perpetrating revolts, revolutions and acts of terrorism.

It has already been noted above that the Dashnaks who had become
organized in the 1890's, had adopted a program based on terrorist
strategies, such as forming gangs, demoralizing the target Ottoman
population, killing the Turks and undermining their sovereignty, arming
the Armenian minority groups in preparation for uprisings, revolts and
terrorism, forming revolutionary committees and murder squads, and
destroying governmental institutions. After seizing power and
establishing an Armenian Republic (1918 - 1920) within a year of the
Russian Revolution, in the region where Soviet Armenia is situated
today, the Dashnaks engaged in diplomatic activities and tried to
assert themselves as a legitimate power; nevertheless, the fundamental
terroristic philosophy never disappeared and resurfaced years later in
1972 with the formation of an subsidiary group named the Justice
Commandos for Armenian Genocide. The operations of this group are
well-known to everyone, not least to the non-involved Armenians on whom
they exert constant pressure.

Similarly, the Marxist Hunchak organization has shown that it too
endorses terrorism by the protection and support it gives to ASALA, the
principal terrorist organization of the period 1973 1985. It is
noteworthy that the Hunchaks provided the inspiration and intellectual
impetus for the creation of this group.

For terrorist organizations, the Armenian cause, or the Armenian issue
no matter what interpretations may be placed upon it has been
identified with terrorism whilst the ideals or aspirations of the
Armenian people have been reduced to hostility against the Turks and
Turkey, to be pursued through vindictive acts and bloodshed.

The Armenian terrorist organizations are, as a rule, formed by a small
number of activists, who control the central administration. The
operations agreed upon by the central administration are carried out by
a number of teams; each entrusted with specific duties. When required
for propagandist purposes, these teams are made public under a variety
of names, which serves the purpose of creating an impression of large
numbers and widespread activity.

Terrorist organizations need not be situated in one specific physical
or geographical location. They could be dispersed in several countries,
or scattered over the same country. Although this situation on the
surface gives an impression of amore democratic and open structure,
yet, in reality, such organizations observe a strict discipline imposed
by a central organization.

Another characteristic of the terrorist organization is their tendency
to split into a number of smaller groups both because of their
differing functions and also as a result of rivalries between their
members and their leaders. One outcome of this phenomenon is that each
group that breaks away forms its own affiliate organization. Hence,
there is an apparent mushrooming which once again produces the
impression of proliferation.

Secrecy forms one of the basic tenets of these organizations. However,
at times, particularly through the instrumentality of the subsidiary
team, disclosures are made in order to publicize the activities
performed as an occasion for propaganda. This policy also serves the
aim of concealing the main centre from detection, which can thus
continue its activities in security. For the same reasons, the teams
make announcements both before and after committing crimes and take
responsibility for them.

In all Armenian terrorist activities, terrorism goes hand in hand with
psychological coercion. In fact, the former is a phase in the process
of applying the latter. Terrorism can be used as a means of propaganda,
as well as an instrument of oppression, intimidation and retribution.
The second use of terrorism is reserved for those who oppose the
activist organizations or disobey its commands. The majority of
non-involved Armenians are subjected to such pressures.

These organizations possess an immense store of expertise and
experience in the fields of public relations, communications and the
media. Moreover, they have close contacts with the institutions and the
people who disseminate information and influence public opinion. Such
expertise and contacts provide the organizations with opportunities for
survival and gradual expansion.

The terrorist organizations enjoy the open or secret support of one or
more states. These may use them either as an instrument to further
their own interests, or as a means of covering up their secret
organizations or propaganda units.

Hostility against Turkey and the Turks provides the terrorist
organizations with a motive for their existence and survival, as well
as serving to rationalize their claims and demands. However, in
countries, which have close relations with Turkey, the hostile
reactions apparently provoked by these organizations tend to be
short-lived. Indeed, in such cases, particularly when terrorism takes
as its target not only Turkey but also the country where it operates
and its citizens, it has to be assumed that the activists are aiming at
intimidating their opponents, rather than carrying out hostile
operations against the host country.

In retrospect, Armenian terrorism appears to have three main
objectives: 1) to compel the Armenians to join the ranks of the
activists by exerting pressure on them, thus securing their support, 2)
to influence world public opinion by convincing it of the might and
scope of Armenian terrorism, and 3) to prepare the ground for hostility
against Turkey in case of future conflicts of interests and political
confrontations on the international scene. The nineteenth century myth
of an enslaved and impoverished minority deprived of its rights, and
the twentieth century theme of a nation subjected to massacres and
genocide have both been used in order to have access to sources of
power in international relations. These sources will probably be
enlisted in the service of nations who are Turkey's rivals or even by
international institutions for specific ends. What, in fact, is not
known among the aims of the terrorist organizations is the to which the
opportunities, that arise by instigating international conflicts, will
ultimately be put. This is no other than the attainment of the goal or
ideal, which they expect to be realized through its own momentum in the
course of a historical process outside their immediate sphere of
influence.

NEW ERA OF TERRORISM (1973 - 1985)

In the era of New Armenian Terrorism, Dashnak and Hunchak organizations
function as the main centres which encourage, promote and train
terrorist groups so that they can develop and expand over new areas and
increase the scope of their targets. Their leadership extends to the
formation of new terrorist groups and teams, providing man-power,
intellectual and moral support for the newly founded organizations, and
the preparation of the ground for their activities through the
establishment of contacts and relations. Apart from these, ASALA, short
for the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armen ia constitutes
another major terrorist organization. It has succeeded in having its
name mentioned more than that of any other group, and as such has
become almost synonymous with Armenian terrorism. Together with the
traditional organization and their offshoots, ASALA, too, is the
initiator of the new era of terrorism. As has been noted above, despite
its seemingly independet status, ASALA is affiliated to the Hunchaks,
deriving its moral and intellectual strength from them, as well as
making use of their established contacts and relations.

Seen from this angle, it may indeed be claimed that terrorism as we see
it in our day is a continuation of the earlier tradition of terroristic
activities, which was revived under the favourable circumstances of the
sixties, and, making use of the opportunities that were created anew,
once again embarked upon its mission of hostility against the Turks,
engaging in criminal acts of the greatest inhumanity and cruelty.

One of the attempts at rationalizing terrorism is provided by Michael
M. Gunter in his study on "Armenian National Liberation", where he
claims that the peoples of many different countries in our day support
the struggles of the terrorists and believe in the validity of the
reasons for which they take action. Similarly, Gerard J. Libaridjian,
the editor of the Armenian Review and director of the Zorian Institute
for Contemporary Armenian Studies situated in Cambridge, Massachusetts,
explains the reasons that lie behind Armenian terrorism as follows:
"The reluctance of Turkey and the major world powers to recognize the
exasperation of the Armenians, even after sixty years spent in attempts
at establishing peace, has resulted in bringing about a new era of
terrorism." Agop Agopian, the ASALA leader, on the other hand, argues
that Armenian terrorist activities emerged "after it became evident
that the policies pursued by the traditional parties had failed:"

In the light of these statements it becomes clear that those who share
such views, present the situation as if it were one that entails a
choice between peaceful or violent methods of pursuing the Armenian
cause; they ignore the phenomenon of Armenian terrorism as a continuing
historical process. Moreover, they fail to explain from what source
they derive the right to launch such violent attacks against Turkey and
to instigate revolutions, revolts and warfare with the aim of
destroying its unity, nor do they tell us who invests them with this
right or authorizes the exercise of such acts. The terrorists claim a
right to perform acts of violence - the right to cherish animosity,
seek revenge and commit assassinations - and to exercise this right
freely. They pretend not to be aware of the fact that the Armenian
activist organizations were engaged in terroristic operations right
from the start. For the new era of terrorism is clearly a revival of
the older and traditional phase of terrorism, reactivated as a result
of preparations made in the sixties through propaganda campaigns and
demonstrations, as a means of manipulating the aspirations of certain
countries and peoples over Turkey and taking advantage of the attitudes
of rivals exploiting her political and economic difficulties. One need
not doubt, however, that the era of New Armenian Terrorism will come to
the same end as the former. Yet, in the meantime, the Armenian people
themselves are undergoing the humiliation and anguish of being branded
as terrorists in the eyes of the world and observe with anxiety the
course taken by the events. This is an aspect of the situation which
the terrorist organizations do not wish to see, or perhaps, one which
their mentors refuse to see. In this way, regardless of the harm
caused, propaganda and psychological coercion campaigns continue to be
waged on a large scale.

HINCHAK

The Hinchak (Sound of the Bell) Committee was established in
Switzerland in 1886 by Avedis Nazarbelg and his wife Maro, Caucasian
Armenians of Russian citizenship, and a group of Caucasian students.
They also started the publication of a newspaper titled Hinchak to
propagate the ideas of the Committee, of which the leaders and members
were Armenians from Russia. It selected the Eastern Anatolia as its
field of operation and, after a while, its headquarters was moved from
Switzerland to London.

The Hinchak Commitee's programme was socialist, Marxist and
Centralist It adopted the principles of Karl Marx. Though it qualified
itself as social democrat, its political programme is reminiscent of
the communist manifesto. The Committee opened in 1890 a branch office
in Istanbul with subdivisions at various provinces of the Ottoman
Empire. The main political goal of the Committee was to save the
Armenians in Turkey from the Turks, those in Iran from the Iranians,
the Russian Armenians from Russia and to do away with all the
capitalists in these countries.

Its PROGRAMME:

The working and producing classes constitute the great majority of the
humanity. The emancipation of these classes from the exploitation of a
rich and sovereign minority will be achieved through the seizure of all
production factors, soil, factories, mines and transports. The
independence of the producing classes means the salvation of the entire
humanity and a general and economic welfare.

The achievement of this goal and its physical implementation require
the organisation as dictated by its own desiderata of working classes
in all civilised countries and the accomplishment of the communist
revolution everywhere using the general political capabilities at their
disposal. Thus will be eliminated all other social classes and the
producer classes will create a socialist order. In this new
structuring, the people will make their own laws and display its might.

(...)

The Armenians today are under the subjugation of the classes run by
monarchic rulers. Their administrative, fiscal and tax systems are
self-destructing for themselves. Around these monarchies, all ancient
economic and administrative structures wither away while the capitalist
management systems are used in the production.

The introduction of a socialist order embracing the Armenian social
democrats and all Armenians at large is admitted to be a distant goal
under the prevailing conditions and, therefore, all tendencies and
toils require a nearer target. It is this nearer target that created
the Armenian Revolutionary Hinchak Party, which aims at the following:

a) To foment the revolution.

b) To annihilate the sovereign classes of the absolutist
administrations.

c) To save the Armenians from slavery.

d) To strengthen the Armenians for entering into the political realm.

e) To eliminate the hurdles preventing the economic and cultural
advancement of the Armenians.

f) To prepare an environment where the working classes will be able
to freely express their opinions.

g) To improve the unbearable working conditions.

h) To provide the workers with knowledge on their own class for
enabling them to organise into a special political entity of their own.

i) To facilitate the work by the people to attain the distant goals.

In line with these goals, the nearer targets of the Hinchak Committee
are to destroy the monarchic administrations and to replace them by
democratic and oligarchic regimes, for which the following conditions
were set:

a) A constituent assembly should be elected, for a true popular
representation, by direct votes of all citizens. This assembly should
have the power of examining all political, economic and other issues
and legislation of the country in question and resolving on them.

b) Provinces should be given a large autonomy.

c) Full independence should be provided for the people.

d) The people should be able to elect the government, security,
justice and education officials in public service.

e) Every citizen, irrespective of nationality, should have the
right to be elected to provincial and autonomous administration
positions.

f) All citizens irrespective of nationality and religion differences
should be equal before the law.

g) Full freedom of press, expression, assembly and election should
be recognised to all citizens.

h) Homes of all citizens and citizens themselves should enjoy
freedom from molestation.

i) The churches should be dissociated from the State and maintain
their existence solely through the help of persons of their own
congregation.

j) Military service should be performed by all citizens as militia
members during the peace time.

k) A secular and compulsory education system should be implemented and
the State should assist the poor in this field.

Since the improvement of the people's economic lot is involved, the
following conditions must be fulfilled by securing the political rights
listed above and based on them:

a) The existing taxation system should be replaced by one based on
the payment power.

b) The indirect taxes should be abandoned altogether.

c) Peasants should be absolved of all of their debts.

d) Farm machinery should be provided with the help of Government
and of the people, their proper use should be taught and they should be
given to the people themselves.

e) Agrarian partnerships should be established among the people
for the purpose of ensuring the sale of farm products and purchase of
such amenities as seeds, fertilisers and the like.

f) Vehicles should be provided for all kinds of transportation and
contacts.

g) The Government should prevent the exploitation of working
classes and adopt laws for this purpose.

Regions where the Armenians hold the majority are also the largest
areas of our country. The Armenian cause acquired the status of a right
by the 61st article of the Berlin Treaty and under the pressure of
other international conditions and was recognised by the European
Powers.

The political, economic and financial débâcle of the Ottoman Empire
together with the internal uprisings appear to have been contributing
factors that prepared its doom with also the assistance of the European
Powers. It is therefore necessary that the following should be achieved
tp comply with the requirement of a historical necessity as the Ottoman
territories in European continent were seized by other States:

a) The Armenian rebels will concentrate their efforts for
defending the Armenian cause and achieving the short-term goals.

b) The area where the revolution will be launched will
therefore be that in which the Armenians live.

c) Since the future of Armenians need to be separated from the Ottoman
Empire's destiny, the first condition of the short-term goal will be
the Armenian independence.

For attaining the short-term goal, the Armenians decided that the peace
and order should be interrupted and altered by a revolution and a war
should be started against the Turkish Government and the revolution's
tools were indicated as follows by the Armenians:

a) A propaganda campaign will be initiated among the people and
particularly the workers through the press, books and speeches,
to broadcast the revolutionary ideas of the Hinchak party, to
create revolutionary organisations and to foment mutinies.

b) The terror will be used as a weapon to punish the Turkish
secret police members, informers and traitors and the terror will be
used as a shield for the defence of revolutionary organisations and a
guard against the rascals that persecute the people.

d) An armed force will be kept in readiness and spearheading
legions will be formed to defend the Government and the people against
the soldiers and tribal groups and the legions will be used as the
advance units in an uprising.

e) Suitable occasions will be created for instigating an
uprising.

f) A general revolution organisation, consisting of several
regular units commanded by a single central headquarter and marching in
unison toward the common goal, within the context of which has been
prepared a regulation for defining the responsibilities and powers of
these units and the organisation and activities of the Hinchak
Committee.

g) Efforts will be made to secure the alliance of other
minorities having the same destiny as the Armenians and to have them to
join the Armenians our common enemy the Turkish Government. The
greatest objective of the Hinchak Committee will be to establish a
federation similar to the Swiss one after throwing off the Ottoman
yoke.

The Hinchak Committee operating under this political programme carried
out an intense Marxist propaganda especially among the working classes.
Both the youth and religious leaders, adventurers and unemployed went
out of their way to foment unease and to foment a revolution while the
Committee's leaders concentrated their efforts on creating an
Armenian proletariat. These efforts, however, did not go beyond a
socialist propaganda under the then prevailing conditions in Turkey.
Persons coming from Russia and other countries with a flair for such
work often took part in these activities.

The Armenian actions led in this country to many bloody incidents of
which the relics will not easily be forgotten. Renowned militants like
Shimavon of Tbilisi came from Geneva, S. Danielian arrived from Iran,
Rupen Hanazat of Russia showed up from Trabzon and H. Megavorian
appeared from Batoum to organise the subdivisions of the Hinchak
Committee. Other revolutionary organisations formed in Istanbul prior
to 1980 eventually joined this new setup.

It therefore becomes evident that the fate of Armenians in Turkey was
left to the discretion of Russian Armenians. Pressure was being exerted
on those refusing to join the Committee and to grant monetary aid and
many of them were being murdered. Thus, the organisation rapidly
started to spread to the other Anatolian provinces.

ACTIVITIES

The charter and programme of the Hinchak Society was printed in
Istanbul in 1909, submitted to the Ministry of Interior pursuant to the
Law on Associations and received the approval letter no 90 of 8
February 1909. The charter consists of five parts.

The ledger of resolutions seized by the security forces show that the
following resolutions were adopted in q910, 1911, 1912 and 1913:during
operations:

a) Efforts will be spent to secure weapons, ammunition and
explosives.

b) Weapons training will be given by Marufian, Yavruian and Candan.

c) Propaganda work will be accelerated.

d) Relations will be established with the Tashnak Connittee.

e) Similar relations will be maintained with the Union and
Progress Party.

f) Support will be given to the Orsfan, Cang, Gochnak, Jurachak,
Penchak, Badami, Tejoheng, Maro and Paros bands in Van.

The Hinchak Committee held its third congress in Turkey on 24 July
1914. The congress, held with 28 delegates from 51 branch offices, was
chaired by Cangulian with Tancutian as the secretary and the following
decision was adopted:

"Taking into account the great responsibility necessitated by our goals
and the dangers involved, and in an attempt to prove that we are a
civilised people, care will be exercised for always avoiding adventures
and actions not thoroughly planned in advance, and we will bear in mind
the fact that a balanced attitude and proper means are the most
suitable tools for reaching our final objectives. "

On the basis of this decision, the Hinchak leaders started to leave
Turkey after 1896 and disagreements soon arose among them, with the
result that the party broke into two factions. One faction was called
the true Hinchaks (Nazarbeg's followers) and the other came to be
known as the reformed (Veragasmial) one. The latter group was led by an
Armenian named Arpiar Arpiarian.

It seems that both factions acted in obedience to the beliefs and
opinions of their leaders rather than under valid principles and
programmes. The disagreement among them often led to street fights,
some of them were beaten and many were killed.

The Armenian people, realising that the Hinchaks were Marxists,
gradually withdrew themselves from it. The divergence came to a head in
1902 when militants from both sides began murdering each other on
streets in England, Russia, Egypt, Bulgaria, Caucasus and Iran. Though
some small bands continued bearing the name of Hinchak, they lost their
previous strength after the Van resurrection. Another factor
contributing to the disappearance of the Hinchak Committee was the fact
that several Hinchak leaders had seen the true intentions of the
Russians and left the organisation.

Reference: SAKARYA, Ret. Maj. Gen. Ihsan, Armenian Issue with
Decuments,Military History Publications of the Department of Military
History and Strategic Studies, Turkish General Staff Printing Plant,
Ankara 1984, 2nd ed., pp. 76-87.


++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/terrorism/tashnak.html


ARMENIAN TERRORISM

THE TASHNAK TERRORIST ORGANIZATION

The "Armenian Revolutionary Federation" or "Tashnak Organization"
is also known as the "Tashnak Party." In fact, after the communist took
over of the Armenian Republic, the Tashnak organization continued its
existence as a party in exile, mainly in Lebanon, Iran, France, Greece
and the United States. This organization has remained active up to the
present day and has performed a significant role in planning and
promoting the new era of Armenian terrorism, as well as forming teams
and groups for carrying out terrorist operations. A move was made,
later in its career, to have its name changed from the Armenian
Revolutionary Federation to the Armenian National Committee. The
intention behind this was to achieve greater effectiveness in its
propagandist activities by the removal of a name that could offend
Western sensibility.

1. The Structure of the Organization

a. "Bureau": This is the most important organ of the
organization and takes the decisions that determine its administrative
policies. In appearance the bureau represents collective leadership. It
consists of eight members, one each from California, France and Iran
and five from Lebanon. The members elect a chairman. The bureau, which
was based in Lebanon until the outbreak of the Civil War, was moved
from there to the United States and then to Greece and France. The
regulations of the bureau and its decisions are kept secret .It is
known that a person named Hrair Marukian, Persian by birth and
domiciled in France, was its chairman until 1985.

b. "The Central Committee": It is the highest-level executive
organ. It establishes the link between the bureau and the local groups
and organizations. It is instituted in places where there is a sizeable
Armenian population. Lebanon and France have one central committee
each, whilst the United States has two, one on the eastern and' the
other one on western coasts. Under the pyramid shaped structure the
local organizations and their organs take place. These are known by the
names of a variety of Armenian associations and clubs, such as the
Federation of Armenian Youth, the Youth Organization, the Armenian Boy
and Girl Scouts Club, organizations for sport and cultural activities.

c. There are also various offices operating under the central
committees, such as those in charge of propagandist activities and
publicity, as well as legal, financial, military and educational
matters. These offices offer purely technical service or advice. As an
example of an office rendering a specific service, we can mention the
Committee for Supervising Armenian Immigration.

2. Aims

The Tashnak terrorist organization defines the meaning of the Armenian
cause or "the Hay Taht" as the establishment of an independent and
non-communist Armenia within the boundaries designated by the abrogated
Sévres Treaty and the enforcement of the payment of compensation by
Turkey in return for the crimes said to have been committed against the
Armenians. Tashnak publications give expression to this objective in
the words, "We will continue to insist on the implementation of the
Sévres Treaty, as being one of the milestones in the pursuit of our
cause."

In another publication, the aims of the Tashnaks are summarised as the
recognition of the right of the Armenians to live in their own lands
and to govern themselves. More commonly, the aims of the Tashnaks are
presented as centring around three specific demands: a) the recognition
of the Armenian claim that genocide was committed, b) the payment of a
compensation by Turkey, c) resettlement in the Armenian homelands.

3. Strategies and Policies

Although the Tashnaks have publicly declared that their strategies are
directed towards the realization of their aims through "peaceful
means", neither the events of the past nor their activities in the
new era of Armenian terrorism have proved this to be true. This
'party' which has all the characteristics of a terrorist
organization, can assume, when needed, a peaceful guise and mislead the
public by using propagandist tactics perfected through long years of
experience. In fact, as has been said above, it was the Tashnaks who
were responsible for the establishment of the Justice Commandos for
Armenian Genocide whose name was later changed to the Armenian
Revolutionary Army. It is, indeed, the Tashnaks who decided upon and
planned the assassinations and bomb assaults carried out by this group.
These activities suffice to show that the Tashnak organization never
abandoned the terroristic tendencies it possessed at its inception.
Nonetheless, there is a significant difference between the strategies
employed by the Tashnaks and those by ASALA. ASALA makes no distinction
between the Turks and other nationalities, all of who can figure
indiscriminately as their targets, whereas the Tashnak organization and
its affiliates take Turkish citizens or official representatives of
Turkey as the sole targets of their deadly operations.

After the killing of the Turkish Consul General in Los Angeles in 1972,
the Justice Commandos announced that their targets were "only Turkish
diplomats and Turkish institutions." The same declaration of
intention was made in connection with the assault carried out by the
Armenian Revolutionary Army against the Turkish Embassy in Lisbon in
1983.

The difference that exists between the strategies of the Tashnaks and
ASALA may be explained by observing the historical development of the
two organizations. As we have seen, the Tashnaks took a pro-Western
stance in the nineteenth and the first two decades of the twentieth
century and aimed at influencing public opinion in the West, whereas
the Hunchaks turned towards Russia for protection and support. It is
significant that, during the years 1973-1985, terrorism made use of
both camps.

The strategy adopted by the Tashnaks finds its clearest expression in
the announcement made in the wake of the Lisbon attack. According to
this, "a national liberation movement has to go through two phases in
order to attain its end: firstly, the phase of internal propaganda,
when bases of support are secured; secondly, the phase of external
publicity directed towards gaining the sympathy of the world and
attracting attention for the cause: hence the necessity for organizing
activities that serve as demonstrations..."

For the Tashnaks, Armenian terrorism was but a form of demonstration
conducted as part of their strategy. In other words, the assaults,
bombings and raids that were carried out and the people who were
injured, killed or trampled to death in the course of these incidents,
were all considered to be the necessary elements of a scenario that
made up the 'demonstration'.

The Tashnak historian Varandjian described the characteristics of the
Tashnak terrorist organization in the words: "Perhaps no other
revolutionary party, not even the Russian Narodovoletz (Narodnaya
Volya) or the Charbonari of the Italians, adepts though they were at
terrorism and undaunted by anything that came in their way, could breed
terrorists as reckless and impassioned as the Tashnaks. Hundreds of men
carrying guns, daggers and bombs are up in arms." It is sobering to
reflect that during the period we have studied the mission of these
"reckless and impassioned" terrorists was to attack Turkish
institutions and the Turks.

4. The Congresses of Vienna and Munich

On December 27, 1981 the following resolutions were taken in the
twenty-second Tashnak Congress held in Vienna:

a) The Party's goal is to secure the establishment of a united and
independent Armenia.

b) Pressure should be exerted on other Armenian organizations by the
political committees to induce them to join the ranks of the Tashnaks.

c) Complete agreement with the West must be secured.

d) Close relations have to be established with the Soviet Union,
and Armenian immigration must be stopped.

In the Munich Congress held at the end of 1984 with the participation
of representatives for fifteen countries, the following resolutions
were passed:

a) New campaigns must be launched to publicise the Armenian cause.

b) An attempt must be made to resolve the 'Armenian question' through
legal and other peaceful measures, for example, a campaign must be
conducted to bring the issue of genocide before the United States
Congress and the United Nations Committee for Human Rights so as to
secure its recognition.

In the declaration made at the end of the Congress, the delegates made
the following announcement: "We are to continue our struggle for the
recognition of the legal rights of the Armenian people and of the
genocide committed by the Turks; as well as the payment of a
compensation for the human, cultural and economic losses endured by our
nation and the restitution of the Armenian national home which has
belonged to us for thousands of years."

The resolutions taken at both the Congresses are of interest in
facilitating the identification of the themes that were to be used as
means of, propaganda by the Tashnak terrorist organization.

5. Support and Connections

The Tashnak terrorist organization derived its support largely from the
United States and Europe. It operated on the basic principle of
avoiding, as far as possible, contact with the other terrorist
organizations. Instead it had links with various organizations in the
states mentioned, its primary source of support being the Church and
the Union of Churches, as well as the Armenian lobbies and research
centres.

6. Political Developments

Up to the 1970's the "liberation and independence of Soviet Armenia"
formed the basis of the policies determined and implemented by the
Tashnak terrorist organization. For this reason, the Tashnaks gave
priority to hostilities against the U.S.S.R. and engaged in a merciless
struggle against those who supported and controlled Soviet Armenia.
During Christmas worship, the Archbishop of the Holy Cross Armenian
Church in New York was assassinated by a Tashnak suicide-killer. The
reason given was the Archbishop's approval of the situation in Soviet
Armenia.

After the 1970's, the break-up, due to death and other factors, of the
ruling party in the Armenian Republic and the comparisons being drawn
between the Third World liberation movements and the Tashnak terrorist
movements led to significant changes in the Tashnak policies. Their
hostility was now directed against Turkey and the Turks. "Fascist
Turkey" had become the real enemy; Turkey's ally, the United States,
was also counted among their enemies. The "Justice Commandos for
Armenian Genocide" (JCAG), a terrorist group established in 1972 and
organized by the Tashnaks, were put into action as a result of the
policy changes mentioned above. The Aztag Shapatoriag, the propaganda
organ of the Tashnaks and especially of the JCAG, issued a warning of
'terror' when they announced that "terrorism is the last hope and the
only path to follow in the liberation struggles of today."

Despite all the propaganda efforts by the Tashnak terrorist
organization, the Lisbon operation was seen as a complete failure. The
attempts to represent the attack on the Turkish Embassy in Lisbon, as a
turning point in terror did not win general acceptance. Following this,
they were obliged to change the name of the JCAG to "Armenian
Revolutionary Army"; even so, this did not produce the desired results.
In particular, the arrest and conviction in 1984 of Sasunian, one of
the Tashnak murderers, proved a great setback to Tashnak policies. The
Tashnaks lost the support of American-born Armenians. According to the
Armenian Reporter, the Tashnak Party had been taken over by Lebanese
Armenians from abroad, and was powerless in the face of a large
majority who did not support terrorism. The weakening of the- terrorist
wing of the party led to increasing clashes of opinion at the highest
level of the Executive Council and Central Committees. The highest
officials in the party were split into two groups. Powerful members of
the Executive Council, representatives of the Lebanese Central
Committee and leading members of the party administration, were
murdered in Beirut or disappeared without trace. By the end of 1985, it
was impossible to speak of a united Tashnak Party. Two important
external factors helped to create this situation within the Tashnak
terrorist organization. The first was the revelation that the Tashnak
leaders had had connections with secret service organizations in
certain countries and that these were trying to establish control over
the Armenian churches. The second was the struggle between ASALA and
the Tashnaks. ASALA described the Tashnak leaders ad "parasites who
were sucking the blood of Armenians dry." As a matter of fact, these
developments within the Tashnak terrorist organization were not new.
Whenever such conflicts and divisions arose in the past, the Tashnaka
always re-emerged sometime later. In the World Armenian Congresses, the
Tashnaks have always been, and will continue to be, a force to reckon
with. As for the policy cahnges, they may be construed as being to
temporary conflicts in leaderships.

7. The Media

Within the Armenian terrorist organizations, the Tashnak terrorist
organization was experimenting in the field of propaganda and was
giving support to that extent. They had acquired the means of
constantly informing world opinion of their goals, their activities and
their policy through the press and broadcasting media; for example,
through various serials and feature films, through radio programmes,
which they had purchased, thorough private radios, television and video
films. Quite a few countries showed interest and provided the Tashnaks
with special support in this area. Among the most important Tashnak
publications were Hairenik and Asbarez, both published in Armenian in
the United States, together with the Armenian Weekly, which was
published in English.

The Tashnaks also organized twenty-two world conferences in places such
as Paris, Bucharest, Erevan and Munich, although the number of
participants was limited. This was a tremendous propaganda and
publicity effort on their part.



JCAG

Has been founded in Beirut in 1975 by Tasnak Party and by Armenian
Revolutionary Federation, which is its extension in the USA as a
competitor to ASALA and Hinçak Party. The organisation is operating as
the Military Apparatus of the Tasnak Party, and it has made its name
known for the first time by the world public opinion by the event of
the murdering of Danis Tunaligil, The Ambassador of Turkish Republic in
Vienna on October 22, 1995. The purpose of the organisation has been
disclosed to be the foundation of the independent Great Armenian State.





ARA

Ara was founded in France and it became famous with the assassination
of Dursun Aksoy, the Administrative Attaché of Brussels Embassy of The
Republic of Turkey. ARA was carried this action out together with ASALA
and JCAG. ARA is a racist organization, is totally against the methods
and ideas of ASALA. The organization is supported by all Armenian
Terror Organisations except the Tashnak Party, which ideologically and
practically supports Armenian Genocide Justice Commandos (JCAG) and
ASALA.



THE DREAM OF "A GREATER ARMENIA"

The "Great Armenia" has been put forward b the Armenian President
Levon Ter - Petrosyan. The past and the ideas of Ter - Petrosyan,
who was born in Aleppo, is based on the principles of the Armenian
Communist Party, which was the only political party at the time of USSR
/ CCCP period. (1)

Ter - Petrosyan is the chief organiser who has flamed the Nagorno
Karabakh matter and the demonstrations that were intensified from 1987
onwards in Armenia. The " Nagorno Karabakh Committee " which was
founded by him in February 1988, for the connecting of Nagorno Karabakh
to Armenia after it is separated from Azerbaijan, has changed its name
as " Armenian National Movement " in November 1989.

After he won the elections, and within the process of becoming a party,
Ter - Petrosyan, who collected the majority of the votes, and who was
elected as the President Armenian Supreme Soviet on August 1990, has
declared the independence of Armenia on August 4, 1990. Armenia has
signed the Alma - Ata (Almati) Declaration on December 21, 1991 and
then became a member of AGIK (AGIT) and United Nations.

In the same period, Armenia has violated the international agreements,
its own commitments, Helsinki and AGIT principles and actually invaded
the Nagorno Karabakh, which is an autonomous region connected to the
Republic of Azerbaijan. Armenia has applied a clear genocide against
the Azerbaijani people here, apart from invading. (2)

Ter - Petrosyan, in his first speech in the 1990 elections, has made
the call for the recognition of so-called genocide of 1915 to the
international organisations. (3)

Ter - Petrosyan visited US President Bill Clinton on August 8, 1994
in The White House. The members of the Armenian Church, Priest Rafael
Andonyan, Chief Bishop Mesrob Asçiyan, Chief Bishop Hayag Barsamyan
and Chief Bishop Vahe Hovsepyan were present among those who
participated the meeting along with the Tasnak Party leaders. Here the
weighted subjects that were discussed, were the difficulties shown to
Armenia by Turkey and Azerbaijan, and the recognition of the so -
called Armenian genocide. (4)

The Clinton visit of Ter - Petrosyan was attracting attention.
Because, such kind of a meeting; was made for the first time within the
last 10 years; by an US President. Apart from this, the discussing of
the so - called genocide in between a President of USA and Armenian
leaders has been evaluated as a new situation.

FOOTNOTES

(1)Armenian Communist Party has changed its name in the year 1993 as
Armenian Democratic Party. Claims related to the making the world to
accept the independency of Nagorno Karabakh and the claims related to
the soils that remain in Turkey; do take place within the ideological
properties of the party.

(2) Katliam / Massacre (Album), Istanbul 1993; The Tragedy of
Nagorno Karabakh, Ankara 1993, p. 13, 15 -* 16, Yanki / Echo, 3. 7.
1995, p. 36.

(3) Yanki / Echo, 3. 7. 1995.

(4) The Armenian Reporter, 13. 8. 1994.



THE PARIS CONGRESS OF 1979

The "First International Congress of Armenian Groups" was held in Paris
on 3-6 September 1979. ASALA was very strongly represented at this
congress and played a very influential role. The congress exerted a
very considerable influence on the progressive Armenian groups in
France, particularly in persuading them to become involved in terrorist
activity. The main aim of this congress was to gather the Armenians of
the world around a single idea and a single flag, and to make
territorial demands on the basis of a careful evaluation of the
political environment.

The most important proposals put forward at this congress were the
following:

a. An end should be put to party and sectarian squabbles and a "Central
Committee" established.

b. Measures should be taken to prevent the assimilation of Armenians in
the Diaspora.

c. Military theoreticians and tacticians should be employed in their
operations.

The decisions taken were as follows:

a. Extra impetus should be given to the Pan-Armenian movement. In the
diaspora the concept of Armenianism should be politicised and
importance given to the organization of an international "Armenian
Front".

b. An investigation should be made into the possibility of help for the
Armenian cause by Armenians living in the USSR and measures should be
taken to facilitate such assistance.

c. Territorial claims should be made directly to Turkey.

d. The Armenian Church should be given a national character.

e. Work should be begun on the foundation of an Armenin bank.

f. Central Bureaus should be established and publication and
communication facilities developed.

The Paris Congress resulted in an increase in violence and terror.
ASALA was strengthened by the introduction of fresh blood. Military
training was increased in a number of centres.



THE SÉVRES CONGRESS OF 1986

This congress met at Sévres on 7-13 July 1985 under the title "The
Third International Congress of Armenian Groups". Its aim was the
discussion and acceptance of the "Armenian Constitution". This was to
lead to work on the establishment of a "Union" representing Armenians
throughout the world.

The Armenian terrorist groups did not participate in this congress. The
question of Dashnak representation gave rise to protracted disputes.
ASALA was not represented at this congress and was exposed to violent
criticism.

The following proposals were put forward:

a. The slogan "One Armenianism, one goal, one struggle and one voice"
was proposed and accepted.

b. It was proposed that the Congress of Sevres was to be accepted as
valid and the Congress of Lausanne as invalid.

c. The proposal that no support should be given to ASALA was accepted.

d. It was proposed and accepted that the struggle against Turkey should
be continued.

e. It was proposed and accepted that support should be given to the
struggle being conducted by Greece and the Greek Cypriots against
Turkish expansionist policy.

f. It was proposed that the Congress should bear a character similar to
that of the "Palestine National Congress in Exile", and this was
accepted on the basis of observation of the required developments.

The congress decisions are as fallow:

a. The Congress accepted the text of an "Armenian
Constitution".

b. The Congress accepted the application of a many-sided strategy
for the achievement of their aims.

aa. It was decided that collaboration should be established between
progressive and revolutionary movements in Turkey and the Armenian
nationalist movement, as well as between the Armenians and the various
other peoples engaged in the struggle against Turkish oppression and
exploitation, and that recognition should be given to the inevitably
close links between the struggle of the Armenian people and that of
other oppressed peoples.

bb. The International Armenian Congress decided that although it was in
no way connected with any state or power, it would accept aid and
assistance from any country that respected and supported the Armenian
cause.

c. It was decided to send a note to the United Nations, the USA, the
USSR, the Soviet Socialist Republic of Armenia, the Council of Europe,
the unaligned states and all signatories of the Lausanne Agreement
bringing to their attention the fact that the Armenians were the only
people who had failed to profit from the abolition of colonialism.

d. The Congress, convinced that Turkey should be compelled
to admit its involvement in the genocide of 1915 and that such an
admission would open the way to the liberation of Armenian territory,
decided to disseminate information on this question and to have
recourse to the necessary quarters.

The USSR was praised for its recognition of the genocide of 1915 and
for the publication of an article on this subject in Pravda in April
1985, while at the same time criticism was levelled at the American
administration for having failed to ensure the passage through the US
Congress of a genocide bill.





THE ARMENIAN CONSTITUTION

In his speech introducing the Armenian Constitution, accepted by
"Third International Armenian Congress", Mr. James Karnuzian
declared that "the Armenians had been greatly handicapped by their lack
of unity" and that the only means of removing this handicap and
ensuring unity was to form "a unified group". He went on to say that
the text known as the "Constitution" comprised all the various views
consonant with this aim.

Impartial observers announced that, in the event of this Constitutions
being put into effect, "all groups and organizations engaged in the
struggle for the victory of the Armenian cause would be gathered
together under the aegis of the Armenian Congress".

The main aims of the Armenian Congress as reflected in the Armenian
Constitution were as follows:

a. To unite the Armenians scattered throughout the world into a single
body.

b. To disseminate information throughout the world concerning the work
of the Congress.

c. To make use of all political and diplomatic means at their disposal
to liberate Armenian territory now under Turkish occupation.

d. To organize the return of the Armenians to their homeland and to
make the necessary preparations for this.

In order to realize these aims, the Congress would seek ways of
ensuring the participation of other groups, without, however,
sacrificing anything of their independence and autonomy. Every group of
ethnic Armenians composed of over twenty members should have the right
to representation in the Congress in accordance with democratic
principles, thus accepting the principle of a wide popular base.

According to the Constitution the work of the Congress centre should be
based in Switzerland.

Traditional bodies such as the "Armenian National Council" should be
divided into organizations such as the "General Council" and "Executive
Council".

CONCLUSIONS

What is the truth concerning the "Armenian Problem" and the "Armenian
Question" that lies behind the renewal of terrorist activity in the
years between 1973 and 1985?

What are the lessons to be learned from this terrorist activity, which
far surpasses in ruthlessness the work of any of the Armenian terrorist
groups of the past?

What light can be shed on future developments by an evaluation of the
events of that period?

As a conclusion to this comprehensive study, almost entirely based as
it is on Armenian publications or on works deriving from sources
sympathetic to the Armenian cause, we believe a satisfactory reply can
be given to all these questions.

1. The propaganda formerly used to exploit the various interests,
aims and expectations of the Armenians living within the Ottoman
Empire, and at converting these minority groups into a problem for the
Ottoman State, is still being propagated under the guise of an
"Armenian Cause" in various countries in the world, including the
Armenian Republic, which now forms part of the USSR. It is now no
longer a question of an "Armenian Problem" but of an "Armenian Cause",
a concept that is now being thrust upon world public opinion,
international organizations, and various parliaments and senates. The
new Armenian terrorism of 1973-1985 employs weapons, crimes, massacres
and attacks as propaganda aimed at enforcing acceptance of the justice
of this "cause". In other words, all these massacres, crimes and
attacks have a single aim - to publicize the "Armenian Cause", to
emphasise its scope and dimensions, and so arouse fear and apprehension
regarding the lengths to which this terror could well be taken.

2. There are certain lessons to be learned by humanity as a whole, as
well as by the Armenians themselves, whose names have become associated
with a terrorist activity in which they have been in no way involved,
from the new wave of Armenian terrorism of 1973-1985. The use of terror
as a means of propaganda and psychological pressure is a question of
concern to all states, and it from this point of view that the
1973-1985 era must be evaluated. States founded on principles of law
and order find their field of activity restricted or even rendered
utterly powerless in the face of a terror that acknowledges no law and
regards all means as legitimate. Even more important, some states
sympathise with this terrorism and even support it on geopolitical
grounds, failing to realize that one day the same weapon may be turned
against themselves. From this point of view, the new wave of Armenian
terrorism contains a number of very valuable lessons.
From another angle, the apparent differences, conflicts and even
divisions between the various Armenian terrorist groups are purely
superficial. As a means of propaganda for the propagation of the
"Armenian cause", whatever the method of application, range or scope,
all these apparently discrete elements complement each other in their
work towards the achievement of a common aim. And the expert in the use
of psychology in political struggle is presented with clear evidence of
terror as one aspect of psychological warfare.

3. Future developments will be determined by the attitudes adopted by
states who see in the acceptance or rejection of the "Armenian Cause"
the realisation of the geopolitical expectations of international
organizations, states, parliaments and senates in the field of
international relations, and they will increase commensurately in
importance.

The acceptance of the "Armenian Cause" in the form in which it is now
presented, means the advance acceptance of an attitude that will not be
content with sporadic massacres, crimes and attacks, but which will
inevitably turn towards the waging of a regular war.

If the "Armenian Cause" is interpreted as being the preservation and
development of the Armenian language, religion and culture, this will
result in the complete rejection of terrorism, and will liberate the
Armenian people from a situation which is causing them great anxiety
and apprehension. Otherwise, they will finally become the victims of a
steadily increasing anarchy and the incriminations of others.




AIMS OF ARMENIAN CONGRESSES

Throughout the period covered by the "Armenian Question" or "Armenian
Problem" the Armenian terror groups have been given indirect
encouragement by certain churches and states, while at the same time a
number of Armenian congresses have been held at their request and
invitation. Most of these congresses have been organized by the Dashnak
or Hunchak terror groups and attended by their own members, together
with other Armenians interested in the topic and representatives of the
churches. Such congresses have normally been in the nature of forums at
which topics such as the actual situation and conditions together with
the activities and potential capabilities of the organization were
discussed, and at which a number of decisions were taken. These
decisions were, however, very rarely actually applied and most often
served merely to foment faction and conflict.

In the period 1973-1985, during the New Armenian Terror, congresses
under such titles as "The International Armenian Groups" were held in
Paris in 1979, Lausanne in 1983 and Sevres in 1985. At these congresses
attempts were made to address world public opinion, as well as the
various Armenian communities and members of the Armenian terror groups.
At the congress held in 1985 under the chairmanship of a priest, James
Karauzian, the text of an "Armenian Constitution" was accepted. The
declared aims of the congresses held during this period were "to foster
unity and co-operation among Armenians", "to form a centre for the
formulation of political demands and aspirations", and "to combine the
various Armenian terror groups in a single organization". Priority was
given to a massive propaganda and psychological campaign to inform
international public opinion of their activities. Attempts were also
made to interest Armenians in the work of the various groups and to
involve them in terror or other operations. Another aim of these
congresses was to ensure harmony and co-operation between the various
separate Armenian terror groups. Thus all terror and other activities
could be presented as the common policy of the international Armenian
community, and the various elements brought together in a united front.

These congresses had a number of characteristics in common:

a) In all of them priority was given to discussions concerning armed
struggle. Disagreements between those who supported armed struggle and
those who opposed this strategy finally led to splits in the Armenian
terror groups. ASALA refused, or was not allowed, to participate in any
of the congresses held after the Paris Congress of 1979.

b) It was decided that the texts of all decisions taken at these
congresses should be forwarded to the various international bodies and
that these decisions should be considered and discussed at various
levels in the international forums. Means were also discussed by which
this decision could be put into effect.

c) One of the most important topics of discussion was the union of
all Armenians in a single organization, but no agreement could ever be
reached on how this aim was to be achieved. The text known as the
"Constitution" accepted the idea of a preparatory period.

d) The number of participants at these congresses steadily
diminished.

e) No effective measures were taken to remove the differences of
opinion that were very clearly revealed at these congresses.





ARMENIAN DEMANDS AND PROPAGANDA

The Armenians' demands from Turkey are recognition and compensation of
so-called genocide, and grant of land. These demands are based on
following claims:

1. The Turks occupied Armenia and deported the Armenians.

2. The Turks systematically massacred the Armenians from after
Russo-Ottoman War
in 1877-78.

3. From the beginning of 1915, the Turks methodically annihilated the
Armenians.

4. Talat Pasha gave secret commands for the annihilation of the
Armenians.

5. 1.5 million of Armenians had been killed in the genocide.

All these claims can be vanished with an objective research:

- When the Turks came to Anatolia, an independent Armenia did not
exist; thus, it is impossible to say that the Turks occupied the
Armenian lands.

- The Armenian riots following the Russo-Ottoman War in 1877-78 are
mentioned above. Today it is clearly known that the Armenians revolted
to attract the attention of the European Powers.

- Events of 1915 were just a measure taken by the Ottoman government to
provide security in its territories against the Armenians who stabbed
the Ottoman Army from its back. Besides United Nations describes
genocide as a government's intention to annihilate a race. There is no
evidence to prove such an intention of the Ottoman government. The
Ottoman archives are opened to the historians and any further
investigation would reveal the facts.

- Armenian historian Andonyan claimed that he found the confidential
documents of Talat Pasha and for many years these documents used as the
evidence of so-called genocide. However, two Turkish historians
researched those documents and proved they are counterfeit.

- These telegrams were published in British "Daily Telegraph" in 1919.
It was believed that during the occupation of Aleppo forces of General
Allenby had found some documents remained from the Ottoman government.
When the British Foreign Affairs Bureau have investigated this issue,
they have learnt that the documents belonged to an Armenian group in
Paris. The original documents of this investigation are still in the
British archives.

Talat Pasha was killed by an Armenian terrorist called Tehliryan, in
Berlin. During Tehliryan's trial in Berlin, five of those counterfeit
telegrams adduced to the court although their nullity was proven. The
language and the paper of the telegrams were not in the Ottoman style
and the experts have clarified this fact.

The number of the Armenian casualties does not have any valid basement.
It is said that 1.5 million Armenians were killed but, according to the
Ottoman records, there were 1.3 million Armenian habitants. If the
total Armenian population was, 1.3 million it is impossible to kill 1.5
million Armenians. However, there is neither a method nor a record to
count the Armenian casualties. For example, the president of the
Armenian delegate in the Lausanne Conference Bogos Nubar stated that,
in that time, 700.000 Armenians migrated to other countries and there
were only 280.000 Armenians in Turkey. If these numbers are correct and
the Armenian population was 1.3 million, the casualties should be
300.000 including the ones joined the Russian Army and died in the
First World War.

In 1918 edition of Encyclopaedia Britannica the number of the Armenian
casualties is 600.000 but in its 1968 edition, the number is 1.5
million. As seen the casualties increase on paper.

After the war, in Istanbul, Mustafa Pasha Council was formed and the
remaining members of Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) were
arrested. The list of the suspects were given by the British and four
group of people were arrested:

1. The people who harmed the Armenians and the Greeks during the war.

2. The people who disobeyed the war rules.

3. The people who disobeyed the armistice.

4. The people who disobeyed the allies in Caucassia (these are the
Azerbaijani Turks).

At first, the trial was planned to be holding in Istanbul but later the
suspects were taken to Malta. Most of them would have been judged from
the Armenian genocide. The court took more than a year and the British
made long investigations. The arrests were made usually on
denunciations, which still exist in the files. The British government
asked the Royal Attorney if it is possible to suit against these people
but the response was negative, because there were not enough evidence
to trace a trial. Britain then asked for evidence to the Embassy in
Washington but the response was the same, there was no proof of
genocide in the American archives.

The telegrams which, Andonyan mentioned in his book were in Britain at
that time. If they were real the British government would have
absolutely revealed them to the court and sentence the suspects. If the
most keen, Turk opponent Lloyd George's government did not prove
anything, it means there is no proof to condemn Turkey.

During the displacement, the Ottoman government associated with
Armenian Relief Society and USA. USA distributed aids to the refugees.
In this respect, it is illogical to accuse the Ottoman government by a
methodical annihilation movement.

To conclude, it is irrational to accept a counterfeit genocide.
mark rivers
2005-08-23 04:43:03 UTC
Permalink
Terrorist Armenians raped, tortured, massacred millions of innocent and
defenceless Turks, Jews, Kurds, Arabs and other non-Armenians in
Ottoman Eastern Anatolia during WWI (with direct and generous support
from their allies, the victors of WWI including Czarist Russia) to
ethnically cleanse the area for an Armenian homeland which never
existed.

The rest of the Ottoman Armenian population either very blindly
followed their terrorist leaders or remained totally complacent. That
is why another thug of Armenian anti-Turkish Hatred Inc says the
following:



"No sir, you will not find Armenians who will express disapproval or
distress for the assassination of Turkish governmental officials. It is
unfortunate that the attitude of the Turkish government vis-a-vis
Armenian demands dictates that more people have to die in pursuit of
justice. ... It is not uncommon to find those within the Armenian
diaspora who actually applaud these violent actions. "


David Davidian <***@urartu.SDPA.org> | The life of a people is a sea,
and
S.D.P.A. Center for Regional Studies | those that look at it from the
shore
P.O. Box 2761, Cambridge, MA 02238 | cannot know its depths.
->> Boston'dan Van'i istiyoruz <<- | -Armenian
proverb





http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/definition.html

RELOCATION

THE DEFINITION AND PURPOSE OF RELOCATION (TEHCIR)

The Arabic originated word "tehcir" means "emigration /
immigration", it definitely not means "deportation" or
"exile". Hence the law commonly known as the "Tehcir Law" is
the same as "Temporary Law On The Military Measures To Be Taken For
Those Who Resist The Governmental Acts And Supplementation's." The
word used to explain the implementation in line with this law is
"tenkil" in the Ottoman language and means "transport- not the
equivalent of "deportation", "exile" or "proscription" in
Latin originated languages.

The immigration, which was started with the orders of Talaat Pasha, and
approved by the Government and the Parliament as a measure against the
Armenian riots and massacres, which had arisen in a number of places in
the Country - pre - dominantly in Van province, was only implemented
only in the regions in which such riots and massacres affected the
security of the fronts directly. The first area was Erzurum, Van and
Bitlis Vicinities which formed the rear part of the Caucasian - Iran
Front; and the second was Mersin - Iskenderun Region which formed the
rear part of the Sina Front. In both of these regions, Armenians had
collaborated with the enemy and involved in activities to facilitate
the enemy's invasion.

Later, the scope of the immigration was widened in order to include the
Armenians in the other provinces, who rioted, collaborated with the
enemy and screened the activities of Armenian Gangs. Although the
Catholic and Protestant Armenians were excluded from immigration at the
beginning, later those whose harmful activities were observed, were
also relocated.

Since 1915, numerous papers, reports, books, etc. were written and
published about the immigration implementation. The Armenians, by using
false documents have succeeded to deceit the World for a long time. The
rumor about Armenian holocaust (!) which expressed at first as three
hundred thousand and later increased to three million has no basis at
all. In fact, although English and French authorities have extensively
studied the Ottoman archives during their occupation in Istanbul have
failed to find even a single document hinting about such holocaust.

Had the Ottoman State intended to make genocide on Armenians; could not
they realize such an act at the places where the Armenians live? Why
would it be necessary "to immigrate" them for such an intention?
Why did they undertake the significant fiscal and material costs of
their security, safety, health and food of the immigrating Armenians?
During this immigration and re-settlement process which lasted
approximately 1,5 year from May 1915 until October 1916, why would the
central and local administrations take measures to ensure the lives and
properties of Armenians in spite of the difficult war circumstances? In
addition, would it be necessary to accept great administrative,
military and financial burden -as if opening a new front- to protect
and secure these people?

The answers to these questions shall be sufficient to understand the
real intention of the Ottoman State. Also there is no logical
explanation that why the Ottoman State suddenly changed its policy
towards a community which had always been called as "millet-i
sadika" (loyal people) due to their being really faithful to the
Government. Hence the party whose attitude had changed was not the
Ottoman Government, but the Armenians who were deceived by the
independence promises of Russia and the Entente States.

In conclusion, it can be said that the Armenian Immigration which was a
necessary measure to ensure the State Security and Safety is among one
of the most
successful transportation and re-settlement processes; and has no
intention whatsoever to annihilate Armenians.

REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gerekceler (1915),
TTK Yayini, Ankara, 2001.



+++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/reasons.html

RELOCATION

REASONS BEHIND RELOCATION

The decision regarding migration was taken under compulsion, in order
to prevent the harmful acts of Armenians, who stabbed the Ottoman State
that was their own state, in order to establish an independent Armenia.
Documents confirm how the Russians and the Entente States deceived and
provoked Armenians. (1)

The Armenians who were deceived by such promises as to be given the
lands they obtained during the War and that their independence to be
recognized; established a number of revolutionary societies (2).
Armenians, who started their terrorist activities before the
immigration process, continued these activities even during the
immigration. They collaborated with the enemy both in the border areas
and in the inner regions, and applied genocidal activities to the
Moslem people (3).

Ottoman Government decided to compile the documents expressing the
cruelties of the Armenians in a book and requested the documents and
photographs of Armenian massacres (4). Those documents and photographs
collected in a book and published under the title of Ermeni
Komitelerinin Faaliyetleri ve Ihtilal Hareketleri/ Mesrutiyetin
Ilanindan Once ve Sonra (5).

Armenian cruelties continued after the First Wold War as well. In fact,
one of the most striking examples of such activities is the one
committed in Nahcivan by an Armenian band of 1.200 people under the
command of an Armenian named Hanov (6). Furthermore, it is understood
from the telegraphs dispatched on 3 and 7 March 1920 respectively by
Mümtaz Bey who was then the acting Governor of "Mamuretül Aziz"
Province, that the Armenians protected by the French Forces in the
region were then under the delmion of establishing an independent
Armenia from Clicia to Adana provinces (7).

Upon such developments, Enver Pasha, acting Head Commander, in order to
find a solution to this problem, sent the following note to Talat Pasha
on May 2, 1915.

"Armenians domiciled around Lake Van, and in Van Provincial
Governorate are always ready for an uprising. I think that the
Armenians should be moved from these places, and centers of revolt be
dissipated. According to the information given by the 3rd Army Command,
the Russians caused the Moslems within their own boundaries to
immigrate over our boundaries in miserable conditions. Both as a
retaliation to this act, and to ensure the aim I mentioned above,
either the said Armenians should be transported into the Russian land
together with their families; or they should be distributed in the
various regions in Anatolia also with their families. I kindly request
from you the selection of the most suitable alternative and act
accordingly. However, I personally prefer that the revolting people and
their families be sent beyond our borders; and Moslem people their
families be re-settled in their place" (8).

With this letter, which may be accepted as the first sign of the
intention of immigration process, Enver Pasha requested of dispersion
of Armenians in order to avoid their uprising act. According to the
said letter, it is clear that the implementations would be made only in
locations where the Armenians revolted; and it was carried out
accordingly.

Talat Pasha, not wishing to waste time due to the urgency and
importance of the matter, initiated the re-settlement implementation
without waiting for the resolution of the Parliament hence did not
hesitate to undertake such a heavy responsibility by himself (9). Talat
Pasha, who took first considered to start immigration of the Armenians
domiciled in Van, Bitlis and Erzurum regions out of the War area. He
informed Tahsin Bey, Cevdet Bey and Mustafa Abdulhalik Bey, Governors
of Erzurum, Van, and Bitlis Provinces respectively on the matter by
cryptic communiqués dd. May 9, 1995. Talat Pasha in his above -
mentioned cryptic message communicated that the Armenians concentrated
in certain regions to start revolts and uprising were decreed to
immigrate towards the south, and that every possible assistance should
be given to the Governors in order for this decree to be implemented.
Talaat Pasha noted that a communiqué concerning the issue was sent to
the Supreme Military Command to the Commanders of the 3rd and 4th
Armies. He informed that it would be advantageous if the implementation
was undertaken in areas to cover the southern part of Erzurum along
with Van, the critical sub-provinces in Bitlis, and especially the
vicinities of Mus, Sasun, and Talori; and requested from the Governors
to immediately initiate the implementation in cooperation with the army
commanders.

Furthermore, Talat Pasha issuing a cryptic communiqué to the 4th Army
Command dated 23 May 1915, listed the location requested to be
evacuated as follows:

1. The provinces of Erzurum, Van ad Bitlis;

2. The subdivision of Maras excluding the city of Maras;

3. Villages and towns within the boundaries of the sub provinces of;
Iskenderun, Beylan (Belen), Cisr-i Sugur and Antioch excluding the
central sub province of the Province of Aleppo;

4. The sub-divisions of Adana, Mersin, Kozan and Cebel-i Bereket
excluding the cities of Adana, Sis (Kozan) and Mersin;

Accordingly; Armenians evacuated from Erzurum, Van and Bitlis were
decreed to be transferred to the southern part of Mousul along with the
sub-division of Zor and sub-division of Urfa excluding the central
city: and the Armenians evacuated from the vicinities of Adana, Aleppo
and Maras to be transferred to the eastern part of the Province of
Syria along with the eastern and southeastern part of the Province of
Aleppo. To supervise and manage the immigration process, State
Inspectors, Ali Seydi Bey and Hamid Bey were appointed to the Adana
region, and to the regions of Aleppo and Maras, respectively.

It was stipulated that the Armenians arriving at the new locations of
resettlement were to be settled either in the houses that they would
build in the existing villages or towns; or in the villages that they
would re-establish in the locations identified by the government; and
that the Armenian villages were to be at least of 25 km away from the
Baghdad Railway.

The protection of lives and properties of Armenians following the
process of immigration, and provision of their needs such as food,
drink and rest were left to the regional authorities along the transfer
route. It was decreed that the immigrating Armenians to be allowed to
carry along all of their belongings and arrangements about their
established properties were to be prepared and submitted to the
authorities concerned (11).

In order for the immigrating Armenians not to re-constitute dens of
conspiracy, the Supreme Military Command communicated a letter dated 26
May 1915 to the Ministry of Interior, considering the following
aspects:

1. The population of the Armenians in the locations they newly
immigrated to should not be in excess of 10% of the population of the
existing tribes and Moslems.

2. The villages the Armenians to be re-established should not be bigger
than fifty houses each.

3. The Armenian immigrant families should not change houses either for
the purposes of travel or transfer (12).

A short while after the Ministry of Interior's measures were came in
force, Russian, French and English governments issued a joint
declaration stating that in the Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia,
which they referred as "Armenia", Armenians had been killed with in
a month. In addition, they declared that the Ottoman Government is
responsible for these events (13).

Upon the spread of the issue in international arena in this manner,
Talaat Pasha, sent a communiqué dated 26 May 1915 to the Prime
Ministry in order to provide a legal basis for the implementation of
the immigration (14). In this communiqué, having stated that the
invaders promoted discrimination among the Armenians, who were Ottoman
citizens, and assisted them, in order to realize their invasory
desires; that the uprising Armenians took variety of means to hinder
the progress of the operation of the Turkish Army fighting against the
enemy; that they abstracted the transport of food items, weapons and
ammunition to the soldiers, that they collaborated with the enemy; that
a group of them joined the enemy rank, and organized armed attacks
against the military units and innocent civilians; that they massacred
and pillaged in cities and towns; and that they provided food to the
enemy navy and disclosed critical military zones to the enemy, Talaat
Pasha noted that a radical measure needed to be taken for the security
of the state and on this account, the Armenians rioting in war zones
needed to be immigrated to other regions.

This communiqué of the Ministry of Interior was submitted immediately
to the Parliament along with another communiqué written by the Prime
Ministry. Talat Pasha's statement having been reiterated in the Prime
Ministry's communiqué, it was expressed that the initiation of the
immigration implementation was rightly made for the security of the
state and that it was necessary to implement this policy methodically
and systematically. (15) And the Parliament decreed to ratify the
implementation on the some date.

In the Parliamentary decree, it was noted that it absolutely necessary
to block through effective methods such harmful activities for having a
negative impact on the existence and the security of the state, and
that the measures by the Ministry of Interior on this account were
rightfully and duly taken. Furthermore, a communiqué was issued
regarding the determination of the immovable properties owned by the
immigrating Armenians by a commission to be appointed, and the creation
of job opportunities suitable for the conditions of the Armenians in
their new locations, and the assistance to be given on the account of
Immigrant's Compensation. It was requested that an order to be
written to those concerned in order to ensure the implementation of
immigration securely (16).

The following communiqué dated 30 Mays 1915 sent by the Prime Ministry
to the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of War and the Ministry of
Finance, the regulations of implementation of the immigration were
stated: (17)

a) The Armenians shall be transported to the regions allocated in a
comfortable manner, ensuring the security of their lives and property.

b) Their food and drink expenses shall be covered by the Immigrant's
Compensation until they settle in their new houses.

c) Real estate and land shall be provided for them in accordance with
their former financial status.

d) The government shall build houses for those in need, and provide
seeds, and agricultural equipment for the farmers and agricultural
experts.

e) The movables they left behind shall be delivered, and after the
determination of their immovable properties settled, these shall be
distributed among the Moslem immigrants to be setting in their place.
Income generating from places that are not within the expertise of
these immigrants such as olive, mulberry and orange groves, vineyards,
shops, inns, factories and warehouse shall be either auctioned or
rented and their compensations shall be recorded in deposit by savings
fund to be paid to their owners.

f) Special commissions shall implement all these issues and an order
shall be issued in this regard.


REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gercekler -
Realities on the Armenian Immigration- (1915), TTK, Yayini, Ankara,
2001

FOOTNOTES
1) Cryptic Item, no: 45/115 (sent a communiqué about this matter to
the provinces of Van, Bitlis, Mamüretüaziz, Adana, Diyarbekir and
Sivas, via the telegram dated 23 September 1916)
2) DH. EUM. Division 2, File 1, document 45/2 (see document 670).
3) Cryptic Item. , NoB 6; no; 62/24; no: 63/175; no; 64/92; no: 64/163;
no; 64/194; no: 66/51; no: 46/56; no: 66/192; BA, BED, no: 343464 (see
document 784).
4) Cryptic Item, no: 62/57; 62/58; 63/241.
5) Istanbul 1916. The same work was translated in French, in 1917, in
Istanbul and published as an abridged version under the title Les
Allogations et les Mouvements Révolutionnairs des Comités
Arméniens- (Ankara, 1981)
6) Letter dated 1 February 1920 from the Ministry of Interior to the
Prime Ministry (BA: BEO, no; 341351).
7) Security, File 2 F/3; Security, File 2 F75 see document 799 and 800.
8) ATBD, December 1982, no: 81, document 1830
9) Bayur, ibid, III/3, 38.
10) G.K., no: 15/200; no: 52/281-282
11) G.K, no: 53/94
12) General Staff, no: 1/1, Folder 44 File 207, F 2-3, quoted by, K.
Gürün, ibid, p.213.
13) Bayur, ibid, III/3, p. 37
14) BA, BED, no: 326758
15) Parliamentary Decree, Book no: 198, Decree no: 163 (see document
123); Bayur ibid. III/3, pp. 40-42.
16) Bayur, ibid, III/3, pp. 40-42
17) BA, BED, no: 326758



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http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/telegram.html

RELOCATION

THE TELEGRAM ATTRIBUTED TO TALAT PASHA

One of the most significant Armenian allegations regarding the
immigration implementations is the telegrams, which -also allegedly-
contained Talaat Pasha's orders for killing the Armenians. However,
Talaat Pasha himself has expressed in number of occasions that the
measures taken with regard to Armenians have no object of massacring
them in any way. In fact; in a cryptic telegraph -communiqué wired
on August 29, 1915 to the Governors of Hüdaverdigar, Ankara, Konya,
Izmit, Adana, Maras, Urfa, Halep, Zor, Sivas, Kütahya, Karesi, Nigde,
Mamuretülaziz, Diyarbekir, Karahisar-i Sahib, Erzurum and Kayseri
Provinces and sub-Provinces; the purpose of the immigration was
explained as the follows (1).

"The purpose of the Government regarding the moving of Armenians from
their original settlements is to prevent their anti-governmental
actions; and to discourage their ambitions of establishing an Armenian
State. Their massacre is completely out of question; on the contrary
the safety of the groups during immigration should be ensured; and
while measures for their catering should be taken, the "Immigrants
Allocation" should be used to meet the cost. Armenians who are
allowed to stay in their original settlements should not be re-located
afterwards. As it was stated before the immigration of the dependents
of military forces; protestant and catholic Armenians; and artisans (in
accordance with the need) are definitely prohibited by the Government
severe legal measures. Against the gendarmes and government officials
who attack the immigrating groups or those who lead such attacks severe
legal measures should be taken and such individuals should immediately
Court-Martialled. Relevant provincial and sub-provincial authorities
shall be held responsible for such events.

In another cryptic note sent to Ankara on May 27 1915 it was said that;
"The measures taken by the Government regarding the Armenians are
based on the necessity to ensure and protect the welfare and order of
the Country. Exclusion of the Catholic and Protestant Armenians -who
are at present observed as impartial at the present- from immigration,
is the indication that the Government has no intention to massacre
them" (2).

However, the communiqué which was issued by the Government for
deporting the terrorist Armenians and their Gang leaders has been
understood incorrectly in some places. Hence, several Armenian Bands,
which were caught, were sent to places in which they continued their
actions more freely. Upon such occurrence's Talaat Pasha issued
another communiqué on June 1, 1915, stressing that such Armenians
should be transported to the places where they would not be able to
continue their harmful actions, and also there deportations should be
limited to the terrorists and rebels only (3).

Furthermore, in still another cryptic note dated June 13, 1915
dispatched to Mamuretüllaziz province, it was stated that the
Armenians, besides those who were handed to the Court Marshall should
be kept at suitable locations within the province under a previous
order, hence not necessarily sent to Mousul province (4).

In a cryptic note dated June 14, 1915 which was sent to Erzurum,
Diyarbekir, Mamuretülaziz and Bitlis provinces, after stressing that
the Armenians should be protected during the immigration process; it
was mentioned that it was natural to take measures against those who
would try to flee or rebel against the gendarmes; however in no case
Moslem peoples should be involved in such corrective acts; and also no
opportunities should be set to start conflicts between the Moslems and
Armenians.

Coming to the telegraph which is the core of the alleged claims of
Armenian massacre (5).

An Armenian named Aram Andonian referred to it in his book, titled :
"Memoirs of Naim Bey / Official Turkish Documents Regarding the
Deportation and Massacre of the Armenians" published in London in
1920. This book was published under the titles: "Official Documents
Regarding the Massacre of the Armenians"; and "The Gross Offence,
the Last Armenian Massacre and Talat Pasha; the Originals of the Signed
Official Telegraphs" in Paris and Boston respectively.

The telegraphs in the book, which were attributed to Talat Pasha, are
false documents, which were originated to create a "massacre
criminal". As a result of the examination and research which was
carried out by Messrs. Sinasi Orel and Süreyya Yuca on the subject
documents a number of positive evidences, which prove the falsity of
them were found. Among these evidences are: "that the person named
Naim Bey - from whom the documents have been said that obtained- had
never been employed in the "Celleppo Re-Settlement Department, that
neither the said documents were authentic, nor the type of the papers
were the same of those used in the official communication of that time;
that the original counterparts were not among the Ministry of Interior
documents in the Prime Ministry's Archives; that the deed numbers on
the documents could not fond in the registration logs of the relevant
department; that there were some mistakes on the dates according to
Mohammedan and Gregorian Calendars; that there were inconsistencies
between the signatures; and there were some big grammatical and
spelling mistakes in them."

Furthermore, although it was mentioned that; "the original copies of
the documents which were used in the book were kept at the Armenian
Office in Manchester" since then they have persistently been
concealed from the examination of the World opinion, and since their
"authenticity was based on the report of the Aleppo Armenian Unit
during the Ottoman times; is an important indication of the falsehood
of the alleged claims of Armenian massacre.

REFERENCES:
Hallacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gerekceler (1915),
TTK Yayini, Ankara, 2001.

Published by:
Turkish Hutorical Association, Ankara, 2001.

FOOTNOTES:
1) DH. EUM 2. Branch, 68/80
2) DH. EUM 2. Branch, 68/71; 2. Branch 68/84 (see doc: 192, 200)
3) DH. EUM 2. Branch, 68x101 (see doc 217).
4) An Armenian group which consisted of 26.064 people and lived in
Aleppo were not actually included in the immigration process. Because;
the population re-settled in the new settlement location were brought
from Anatolia. On the other hand while the number of those who arrived
at Aleppo were given as around a hundred thousand, (see: DH EUM. 2nd
Branch, 68/80) the population arrived here was taken as 100.000.
5) OREL, Sinasi, YUCA Sureyya, Ermenilerce Talat Pasa'ya Atfedilen
Telgraflarin Gercek Yüzü, Turkish Historical Association Publication,
Ankara 1983


+++++++++++++++++



http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/law.html

RELOCATION

THE RELOCATION LAW

"Temporary Law on the Measures Implemented by the Military against
those Opposing the Government Implementations at Wartime" also known
as "Immigration Law-Tehcir Law" was resolved on 27 May 1915. (1)
The Law was published in the Official Gazette of the time, Takvim-i
Vekayi, on 1 June 1915 and came into force. (2)

Article 1 of the before mentioned temporary law authorizes, the
commanders of the Army, Army-corps and Divisions to take military
measures against those opposing government orders, country's defense,
and the protection of peace; and against those organizing armed attacks
and resistance, and kill rebels during aggression and uprising in
wartime. The second article authorizes the same commanders to transfer
and resettle on a single basis or in mass, the people living in
villages and towns who are found to be engaged in espionage or treason.

The properties owned by the Armenians subjected to immigration were
protected under an order (3) dated 10 June 1915. "Commission on
Abandoned Properties" comprising of a president and two members, one
administrative and one financial, was established. These commissions
are to determine Armenian properties in the villages and towns that are
evacuated, and to keep detailed record books. One of the books is to be
kept in the regional churches, one to be submitted to the regional
administration, and one shall be kept by the commission. Non-durable
goods and animal stock shall be auctioned and the money shall be kept.
In location where a commission is not appointed, the provisions of the
communiqué shall be enforced by the officers in the regions. Both the
commission and the regional administrators shall be responsible for the
protection of these properties until the Armenians return.

As it can be understood from the law dated 27 May 1915 and order dated
10 June 1915, the immigration implementation initiated by Talat Pasha
and approved by the Parliament covers "the regions that threaten the
security of the front directly". The first of these regions includes
the vicinities of Erzurum, Van and Bitlis, which constitute the
background of Caucasian and Iranian fronts. The second region is
provinces of Mersin-Iskenderun, which constitute the background of the
Sinae front. Because, in these regions, Armenians were collaborating
with the enemy and were engaged in activities facilitating the landing
of the enemy forces.

However, the law regarding "the measures implemented by the military
against those opposing the government implementations at wartime" is
an authorizing law intended to protect the state and its legal order.
One of the most important characteristics of this law is that "not a
name of any ethnic group or community was mentioned nor even suggested
in the text of the law". The Ottoman citizens of Moslem, Greek and
Armenian origin covered under this law were subjected to immigrate from
their own place and resettle elsewhere. To regard this law as being
directed against one particular ethnic group is an indication of a lack
of information, or else, intentional behavior... (4)

REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gerekceler -
Realities on the Armenian Immigration - (1915), TTK Publication,
Ankara 2001.

FOOTNOTES:
1) Bayur, ibid., III/3, p.40; Gürün, ibid., 214.
2) Takvim-i Vekayi', 18 Recep 1333/19 May 1331, 7th year, no:2189;
Y.H. Bayur, ibid, III/3, p.30
3) ATBD, December 1982, ibid., no:81, document 1832
4) Yildirim, Dr. Hüsamettin, Ermeni Iddialari ve Gercekler -
Armenian Claims and Realities- Ankara 2000, p. 21



+++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/start.html


RELOCATION

RELOCATION TAKES START

In accordance with the Law on Transport and Resettlement dated 27 May
1915, and communiqué determining the forms of implementation of this
law, the Armenian convoys were gathered in certain centers along the
crossroads such as Konya, Diyarbekir, Cizre, Birecik and Aleppo, to be
distributed to the new settlement areas.

The immigration routes were chosen among the closest possible roads, so
as immigrants not to come across any difficulties. Furthermore, the
concern to ensure security and protection for the convoys played on
important role in the choice of routes. Therefore, ones transferred
from Kayseri and Samsun took the route via Malatya; just as the ones
from Sivas, Mamuretülaziz, Erzurum and its environs took the route to
Mousul via Diyarbekir-Cizre road (1). However, cases where that the
roads were too crowded, or upon a possibility of disorder in
sub-divisions, these routes were changed (2). The ones en route from
Urfa via Re'sülayn and Nusaybin were transferred via Siverek in
order to protect them from the attacks of Arabian and other tribes (3).


The convoys en route from Western Anatolia along Kütahya-Karahisar -
Konya - Karaman- Tarsus were transferred via Kars-i Maras -
Pazarcik to Zor. (4) Locations with railroad and river -
transportation facilities were preferred in choosing all these routes.
The idea that travel by train or the river travel were the safest ways
then, played an important role in this choice. Therefore, almost all
the immigrants from Western Anatolia were transported by train (5).
Convoys transferred via Cizre road were also carried by train or river
boats called "Sahtur". (6) In places where train or river
transports were not available, the convoys were gathered at certain
centers, and took the train from these centers.

The state used all its resources available, to implement an orderly
immigration process, and to prevent the convoys from any possible harm,
in spite of circumstances that prevailed due to war. However, there
arose difficulties at times to find vehicles transporting immigrants
due to the need to dispatch military and food items to the front
continuously. Therefore, railway stations were congested. It being
harvest season the vehicles were scarce, which caused delays in
transportation at times, (7) as well as difficulties in the movement of
the convoys. In spite of all these difficult circumstances and adverse
conditions, the government succeeded, in an orderly fashion, to
transport the immigrating Armenians to their new locations of
resettlement.

In fact, US Consul in Mersin, Edward Natan, in his report dated 30
August 1915, submitted to the Ambassador Morganthau, stated that the
railway route from Tarsus to Adana was full of Armenians; and that they
traveled from Adana onwards with a ticket; and despite some
difficulties due to crowds of people, the government organized this
process in the most orderly fashion; and that the Government did not
allow any act of violence or disorder, provided sufficient number of
tickets to the immigrants and assisted those who were in need. (9).

REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gercekler - Realities
on the Armenian Immigration - (1915), TTK Publications, Ankara, 2001.

FOOTNOTES:
1) Cryptic Item., no: 54-A/157; no: 56/280; no: 56/387.
2) Cryptic Item., no: 56-278; no: 58/280; no: 56/308.
3) Cryptic Item., no: 57/277.
4) Cryptic Item., no: 65/95.
5) DH. EUM. Dept. 2, 68/99; Dept. 2, 68/94; Dept. 2, 68/81; Dept. 2,
68/67; Dept. 2, 68/96.
6) DH. EUM. Dept 2, 68/101.
7) E.g. Cryptic Item, no: 54-A/393.
8) Cryptic Item, No: 54-A/59; no: 54-A/96
9) EUM, File 2D/13 (see Document 664).


+++++++++++++++





http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/regions.html

RELOCATION

REGIONS THE ARMENIANS WERE MOVED TO AND FROM

The regions Armenians evacuated and resettled in were stated in the
cryptic message dated 23 May 1915 by Talat Pasha sent to the 4th Army
Command. In his aforementioned cryptic message, having provided the
information regarding the Armenians to be transported to other
provinces, Talat Pasha communicated that it would be suitable for the
Armenians evacuated from the provinces of Erzurum, Van and Bitlis to be
resettled in the Southern part of the province of Mousul, and in the
sub-division of Zor and in the sub-division of Urfa excluding the
Central City; and also those evacuated from the vicinities of Adana,
Aleppo and Maras, to be resettled in the Eastern part of the province
of Syria along with the Eastern and Southeastern part of the province
of Aleppo.

However, due to the fact that Armenian rebellions and massacres went
on; and order dated 5 July 1915 was sent to the provinces of Adana,
Erzurum, Bitlis, Aleppo, Diyarbekir, Syria, Sivas, Trabzon,
Mamuretülaziz and Mousul, to the Office of the President of"
Commission on Abandoned Properties in Adana",. And to the Governors
of the Subdivisions of Zor, Maras, Canik, Kayseri and Izmit; and it was
stated that the regions allocated for the resettlement of Armenians
were broadened upon need.

Accordingly, the following shows how the region where Armenians were
transported and resettled, was determined ensuring that the Armenian
population should not exceed 10% of the Moslem population:

1. The eastern and southern regions of the province of Mousul including
the villages and towns in the subdivision of Kerkük 80 km from Iranian
border;

2. East and south of the sub-division of Zor including the settlements
in Habur and Euphrates River valley, 25 km within the Diyarbekir boder;


3. Villages and towns in the east, south and south-west of the province
of Aleppo, excluding the northern part; towns and villages 25 km away
from the railway route including the sub-divisions of Havran and Kerek
in the province of Syria.(*)

REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gerekceler -Realities
on the Armenian Immigration - (1915), TTK Publications, Ankara, 2001.

FOOTNOTE:
(*) G.K., no: 54/315




+++++++++++++++++++





http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/subjected.html

RELOCATION

ARMENIAN POPULATION SUBJECTED TO RELOCATION

The numbers of the Armenians, subjected to relocation was controlled
from their departure until their arrival, between June 9, 1915 and
February 8, 1916. The figures below are taken from pertinent Ottoman
documents (1)

. Relocated Remained
Adana (2) 14.000 15-16.000

Ankara (Central)(3) 21.236 733

Aydin(4) 250 -

Birecik(5) 1.200 -

Diyarbakir(6) 20.000 -

Dörtyol(7) 9.000 -

Erzurum(8) 5.500 -

Eskisehir(9) 7.000 -

Giresun(10) 328 -

Görele 250 -

Aleppo(11) 26.064 -

Haymana(12) 60 -

Izmir(13) 256 -

Izmit(14) 58.000 -

Kal'acik(15) 257 -

Karahisari sahib(16) 5.769 2nd 222

Kayseri(17) 45.036 4.911

Keskin 1.169 -

Kirsehir(18) 747 -

Konya(19) 1.900 -

Kütahya(20) 1.400 -

Mamuretülaziz(21) 51.000 4.000

Maras(22) - 8.845

Nallihan 479 -

Ordu 36 -

Persembe 390 -

Sivas(23) 136.084 6.055

Sungurlu 576 -

Sürmene 290 -

Tirebolu 45 -

Trabzon(24) 3.400 -

Ulubey 30 -

Yozgat(25) 10.916 -

TOTAL 422.758 32.766

On the other hand, in the telegraph sent by the Director of Immigrants
and Tribe Placement, Sükrü Bey on October 18th 1915, notified that
"the number of the Armenians transported to Aleppo was about 100.000,
among these, 25.000 were settled in Rakka and Zor, 3000 were settled in
the south of Aleppo and the remaining would be settled in Kerek and
Havran surroundings (26).

Meanwhile, it is understood from the records that an Armenian
population of 120.000 people gathered in Diyarbekir as of September
18th 1915 and an Armenian population of 136.084 people gathered in
Cizre as of September 28th 1915 to be sent to Musul and Zor region
(27). In a coded telegraph sent by Sükrü Bey from Nizip on November
3, 1915, it is expressed that transportation continued in a regular
manner (28).

Among the population included as the displaced population in the list
given herein above, but indicated not to have been transported yet, the
ones in Adana have been transported to the new settlement regions later
(29). Hence, the transported population and the population reaching the
settlement region seem to be almost equal. The total of the immigrated
population is 438.758 and the population safely arrived to new
settlements is 382.148. (30)

REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Facts Relating to the Armenian Relocation
(1915), TTK Publication, Ankara, 2001.


FOOTNOTES
1) DH, EUM. 2nd Branch, File 1, document 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46,
47, 51, 55, 64 (see document 152, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191,
194, 200, 206).

2) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/77 (Ek-XXII).

3) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/77 (Ek-XXII).

4) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.69/250.

5) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/101.

6) In these documents the number of the Armenians of Diyarbakir is not
mentioned. It was estimated that from this city 20.000 Armenians were
relocated.

7) DH. EUM. 2nd branch, number.68/89.

8) Code. number. 54/1629) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/72nd

10) Giresun, Persembe, Ulubey, Sürmene, Tirebolu, Ordu ve Görele ayni
vesikada verilmistir (Bkz. DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/41).

11) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/76.

12) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/66.

13) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.69/260.

14) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/67 (Ek-XXIV)

15) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/79

16) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/73.

17) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/75 (Ek-XXV).

18) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/66.

19) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.69/34.

20) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/93.

21) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/70 (Ek-XXVII).

22) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/41.

23) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/84 (Ek-XXVII).

24) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/41.

25) DH. EUM. 2nd Branch, number.68/66.

26) DH, EUM, 2nd Branch, 68/80

27)DH, EUM, 2nd Branch, 68/71; 2nd branch 68/84 (see document 192,
200).

28) DH, EUM, 2nd Branch, 68/101 (see document 217).

29) 26.064 Armenians in Aleppo included in the population subjected to
the displacement application were not included in the immigrated
Armenians. Since, the ones that reached to the new settlement region
consisted of the Armenians sent from Anatolia. On the other hand,
although it is notified that the number of the people that have come to
Aleppo was approximately one hundred thousand (see DH, EUM, 2nd branch,
68/80), the population coming to that region has been taken to be
100.000.

30) DH.EUM, 2nd Branch, File 1, document 45/1-1 (see document 57).

See document 687.



+++++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/casualties.html

RELOCATION

ARMENIAN CASUALTIES DURING RELOCATION

The number of Armenians who were made to migrate through various means
was strictly controlled, both at departure, and at the arrival of a
convoy to its new destination. According to figures taken from
pertinent documents of the Ottoman Archives: A total of 438.758 people
were relocated and 382.148 of these safely reached their new
destinations. As can be seen, the number of casualties had occurred as
follows: 500 people on the road between Erzurum and Erzincan; 2000 in
Meskene, between Urfa and Aleppo and 2000 others on the outskirts of
Mardin were massacred in attacks launched by bandits or nomadic Arabs.
Another 5000 people were killed in attacks on convoys passing through
Dersim. It was understood from these documents that many people had
also fallen victim to hunger while on the road. Apart from these, some
25-30 thousand people had lost their lives when struck by fatal
diseases such as typhoid and dysentery. In all, an estimated 40
thousand casualties had been registered during relocation.

The remaining 10-16 thousand people were made at stay in provinces they
had reached, when the implementation of relocation was brought to an
end. For instance, on April 26, 1916, orders were given to provide the
return to and the settlement in the province of Konya of those
Armenians setting out form the province to new destinations. On the
other hand, many other Armenians are believed to have fled to either
Russia or to Western countries, including the Unites States.

As a matter of fact, according to the pertinent documents, 50.000 of
the Armenian soldiers serving in the Ottoman Army joined the Russian
forces, and some other 50.000 Armenian soldiers went to America to be
trained in the US Army to fight against the Turkish Army. In fact, the
letter of an Armenian called Murad Muradyan- who was an advocate in
Elazig later immigrated to America - shows such information. In the
concerned letter, Muradyan mentions that some Armenians were escaped to
Russia and America and later 50.000 of those trained soldiers went to
Caucassia. As it can be understood from all the concerned documents,
many of Armenian subjects of the Ottoman State were scattered through
various countries especially to U.S.A. and Russia, before and during
the war. For example, Artin Hotomyan who was a tradesman in America
sent a letter to the Chieftain of Security on January 19, 1915 and
stated that thousands of Armenians migrated to U.S.A. and they were
facing with hunger and hardships.

All the documents clarify that there had not been a genocide occurred
during relocation.

REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Ermeni Tehcirine Ait Gercekler (1915), TTK
Publication, Ankara, 2001.


+++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/measures.html

RELOCATION

ATTACKS ON ARMENIAN CONVOYS AND MEASURES TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT

Some Armenians have died as the result of the attacks made to some
companies during the movement of Armenians towards their new settlement
regions, especially by the Arabic tribes between Aleppo - Zor and
Armenian committee member Urban. As understood from a coded telegraph
dated January 8th 1916, the attacks on the roads between Aleppo and
Meskene resulted in the death of many Armenians, (1) and that
approximately 2.000 of the Armenians moving from Diyarbekir to Zor and
from Saruc to Halep through Menbic road were robbed by the Urban tribes
(2).

Again in Diyarbakir region, it has been notified that the gangs and the
bandits killed almost 2.000 people including Armenians and Non -
Muslims. Upon this event, it has been notified severely that such
events should be immediately stopped and peace should be absolutely
provided on the route of the companies, otherwise that province would
be held responsible for the actions of the bandits. (3)

A coded telegraph sent to Diyarbekir, Mamuretülaziz and Bitlis
provinces on June 14th 1915 informing that another company of 500
people were killed as the result of the Kurd attacks between Erzurum
- Erzincan road. Upon this event, the use of any kind of instruments
against the attacks of the villagers and the tribes and severe
punishment of the ones attempting murder and usurpation had been
ordered. (4)

The Ottoman government has shown extra ordinary efforts for providing
food and the security of the companies while fighting against the
enemy. It has shown great sensitivity about the murders and robberies,
to which Armenians have been subjected to and tried to provide the safe
performance of this transportation. With the instructions written to
the administrations in the provinces, to which the transportation was
made, the ones attacking the Armenian companies have been punished. The
government, following up the precautions taken about this issue, has
asked how many were punished harmed to the Armenian convoys, in the
coded telegram it sent to Erzurum, Adana, Ankara, Halep, Hüdavendigar,
Diyarbekir, Sivas, Trabzon, Konya, Mamoretülaziz provinces and Urfa,
Izmit, Zor, Karesi, Kayseri, Kütahya, Maras, Karahisar administrators
on September 5 1915. (5)

On the other hand, Investigation Commissions have been established for
determining the officers, who showed reluctance or unlawful actions
during the transportation of the Armenian companies. A commission
consisting of Muhtar Bey, Ankara Province civil service investigator,
and Kaymakam Muhiddin Bey, Izmir Gendarme Regional Investigator under
the chairmanship of Asim Bey, first chief of Interrogation Court has
been sent to Adana, Halep, Suriye, Urfa, Zor and Maras regions (6) and
a commission to which Ismail Hakki Bey, member of State Council has
also participated, under the chairmanship of Hulusi Bey, chairman of
Court of Appeal has been sent to Hüdavendigar, Ankara, Izmit, Karasi,
Kütahya, Eskisehir, Kayseri, Karahisar-i sahib and Nigde regions. (7)

A third commission consisting of Nihad, Public Prosecutor of Istanbul
Court of First Instance and Ali Naki Bey, a Gendarme Major under the
chairmanship of Mazhar Bey, former governor of Bitlis has been
appointed in Sivas, Trabzon, Erzurum, Mamuretülaziz, Diyarbekir,
Bitlis and Canik regions. In a coded confidential telegraph sent to
Mazhar Bey, who was the chairman of this commission and was in Sivas at
that time, the commission has been requested to carry out the necessary
investigations at the locations they visited and then to report the
results of such investigations continuously to the center. (8)

In accordance with the instructions given to the commissions, gendarme,
police officers or directors would be sent to the Court Martial in
accordance with the result of the investigation to be carried out about
them. A list of the ones sent to the Court Martial would be given to
the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The results of the investigations to
be carried out about the governors and district governors would be
first submitted to the Ministry of Internal affairs and the
transactions would be carried out in accordance with the order given.
If there occurred any misuse among the Court Martial chairmen or
members and military officers, those people would be notified to the
related army commanderships.

In the light of the reports given by the investigation commissions,
many officers misusing their duties (stealing money and goods from the
companies, causing the companies be subject to violation because of not
performing their protection duties as required, acting in violation of
the transportation order) have been discharged. Some of them have been
judged at the Court Martial and have been sentenced to heavy
punishments. (9)

REFERENCE:

Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Facts Relating to the Armenian Displacement
(1915), TTK Publication, Ankara, 2001

FOOTNOTES

1) Coding Office, no. 59/244

2) Coding Office, no. 56/140; 55 - A/144

3) Coding Office, no. 54/406; no 54 - A/73; no 54 - A/248

4) Coding Office, no 54/9; no 54/162

5) Coding Office, no 55-A/84

6) Coding Office; no 56/186

7) Coding Office; no 56/355; no 58/38

8) Coding Office, no 56/267

9) Coding Office, no 58/278; no 58/141; no. 55-A/156; no. 55-A/157;
no 61/165; no 57/116; no 57/416; no 57/105; no 59/235; no 54-A/326; no
59/196



++++++++++++





http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/not_subjected.html

RELOCATION

ARMENIANS NOT SUBJECTED TO RELOCATION

The relocation decision has not been applied to all Armenians. At the
beginning, a part of the Armenians living in the regions (In Urfa,
Germis and Birecik, Erzurum, Aydin, Trabzon, Edirne, Canik, Cannakkale,
Adapazari, Halep, Bolu, Kastamonu, Tekirdag, Konya and Karahisar-i
sahib) have been kept out of the scope of migration. (1) But,
thereafter, when it has been certain that these people were also
involved in various severity events, majority of them been subjected to
migration. (2) The ill and the blind were not subjected to relocation
and the Catholic and the Protestant ones, the soldiers and their
families, the officers, merchants, some workers and masters were not
subject to migration, either. Likewise, in the telegraphs sent to the
provinces, it is requested not to move the ill, the blind, the disabled
and the old and to settle them in the city centers. (3)

With the telegraphs sent to the related provinces on August 2, 1915 and
August 15th 1915, it has been ordered not to subject the Armenians from
the Catholic and Protestant sects to migration and to settle them in
the cities they were currently in and to notify the number of their
population. (5) The ones that have been subjected to migration by
mistake have been settled in the cities they were currently in. (6).
But among the ones that were kept out of the scope of migration, the
ones that were observed to have harmful actions have been sent to new
settlement regions regardless of their being Catholic or Protestant.
(7)

In the coded telegraph sent to the provinces on August 15 1915, the
Armenians providing service as officers and health personnel in the
Ottoman army and their families have not been subjected to migration
and left at their locations. (8) Besides this, the Armenians working in
the branches of Ottoman Bank, in the Turkish Tobacco Monopoly and in
some consulates have not been subjected to relocation, either, as long
as they remained loyal to the government and their good behavior
continued.

Furthermore, orphans and widowed women have not been subjected to
migration and have been taken under protection in the villages and
orphanages. (10) The children, who became orphans during the
transportation have been sent to Sivas and settled in the orphanages
there. (11) A general order was issued on April 30, 1916 about the
Armenian families needing protection. With this order, the families
with no guardians, whose male members either were transported or were
in military service, were settled in the villages and towns, where
there were no Armenians and their catering were met from the
Immigrants' Allowance. The children up to 12 were given to Muslim
families at locations, where the orphanages were not sufficient and
their education and development have been provided. 30 kurush was paid
to the poor Muslim families to meet the expenses of the children from
the Immigrants' Allowance. Young and widowed women were permitted to
marry Muslim men with their own will. (12)

REFERENCE:

Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Facts Relating to the Armenian Displacement
(1915), TTK Publication, Ankara, 2001

FOOTNOTES

1) Coding Office, no 54-A/155; no 56/ 114; no 56/ 225; no 56/ 226; no
57/89; no 57/177; no 59/ 218

2) Coding Office, no 54-A/271; no 54-A / 272 (July 22nd 1331/ August
4th 1915)

3) Coding Office, no 56/27; no 67/186

4) Coding Office, no. 54-A/ 251; no 55/20

5) Coding Office, no. 56/112 (September 6th 1331/ September 19th
1915, to Konya province)

6) About this issue, orders have been sent via telegraph to Sivas
(Coding Office 56/176), Mamuretülaziz and Diyarbekir provinces
(Coding Office no 56/172) on September 14th 1331 / September 26th 1915;
to Konya (Coding Office, no 58/2) and Ankara (Coding Office, no 58/159)
provinces on 1 Tesrinisani 1331 / November 14th 1915.

7) A telegraph in this way has been sent to Adana province on August
1331 / September 2nd 1915 (Coding Office, no. 55-A/23).

8) Coding Office, no. 55/18

9) Coding Office, no 56/36 (September 3rd 1331 / September 16th
1915); no 56/243 (September 17th 1331 / September 30th 1915); no 56/360
(September 28th 1331 / October 11th 1915).

10) Coding Office, no 54/411; no 54/450; no 54-A / 325

11) Coding Office, no 61/18-20

12) This order has been sent to Adana, Erzurum, Edirne, Halep,
Hüdavendigar, Sivas, Diyarbekir, Mamuretülaziz, Konya, Kastamonu,
Trabzon provinces and Izmit, Canik, Eskisehir, Karahisar-i sahib,
Maras, Urfa, Kaysri, Nigde possessorships (Coding Office, no 63/147)
and to Ankara province on May 17th 1332 / May 30th 1916 (Coding Office
no 64/162).


+++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/meeting.html

MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS AND EXPENSES OF RELOCATED ARMENIANS

The Government has written notices to all provinces before beginning
the Armenian relocation and requested them to take precautions to
meeting all needs of the companies that would pass through their
regions and to stock food. (1)

Various orders have been given to Immigrant and Tribe Settling
Directorate for food - beverage provision. (2) Sükrü Bey, the
Immigrant and Tribe Settling Director was individually in charge for
the determination and provision of the needs. (3) It is understood from
the documents that a total of 2.250.000 kurus has been allocated to
meet the needs of the companies and of this amount, 400.000 kurus has
been allocated to Konya, 150.000 to Izmit province subdivision, 200.000
to Eskisehir province subdivision, 300.000 to Adana province, 300.000
to Halep province, 100.000 to Syria province, 300.000 to Ankara
province, (4) 500.000 to Mousul province. (5)

Furthermore, the provinces could aid the immigrants from their own
budgets and sometimes new money allocations were sent from the center
in accordance with the condition of needs. (6) Meanwhile, a certain
amount of money sent from America to be given to Armenian immigrants
has been distributed to the Armenians under the knowledge of the
government, by the American missioners and consuls. (7) Besides this,
it has been understood that some Armenians living in America have
secretly sent the money they collected among themselves to the
Armenians subjected to immigration. (8)

The Ottoman Government, while spending such great amounts of money for
relocation on one hand, either delayed or completely canceled the debts
owed either to the state or individuals of the Armenians subjected to
migration. Likewise in a coded telegraph sent by Talat Pasha to Maras
Governor on June 1, 1915, he requested not to take back the debts of
Armenians and in another order sent to all provinces on August 4th
1915, the tax debts of the displaced Armenians were postponed (9).

On the other hand, health officers have been assigned to the migrating
companies for providing therapy in case of illness. (10) Furthermore,
the legal proceedings about the criminal suspects, who were among the
ones subjected to migration, were delayed. (11)

REFERENCE:

Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Facts Relating to the Armenian Displacement
(1915), TTK Publication, Ankara, 2001.

1) Coding Office, no 55/291; no 55/341; no 57/345; no 57/351

2) Coding Office, no 55/152; no 55/291; no 55/341; no 55-A/17; no
55-A/135; no 57/110

3) Coding Office, no 55-A/16 (telegraph dated August 18th 1331 /
August 31st 1915)

4) Coding Office, no 55-A/17

5) The budget of the Directorate of Settlement of Tribes and
immigrants for the year 1331 was 78.000.000 kurus and 1332 budget was
200.000.000 kurus and this amount was spent for the Armenians, Greeks
and Arabs subjected to relocation and the Muslims coming from the
regions invaded by the enemy (BA, BEO, no. 334063).

6) Coding Office, no 53/305, no 55-A/118

7) Coding Office, no 60/281

8) Coding Office, no 60/178

9) Coding Office, no 54-A/268

10) Coding Office, no 54-A/226

11) With a notification sent from the Courthouse and Sects Ministry to
the Office of the Grand Vizier, it is notified that a decision for
judging the ones that are migrated at the locations they are sent to
and the ones that are not migrated at the locations they were at (BA,
BEO, no. 329176).



++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/properties.html

RELOCATION

PROPERTIES OF THE ARMENIANS SUBJECTED TO RELOCATION

With an order issued on June 10, 1915, the properties of the Armenians
subjected to displacement have been taken under protection. In
accordance with the order, it has been decided to sell the properties
by auction that may decay and the animals or the production houses that
must be operated, by the commissions that were established and by
auction and to send the money to their owners.

It is understood that the Ottoman Government showed great care in the
implementation of this order. In order to prevent any misuse, a great
care has been shown. Through the Commission on Abandoned Property, the
money coming through the auction in the names of their owners was paid
to the owners of such property. (1) When there was some gossip was made
during these sales, the government has sent a coded telegraph to the
governors, provinces and Commissions on Left Properties on August 3rd
1915 and forbidden the purchase of those properties by the state
officers because this could lead to some misuses. (2) But, thereafter,
this decision has been canceled in some province on the condition of
paying the real value with cash. (3)

The government has taken all precautions in order to prevent any kind
of unlawful actions. Likewise, in a coded telegraph sent to the
Chairmanship of Commission on Abandoned Property of Sivas on August
11th 1915, it has been requested to take the precautions that would
prevent profiteering and misuses. (4) Again on the same date, with an
order sent to all provinces, the precautions to be taken and the
applications to be performed about this issue were indicated in the
form of articles (5)

In accordance with this order: "no suspected person would be
permitted to enter the evacuated regions; in case some people have
purchased properties against cheap prices, the sales would be canceled
and the real value of the property would be determined so that illegal
interests would be prevented; the displaced Armenians would be
permitted to take any goods they want with themselves; among the goods
that can not be carry away like, the ones that would decay would be
sold, but the goods that would not decay would be protected in the name
of their owners; care would be paid not to lose touch with the owner of
the immovable assets that would be hired, transferred and pledged and
if there was any applications carried out in violation of these
provisions starting from the date of commencement of the migration,
they would be canceled; that no disputes would be allowed about such
goods; the Armenians subjected to migration would be permitted to sell
their properties to anybody except the foreigners" (6)

The provisions in these orders were applied with great care and the art
and commerce enterprises that remained from the Armenians were
transferred in high prices to settlement companies, which were
established, their real value. (7) The Commission on Abandoned Property
has sent the money from sold properties to their owners. (8)

REFERENCE:

Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Facts Relating to the Armenian Displacement
(1915), TTK Publication, Ankara, 2001.

FOOTNOTES

1) Coding Office, no 53/303

2) Coding Office, no 54-A/259

3) Coding Office, no 55/107

4) Coding Office, no 54-A/385

5) For the texts of the laws issued about the properties of the
displaced Armenians, see "Ahar mahallere nakledilen eshasin ve düyun
ve matlubat-i metrukesi hakkinda kanun-u muvakkat", Takvim-i Vekayi,
September 14th 1331 and 18 Zilkade 1333, no. 2303, 7 year; furthermore,
see Y.H.Bayur, Turkish Revolutions History, Ankara 1957, III/3, p.
45-46

6) Coding Office, no 54-A/388

7) Coding Office, no 61/31; no 60/275; no 60/277

8) Coding Office, no 57/348; no 57/349; no 57/350


++++++++++++++++





http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/return.html

RELOCATION

THE RETURN OF RELOCATED ARMENIANS


The migration was sometimes stopped during relocation both due to the
weather conditions and congestion. Starting from November 25, 1915,
with the orders sent to the provinces, the migration has been
provisionally interrupted due to winter. (1) On February 21st 1916, an
order was sent to all provinces to stop the Armenian relocation.
However, it has been indicated that this would not cover the harmful
people, the ones related with the committees would be immediately
collected and sent to Zor province subdivision. (2)

Upon the administrative and military necessity, a general order was
sent stating that as of March 15th 1916, the Armenian migration was
stopped and no relocation would be made for any reasons thereafter. (3)

After the completion of relocation, since the Armenians were mostly
settled mostly in Syria province, the Armenian Patriarchy in Istanbul
was closed on August 10th 1916 and moved to Jerusalem. Sis and Akdamar
Cathogicospacies were united and moved to Jerusalem. (4) The
chairmanship of the newly established patriarchy has been given to Sis
Cathogicospos Sahak Efendi. (5)

Following the end of the 1st World War, Ottoman Government has issued a
decree for the return of the Armenians subjected to relocation to their
former locations. In the letter sent by the Ministry of Internal
Affairs, Mustafa Pasha to the Prime Ministry on January 1919, it is
indicated that orders have been given to the related places for the
transportation of the Armenians, who wanted to return, to their former
locations and that the necessary precautions have been taken. (6) The
decree of return prepared by the government, dated December 31st 1918
is as follows:

1- Only the ones, who want to return, will be migrated, except those
people, no one else will be touched.

2- The precautions necessary will be taken for assuring a good
journey, and for preventing housing and catering shortage in the
returning locations; the migration and returning transactions will be
started after contact is established with the administrators of the
regions they will return to and after the necessary precautions are
taken.

3- The abandoned houses and lands will be returned to the owners.

4- The houses of the ones, where formerly immigrants have been placed,
will be evacuated.

5- A few families may be settled in the same location temporally in
order to provide sufficient housing.

6- Buildings such as churches, schools and the income generating
locations will be returned to the society they belong to.

7- If requested, the orphans will be returned to their guardians, who
will be carefully determined, or to their societies, after their
identifications are carefully determined.

8- The ones, who have converted their religions, will be able to
return to their former religion if they want to.

9- Among the Armenian women, who have married to Muslims and converted
their religions will be free to return to their former religion. In
this case their marriage act will be automatically canceled. The
problems relating to the ones, who do not want to return to their
former religion and not wish to divorce from their husbands will be
dissolved by the courts.

10- The Armenian properties, which are not in anyone's ownership,
will be returned to their first owners and the return of those which
have become the property of treasury will be decided with the approval
of the property officers. Further explanatory minutes will be prepared
about this issue.

11- The property sold to the Muslim immigrants will be delivered to
their first owners gradually as their owners return. Article 4 will be
definitely applied.

12- If the Muslim immigrants have made repairs and additions in the
houses and stores that will be returned to their former owners, or if
they have planted the lands and olive groves, the rights of both sides
will be observed.

13- The immigration and expenses of the Armenians in need will be met
from the Military College Allowance.

14- The amount of transportation made until the current time and the
amount of transportation made and the target location of such
transportation will be notified on the fifteenth and last days of each
month.

15- The Armenians, who have left the Ottoman borders and who want to
return, will not be accepted until a new order is issued.

The provisions of the decree explained herein above were valid for the
Greek immigrants as well as the Armenians.

REFERENCE:

Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Facts Relating to the Armenian Displacement
(1915), TTK Publication, Ankara, 2001.

FOOTNOTES

1) Coding Office, no 57/273; no 58/124; no 58/161; no 59/123; no
60/190

2) Coding Office, no 61/72

3) Coding Office, no 62/21

4) For the new regulation made in 1916 for the Armenian Patriarchy,
see Y. H. Batur, Turkish Revolution History, III/3, p. 57-59.

5) Coding Office, no 66/202; no 66/220; no 63/136

6) BA, BEO, no 341055. This letter of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs has also been transferred to the Ministry of Courthouse and
Sects due to its relation, on 26 Kanun-u evvel 1334 (January 8th 1919),
by the Prime Ministry.



++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/repercussion.html

RELOCATION

REPERCUSSIONS ABROAD REGARDING RELOCATION


Although the foreign observers, who were at the locations of
relocation, wrote that the Ottoman Government's performance was
perfect and done with care in spite of war conditions, the western
press preferred to mislead the events. Likewise, although Edward Natan,
the consul of America in Mersin, reported that relocation has been
carried out regularly, (1) the Ambassador of U.S.A. in Istanbul,
Morgantau, has related the events in a completely opposite way to his
country and the American press has used these events against Turks.
According to the claims issued in the newspapers, Morgantau bribed the
Ottoman Government and purchased some Armenians to send them to
America; furthermore he has saved some English, Russian and French
citizens in Istanbul. A Turkish citizen in U.S.A. reported all these
lies and false information used by the press on September 14th 1915
(2).

In the frame of the reports of English consuls in Iran, claims such as
killing of 1.000.000 Armenians was discussed in the English Parliament
and the parliament decided to protest the Turkish Government.
Furthermore, the "Blue Book" published about the Armenian events in
England included news claiming that over a third of 1.800.000 Armenians
claimed to exist in the Ottoman country were murdered. (3)

Against those ill - willed publications, some objective Western press
members have reported that the events were falsely communicated on
purpose. In an article issued in a Stockholm newspaper which uses the
headline "Massacre in the Ottoman Province, Where the Armenians
live", the absurdity of such claims and the reasons for creating such
false news were explained. (4)

The Ottoman Government has declared the English claims to be false on
January 4th 1917 with the signature of the Undersecretary of Ministry
of Foreign Affairs. (5) In the denial letter, it has been expressed
that the Armenian population living in the Ottoman country has never
reached 1.000.000, that this amount has decreased due to the migrations
that took place before the war and the claims were denied. In the same
document, it was pointed out that the Germans were held responsible for
the murders of Armenians in an article of a certain issue of the
"Times".

REFERENCE:

Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Facts Relating to the Armenian Displacement
(1915), TTK Publication, Ankara, 2001.

FOOTNOTES

1) See document 664.

2) See document 665

3) DH, EUM, 2nd Branch, File 1, document 23 (see document 668)

4) DH, EUM, 2nd Branch, File 1, document 76 (see document 669)

5) DH, EUM, 2nd Branch, File 1, document 23 (see document 668).


+++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/investigatons.html


RELOCATION

INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED BY FOREIGNERS ABOUT AND THEIR OUTCOME


Just after the First World War, following the invasion of Istanbul and
other regions by the entente states' armies, hundreds of political
and military leaders and Ottoman intellectuals were sent to and
imprisoned in Malta Island by the English, with the claim that they
were "war criminals". Comprehensive investigations have been
carried out on the Ottoman archives for finding evidences of crime
about the people imprisoned in Malta. As the result of these
investigations, no evidence could be submitted to the court neither
against the Istanbul government of that time nor about the people
imprisoned in Malta in order to prove the accusations on them. The
English Court has made desperate investigations in their own archives
and in the archives of USA government in Washington, but again no
results could be reached.

In the same way, in the message found in the USA archive reports, sent
by R.C. Craigie, the English Ambassador in Washington to Lord Curzon on
July 13th 1921, the following is expressed:

"I am sorry to notify you that there is nothing that can be used as
evidence against the Turks imprisoned in Malta. There is nothing that
will provide sufficient evidence. These reports do not seem to include
even the evidences that may be helpful in supporting the information
that is currently held by the Majesty's Government about the Turks in
any way." (1)

On July 29th 1921, the Legal Consultants of the King in London decided
that the accusations directed to the people in the list of the English
Foreign Affairs had a semi - political characteristic and therefore
the transactions to be carried out about them should be held separate
from those of the Turks, who have been arrested as war criminals.

Furthermore, the expressions "Until now, no deposition has been
obtained from any witness proving the accusations made about the
arrested are true. In fact, it is not definite if a witness will be
found or not; since in a country that is far and difficult to reach
like Armenia and especially after such long time, it is even
unnecessary to express how difficult it is to find a witness" (2)
belongs to the Legal Consultants of His Majesty's Government.

Consequently, the people, who were under arrest in Malta, were set free
in 1922 without any accusation directed to them and without any cases
held.

During that time, some documents accusing the Ottoman Government of a
so - called genocide and trying to evidence this issue was published
by the English press. These documents were claimed to have been found
in the Ottoman State Offices in Syria by the English Invasion Forces
under the direction of General Allenby. However, the interrogations
carried out thereafter by the English Foreign Affairs Ministry showed
that these were not documents obtained by the English army, but false
documents written by the Nationalist Armenian Delegation in Paris to
the allied delegations.

REFERENCES:

1.PRO. FO. July 13th 1921, 371/ 6504/ E.8519

2.Foreign Office, July 29th 1921 371/ 6504 / E.8745


++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/stance.html


RELOCATION

THE STANCE TAKEN BY SCHOLARS TO ALLEGATIONS OF GENOCIDE

The scientists, who perceive the history within the scientific
principles, have reached the original copies and documents relating to
the issue since 1925 until today, have listened to living witnesses and
have made individual observations at the locations of the events. These
are the scientists, who knew that the Ottoman archives were open to the
researchers since 1925 and who themselves reached the documents.
Therefore, only those who are as knowledgeable on this issue as they
can comment on or can object to their views. For this reason, the
report submitted by 69 American scientists to the members of the
Assembly of Representatives in relation with the issue has great
importance. (1)

"To the attention of the Members of USA Assembly of Representatives

The Turkish, Ottoman researches and the American Academicians
specialized in Middle East, whose signatures are put hereunder, have
agreed that the language used in decree number 192 by USA Assembly of
Representatives is misleading and / or wrong in many points.

"Although we fully support the concept of "National Day of
Commemorating Inhuman Behaviors", we find the following part, in this
text, unacceptable:

.... 1.5 million Armenian - originated people, who have been the
victims of the genocide made in Turkey between 1915 and 1923 ..."

Our disagreement focuses on the use of he words "Turkey" and
From the 14th century until 1922, the area, which is called Turkey,
more correctly as the "Republic of Turkey" today, was a part of the
Ottoman Empire, which was a multi - religion and multi - national
state. Just as it is wrong to accept the Habsburg Empire to be
equivalent to the Republic of Austria of today, it is also wrong to
accept the Ottoman Empire to be equivalent of to the Republic of
Turkey. The Ottoman Empire, which exited from the history stage in 1922
with the Turkish Revolution gave birth to the establishment of current
Republic of Turkey in 1923, was a state, which kept the lands of more
than 25 states, over Southeastern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle
East. The Republic of Turkey was only one of them can not be held
responsible for any events that happened in the Ottoman period. But the
ones, who have written the decree, wanted to give the responsibility of
the "genocide" between 1915 and 1923 to Turkey by using the name
"Turkey".

As for the genocide accusation, no one, who has signed this paper, have
the purpose of underrating the dimensions of the pains that the
Armenians have suffered. Likewise, we have the opinion that the pains
of the Muslim public in the mentioned region can not be assessed in any
other way. The evidences put forward until now point out that an
internal war between the communities (between the Muslim and Christian
groups) has become more complex with the hunger, epidemics and the
massacres and pains in and around Anatolia during the first World War.
In fact, during those years, a continuous war has been suffered in the
region that is not so different from the tragedy going on in Lebanon in
the last decade. The losses of both the Muslim and the Christian
nations are big numbers. However, there are many documents and findings
that the historians must reach in order to determine the reasons of the
events that resulted in the death of the Eastern Anatolian public,
which includes many Christians as well as Muslims.

History is created by the statesmen and the politicians and it is
written by the scientists. For the operation of this process, the
scientists must be given the chance to reach the written records of the
former statesmen and politicians. Until now, a big part of the archives
related with this issue in the Soviet Union, Syria, Bulgaria and Turkey
have been kept closed to the historians. Until these archives are
reached, the history of the Ottoman Empire between 1915 - 1923 in the
scope of the decree of the Assembly of Representatives numbered 192 can
not be completely known.

We believe that USA Congress should encourage the full opening of the
history archives relating to the issue and should not make any
accusations until the historical events are fully brought into light.
The accusations such as the ones in the decree number 192 of the
Assembly of Representatives would unavoidably result in unfair
decisions about Turkey and maybe damaging the improvement, which the
historians started to record in understanding these tragic events.

As shown by the comments herein above, the history of the Ottoman -
Armenians is an issue that is frequently debated among the historians
and many of the historians do not share the expressions in the decree
number 192. In case the congress adopts this decree, it will have tried
to decide which part of the historical problem is true through laws.
Such a decision basing on assumptions that are historically doubtful
gives harm to the honest historical research and damages the
reliability of the American legislation process.

May 19 1985

Prof. Dr. Rifaat Abou - El - Haj

History, California State University
Prof. Roderic Davison

History, George Washington University

Ass. Prof. Sarah Moment Atis

Turkish Language and Literature, Wisconsin University
Distinguished Prof. Walter Denny

Art History and Near East Researches, Massachussets University

Ass. Prof. Darl Barbir

History, Siena Institution (New York)
Dr. Alan Duben

Anthropologist, Researcher, New York

Ilhan BASGÖZ

Ural - Altay Studies Division, Turkish Researches Program Director,
Indiana University
Ass. Prof. Ellen Ervin

Turkish Researches, New

York University

Prof. Daniel G. Hates

Anthropology, New York City University
Prof. Caesar Farah

Islam and Middle East History, Minnesota University

Prof. Ülkü Bates

Art History, New York City University
Prf. Carter Findley

History, Ohio State University

Prof. Gustav Bayerle

Ural - Altay Studies, Indiana University
Prof. Michael Finefrock

History, Charleston Institution

Prof. Andreas G. E. Bodroglifetti

Turkish and Iran Languages, California University
Ass. Prof. William Hickman

Turkish, California Berkeley University

Ass. Prof. Kathleen Burril

Turkish Researches, Columbia University
Ass. Prof. Frederick Latimer

History, Utah University

Prof. Alan Fisher

History, Michigan University
Prof. John Hymes

History, Glenville State

Institution

Prof. Timothy Childs

Teacher, Johns Hopkins University
Dr. Health W. Lowry

Turkish Research Institution

Inc. Washington D.C.

Prof. Shafiga Daulet

Political Science, Connecticut University
Prof. Halil Inalcik

Ottoman History, American

Art & Science Academy

Member, Chicago University

Ass. Prof. Ralph Jaeckel

Turkish, California University
Ass. Prof. Ezel Kural Shaw

History, California University

Ass. Prof. Ronald Jennings

History & Asian Researches, Illinois University
Prof. John Masson Simth, JR

History, California Berkeley University

Ass. Prof. Cornell Fleischer

History, Washington University
Dr. Svat Soucek

Turkologist, New York

Prof. Peter Golden

History, Rutgers University
Dr. Philip Soddard

Middle East Institute Director, Washington D.C.

Prof. Tom Goodrich

History, Indiana University
Prof. Frank Tachau

Political Science, Chicago,

Illinois University

Dr. Andrew Could

Ottoman History, Arizona, Flagstaff
Robert Staab

Middle East Center Vice

Director, Utah University

Prof. William Griswold

History, Colorado State University
Prof. Rhoads Murphey

Middle East Languages,

Cultures and History,

Columbia University

Prof. Tibor Halasi - Kuv

Turkish Researches, Columbia Professor
Ass. Prof. June Starr

Anthropology, Suny

Stony Brook

Distinguished Prof. J.C. Hurewitz

Former Director of Middle East Institute, Columbia University
Prof. James Stewart Robinson

Turkish researches, Michigan University

Prof. Avgdorlevy

History, Brandens University
Prof. Thomas Naff

History, Middle East

Researches Institute Director, Pennsylvania University

Prof. Bernard Lew'is

Middle East History, Princeton University
Ass. Prof. John Woods

Middle East History, Chicago University

Ass. Prof. Justin Mc Carthy

History, Louisville University
Prof. Pierre Oberling

History, New York CityUniversity

Prof. Jon Mandaville

Middle East History, Portland State University
Ass. Prof. Madeline Zilfi

History, Maryland University

Prof. Michael Meeker

Anthropology, California University
Prof. Metin Tamkoc

International Law, Texas

Tech. University

Ass. Prof. James Kelly

Turkish, Utah University
Prof. Stanford Shaw

History, California University

Ass. Ass. Prof. Kerim Bey

Southeastern University
Dr. Elaine Simth

Turkish History, Retired

Foreign Affairs Officer

Prof. Metin Kunt

Ottoman History, New York
Ass. Prof. David Thomas

History, Rhode Island Institute

Ass. Prof. William Ochsenwald

History, Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Ass. Prof. Grace M. Simth

History, California Berkeley university

Ass. Prof. Robert Olson

History, Kentucky University
Ass. Prof. Margaret L.Venzke

History, Dickinson Institute (Pennsylvania)

Ass. Prof. William Peachy

Jewish and Near East Languages & Literatures, Ohio State University
E. Prof. Donald Webster

Turkish History

Ass. Prof. Donald Quataert

History, Houston University
Prof. Walter Weiker

Political Science,

Rutgers University

Prof. Howard Reed

History, Connecticut University
Prof. Warren S .Walker

English, Turkish Oral

Stories Archive Director,

Texas Tech. University

Prof. Dank Wart Rustow

Political Science, New York City University


Invitations have been made by Turkey at different times in order to
discuss the correctness of the documents put forward by the Armenians
and the Armenian pretensions supported by the Western European
Countries and Russia. These calls have been both directed at to the
Armenian scientists and to the people, who have undertaken the Armenian
propaganda. However, an important part of these people did not
participate the meeting without showing any reasons. The last example
of this condition has been set in the 11th Turkish History Congress
that gathered in 1990.

For the first time, an "Armenian Section" had been programmed in
the 11th Turkish history Congress and the foreign historians who have
been "Armenian struggle Supporters" have been invited to the
discussions in this section, but each of them using various excuses
avoided participating in these scientific discussions.

The list of the foreign scientists invited to the 11th Turkish History
Congress, held in Ankara between September 5th - 9th 1990, in
relation with the Armenian problem, is given hereunder:

Prof. Dr. Heath LOWRY (participated)

Garin ZEDLIAN (did not answer)

Prof. Dr. Bernard LEWIS (could not participate)

Prof. Dr. Justin McCARTHY (participated)

Prof. Dr. Stanford SHAW (participated)

Prof. Dr. Anthony BRYER (Did not answer)

Dr. Andrew MANGO (participated)

Prof. Dr. Salahi R. SONYEL (participated)

Prof. Dr. M. MARMURA (did not answer)

Prof. Dr. Allan CUNNINGHAM (did not answer)

Prof. Dr. Robert ANCIAUX (participated)

Prof. Dr. Aryeh SHMUELEVITZ (participated)

Prof. Dr. Jak YAKAR (participated)

Prof. Dr. Hans G. MAJER (could not participate)

Prof. Dr. Wolf Dietrich HUTTEROTH (did not answer)

Prof. Dr. Klaus KREISER (could not participate)

Prof. Dr. Jean - Paul ROUX (did not answer)

Prof. Dr. Paul DUMONT (participated)

Prof. Dr. Robert MANTRAN (could not participate)

Prof. Dr. Richard HOVANNISIAN (did not answer)

Dr. Gerard LIBARDIAN (did not answer)

Dr. Levon MARASHLIAN (participated)

Prof. Dr. Vahakn DADRIAN (did not answer)

Christopher WALKER (could not participate)

Anahid Ter MIMASSIAN (could not participate)

Tessa HOFFMAN (did not answer)

REFERENCE:

(1) Yildirim, Dr. Hüsamettin, Ermeni Iddialari ve Gercekler, Ankara,
2000


++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/un.html


RELOCATION

ARMENIAN ALLEGATIONS AND UN TREATY ON GENOCIDE

The concept "genocide" is defined with the "UN Agreement on the
Prevention and Punishment of Genocide Crime" dated 1948. In
accordance with article 2 of the agreement;

"Genocide covers one of the following actions; with the intention of
killing a national, ethnic, racial or religious group completely or
partially: killing the members of the group, giving heavy damages to
the physical or mental integrity of the members of the group, keeping
the group in living conditions that will result in the loss complete
partial physical existence of the group, taking precautions that will
prevent births among the group, transfering of the children in the
group to another group by force. In genocide, planned actions that have
become a state policy are involved."

When the issue is assessed in terms of the genocide agreement, it is
impossible not to mention some events in the history. For committing an
offence of inhumanity as genocide, that nation must have a tendency for
such a crime in its history. Tendency for crime is a characteristic for
the societies just as it is for human beings. When the Turkish history
is examined, one can not find any trace of no genocide or assimilation.

When we look at the geography, on which it has spread, we see that the
Ottomans held a part of Europe together with the Balkans up to the
borders of Vienna, all Northern Africa on Mediterranean coast, all of
the Middle East and the Arab Peninsula under its management for many
years. This period is at least 200 - 400 years. Which nation in this
geography can be said to be extinct? In the period, during which
religious rules were executed in Anatolia, beliefs such as the oldest
Christianity sect Syriacism and Yezidi belief worshipping flame and
peacock were able to survive lived and in 1800s, although violated of
the religious laws, churches have been opened in Anatolia. Even while
one of the two brothers was Sokullu Mehmet Pasha, the Ottoman Grand
Vizier, the other was assigned as Patriarch to the Makarje Serbian
Church and has resurrected the Serbian nation. In the same period, when
we look a other regions of the world, we see the genocides of the sects
struggle period in Europe, the communities, whose languages were
changed in the far east (Indians - Pestun), Africa, and Southern
America whose language and religion have been completely changed.

Nazis have killed millions of people during the 2nd World War. Between
1939 - 1945, 5-6 million Jews, more than 3 million Soviet war
prisoners, more than one million Polish and more than one million
Yugoslavians, approximately 200.000 gypsies and 70.000 disabled were
killed. This is the genocide.

In addition to these, although the United Nations has a preventive
agreement, there have been many genocide events in the modern era. For
example, in accordance with the confessions of 2 retired French
generals published in Le Monde, the French have killed minimum one
million Algerians between 1954 - 1962, the Indonesian army has killed
one million communists and their families between 1965 - 1966, the
Red Kmers in Cambodia killed 1.7 million Cambodians between 1975 -
1979, in 1994 500.000 Tutsies have been killed by the Hutus in Ruanda,
and finally thousands of Muslims have been subject to the Serbian
severity in Bosnia - Herzegovina after 1991.

The genocide crime has been committed in these events in its real
meaning. Contrary to the Armenian pretensions, the implementation
performed in Eastern Anatolia in 1915 is the migration from one place
to another region within Ottoman land and it has no relation with the
genocide. Turkish management is accustomed to living with the nations
of different cultures and races in the regions it dominated. There is
"justice" in the Turkish tradition, there is "keeping the
cultures alive"; but there is no "massacre" or "genocide".
This matter is clearly indicated in the book of Justin McCarthy named
"Death and Exile". In this book, the story of the Balkans and the
Caucasian people taking refuge in the Ottoman management to escape
death are related.

One should the ones accusing the Ottoman management with genocide:
Where did the Jews and the Muslims escape from Spain and Portugal in
1469 where did Tökeli Imre and his men escape from Hungary in 1680,
where did Rakoczi Ferench and his men go in 1711, where did Layos
Kosuth and a Hun group of 2000 people go in 1849, where did Prince
Chartorski go with his 135000 soldiers in 1841 and 1856, where did the
Russian commander Vrangel and even Trouchki escape in order to take
refuge from death?

The history gives the answer all these questions as the "Ottoman".
Don't the ones announcing the relocation implementation in 1915 as
the so called "Armenian genocide" know that Poland and Germany
origin Jews found shelter in Turkey since 1930s? While only 20 - 25
years had passed over the so - called Armenian genocide, why did the
ones looking for a country to adopt chose Turkey as their rescuer? The
answers to these questions are hidden in the just, humane, tolerant,
uniting character of the Turkish State tradition, which has always been
respectful towards traditions and beliefs.

Furthermore, the genocides and assimilations made in the Balkans 550
years after the Ottoman Empire Fatih, who gave the people living on the
land he ruled, the chance of preserving their values alive and
transferring them to the new generations, must be remembered. The
Balkan nations, whose languages, religions, churches, schools were
taken under guarantee with this order, have torn the Bosnians, Albania
- rooted Muslims, Macedonians and Bulgaria Turks out of their own
land in the verge of the 21st century. Today, the ones accusing Turkey
of genocide have ignored the massacres that continued for moths and
tapped their ears to the screams of the raped women of any age.
Recently, not only the Balkan nations found shelter in Turkey; but also
the Iraqis running away from Saddam Hüseyin, the Iraqi state
president, who tried to commit genocide using the "mustard gas" he
provided from the western chemical weapon producers, found shelter in
Turkey. The Turkish people has always shared their bread at any time in
history in spite of their limited opportunities and have opened their
arms to the oppressed nations. The Turkish people, the Ottoman and the
Republic of Turkey have a very clean register that can be an example
for other nations and states.


++++++++++++++++




http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/conclusion.html

RELOCATION

CONCLUSION

Many things have been said and written about relocation since the date
of its application. The Armenians have managed to deceive the world
public opinion for a long period by hiding behind the false documents.
The Armenian massacre stories, which began with 300.000s and came to
3.000.000s have no basis. Likewise during the invasion of Istanbul,
both the English and the French have sufficiently investigated the
Ottoman archive and since they have not been able to submit any
documents in relation with the Armenian genocide, they must not have
found any such document.

On the other hand, they should have photographs in their archives taken
by the journalists who came to Anatolia at that time to observe the
relocation implementation. If a genocide had been committed with the
order of the state, these photographs would have been presented to the
world public opinion a long time ago. Furthermore, if the party
claiming the reality of a genocide had concrete documents, would the
for establishing a "commission of jurists" be left without a
response? Why did not this official suggestion of the Ottoman State
left unanswered? Was the reason the fear that the roles of some western
countries would become apparent in the organization and agitation of
the Armenian bands or the fear that sources, from which the Armenians
obtained their guns to kill thousands of innocent civil people, be
disclosed?

When the word genocide is mentioned the Nazi mass murder that resulted
in the loss of millions of Jews and other ethnical groups, comes to
mind. When the word genocide is heard, the murder at least a million
Algerians by the French between 1954 - 1962 is remembered. When the
word genocide is heard, the murdering of 1 million communists and their
families by the Indonesian army between 1965 - 1966 is remembered.
When the word genocide is mentioned, the massacre of almost 2 millions
of Cambodians by the Red Kmers in Cambodia between 1975-1979 is
remembered. When the word genocide is mentioned, the murdering of
500.000 Tutsies by the Hutus in Ruanda in 1994 is comes to mind. And
finally when the word genocide is heard, the severe massacre of
thousands of Muslims in Bosnia - Herzegovina and Kosova after 1991 by
the Serbians is remembered. The genocide crime has been committed
during these events in its real meaning.

If the Ottoman State had any intention of subjecting the Armenians to
"genocide", wouldn't it commit it where the Armenians lived? What
was the need for such expense made during the relocation and so many
commercial and military precautions that needed to be taken?

The purpose of the relocation which the world's most successful
resettlement program has never been eliminating Armenians but was born
out of a compulsory need of providing state security.

REFERENCE:

Hallacoglu, Prof.Dr. Yusuf, Facts Relating to the Armenian Displacement
(1915); TTK Publication, Ankara 2001.
mark rivers
2005-08-23 04:43:31 UTC
Permalink
http://www.ermenisorunu.gen.tr/english/relocation/definition.html

RELOCATION

THE DEFINITION AND PURPOSE OF RELOCATION (TEHCIR)

The Arabic originated word "tehcir" means "emigration /
immigration", it definitely not means "deportation" or
"exile". Hence the law commonly known as the "Tehcir Law" is
the same as "Temporary Law On The Military Measures To Be Taken For
Those Who Resist The Governmental Acts And Supplementation's." The
word used to explain the implementation in line with this law is
"tenkil" in the Ottoman language and means "transport- not the
equivalent of "deportation", "exile" or "proscription" in
Latin originated languages.

The immigration, which was started with the orders of Talaat Pasha, and
approved by the Government and the Parliament as a measure against the
Armenian riots and massacres, which had arisen in a number of places in
the Country - pre - dominantly in Van province, was only implemented
only in the regions in which such riots and massacres affected the
security of the fronts directly. The first area was Erzurum, Van and
Bitlis Vicinities which formed the rear part of the Caucasian - Iran
Front; and the second was Mersin - Iskenderun Region which formed the
rear part of the Sina Front. In both of these regions, Armenians had
collaborated with the enemy and involved in activities to facilitate
the enemy's invasion.

Later, the scope of the immigration was widened in order to include the
Armenians in the other provinces, who rioted, collaborated with the
enemy and screened the activities of Armenian Gangs. Although the
Catholic and Protestant Armenians were excluded from immigration at the
beginning, later those whose harmful activities were observed, were
also relocated.

Since 1915, numerous papers, reports, books, etc. were written and
published about the immigration implementation. The Armenians, by using
false documents have succeeded to deceit the World for a long time. The
rumor about Armenian holocaust (!) which expressed at first as three
hundred thousand and later increased to three million has no basis at
all. In fact, although English and French authorities have extensively
studied the Ottoman archives during their occupation in Istanbul have
failed to find even a single document hinting about such holocaust.

Had the Ottoman State intended to make genocide on Armenians; could not
they realize such an act at the places where the Armenians live? Why
would it be necessary "to immigrate" them for such an intention?
Why did they undertake the significant fiscal and material costs of
their security, safety, health and food of the immigrating Armenians?
During this immigration and re-settlement process which lasted
approximately 1,5 year from May 1915 until October 1916, why would the
central and local administrations take measures to ensure the lives and
properties of Armenians in spite of the difficult war circumstances? In
addition, would it be necessary to accept great administrative,
military and financial burden -as if opening a new front- to protect
and secure these people?

The answers to these questions shall be sufficient to understand the
real intention of the Ottoman State. Also there is no logical
explanation that why the Ottoman State suddenly changed its policy
towards a community which had always been called as "millet-i
sadika" (loyal people) due to their being really faithful to the
Government. Hence the party whose attitude had changed was not the
Ottoman Government, but the Armenians who were deceived by the
independence promises of Russia and the Entente States.

In conclusion, it can be said that the Armenian Immigration which was a
necessary measure to ensure the State Security and Safety is among one
of the most
successful transportation and re-settlement processes; and has no
intention whatsoever to annihilate Armenians.

REFERENCE:
Halacoglu, Prof. Dr. Yusuf, Ermeni Tehcirine Dair Gerekceler (1915),
TTK Yayini, Ankara, 2001.
mark rivers
2005-08-23 04:52:06 UTC
Permalink
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/mfa/PrinterFriendly/PrinterFriendlyIMG.aspx

During a debate on Armenian allegations in the British House of
Lords on 14 April 1999 Foreign Office Minister Baroness Ramsay of
Cartvale, on behalf of the British Government, stated:

"... but in the absence of unequivocal evidence to show that the
Ottoman administration took a specific decision to eliminate the
Armenians under their control at the time, British governments have not
recognised the events of 1915 and 1916 as "genocide". ... the vast
majority of other governments--are in a similar position. Very few of
them have officially attributed the name "genocide" to these tragic
events. In our opinion that is rightly so, because we do not believe it
is the business of governments today to review events of over 80 years
ago with a view to pronouncing on them... these are matters of legal
and historical debate, ..."



++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++


http://www.mfa.gov.tr/mfa/PrinterFriendly/PrinterFriendlyIMG.aspx

Statement by Farhan Haq, U.N. Spokeman, on October 5, 2000, about the
Armenian allegations on the UN position regarding the events in 1915.


Replying a question concerning U.N. position about the Armenian
allegations, U.N. spokesman Farhan Haq on October 5, 2000, stated that
"the U.N. has not approved or endorsed a report labeling the
Armenian experience as genocide".


++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++


http://www.mfa.gov.tr/mfa/PrinterFriendly/PrinterFriendlyIMG.aspx

Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres' Statement on so-called Armenian
genocide


Peres: Armenian allegations are meaningless

On the eve of his visit to Turkey, Israeli Foreign Minister Peres says
Armenian allegations are 'meaningless' and there is no similarity
between the Holocaust and Armenian incidents

Ankara - Turkish Daily News, 10 April 2001

Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres who started his one-day official
visit to Turkey today, has stressed that the Armenian allegations of
genocide was meaningless. Supporting Turkey's thesis that history
should be dealt with by historians over the Armenian issue, Peres
said:"We reject attempts to create a similarity between the Holocaust
and the Armenian allegations. Nothing similar to the Holocaust
occurred. It is a tragedy what the Armenians went through but not a
genocide."

In an exclusive interview to the Anatolia news agency, Peres said
Israel should not determine a historical or philosophical position on
the Armenian issue but added: "If we have to determine a position, it
should be done with great care not to distort the historical
realities."

Speaking from Tel-Aviv on the eve of his visit to Turkey, Peres praised
Turkey's contributions to the peace process and characterized
Turco-Israeli relations as "extremely good." Indicating that Turkey and
Israel are in the same boat, Peres said he did not think Intifadah
would negatively affect bilateral relations between Turkey and Israel.


=++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++


http://www.mfa.gov.tr/mfa/PrinterFriendly/PrinterFriendlyIMG.aspx

Letter by Archbishop Mesrob Mutafyan, the Patriarch of Istanbul to Pope
John Paul II following the Joint Communique of Pope John Paul II and
Armenian Patriarch Karekin II on 10 November 2000


We read the text of the Joint Comminique in the press. As we did not
participate in this ecumenical meeting, we were not aware of the text
of the common declaration made by the heads of the two Churches.
Nevertheless, it had been our wish that the deliberations in Rome would
be within the spheres of ecumenical dialogue and would not touch upon
politically sensitive issues. The Joint Communique could have taken
this point into consideration.

The Gospel calls for the eradication of the roots of bitterness from
our hearts. As the faithful live side by side with other Christians and
with the adherents of other faiths, it is the duty of the Church to
establish an atmosphere of reciprocal love and respect, where all
humankind could engage in a dialogue of life.

The deep pain inherited from the past cannot be the only basis for the
edification of the present and the future of Armenians around the
world. If this were the case, then the centuries-old creative Armenian
heritage would be considered bankrupt.

Yet, just the opposite is true. The Armenian culture is so rich and
deeply rooted in the Christian faith that they do not need to receive
nourishment from the bitter pages of history. Rather that just
reminding our children of historic tragedies, as Christian ministers,
it is our primary duty to transmit our rich heritage to our children,
to make this heritage alive and develop it for future generations.

We continue to pray with these thoughts.


++++++++++++++++++++++=






After WWI ended, the British convened the Malta Tribunals to try
Ottoman officials for alleged crimes against Armenians. All of the
accused were acquitted.

The Peace Treaty of Sevres, which was imposed upon the defeated Ottoman
Empire, required the Ottoman government to hand over to the Allied
Powers people accused of "massacres." Subsequently, 144 high Ottoman
officials were arrested and deported for trial by the British to the
island of Malta. The principal informants to the British High
Commission in Istanbul leading to the arrests were local Armenians and
the Armenian Patriarchate. While the deportees were interned on Malta,
the British appointed an Armenian scholar, Mr. Haig Khazarian, to
conduct a thorough examination of documentary evidence in the Ottoman,
British, and U.S. Archives to substantiate the charges. Access to
Ottoman records was unfettered as the British and French occupied and
controlled Istanbul at the time. Khazarian's corps of investigators
revealed an utter lack of evidence demonstrating that Ottoman officials
either sanctioned or encouraged killings of Armenians.

At the conclusion of the investigation, the British Procurator General
determined that it was "improbable that the charges would be capable of
proof in a court of law," exonerated and released all 144 detainees --
after two years and four months of detention without trial. No
compensation was ever paid to the detainees.

Despite the verdicts of the Malta Tribunals, Armenian terrorists have
engaged in a vigilante war that continues today.

In 1921, a secret Armenian network based in Boston, named Nemesis, took
the law into its own hands and hunted down and assassinated former
Ottoman Ministers Talaat Pasha and Jemal Pasha as well as other Ottoman
officials. Following in Nemesis' footsteps, during the 1970's and
1980's, the Armenian terrorist groups, Armenian Secret Army for the
Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) and Justice Commandos for the Armenian
Genocide (JCAG), committed over 230 armed attacks, killing 71 innocent
people, including 31 Turkish diplomats, and seriously wounding over 520
people in a campaign of blood revenge.

Most recently, Mourad Topalian, former Chairman of the Armenian
National Committee of America, was tried and convicted in federal court
in Ohio of terrorist crimes associated with bombings in New York and
Los Angles and with the attempted assassination of the Turkish Honorary
Consul General in Philadelphia. The Armenian youths whom Topalian
directed and who conducted these attacks were recruited from the
Armenian Youth Federation and Armenian Revolution Federation in Boston.

The sole purpose of Armenian anti-Turkish hatred Inc. is to cover up
the dire circumstances that precipitated the enactment of a measure as
drastic as mass relocation. Armenians cooperated with Russian invaders
of Eastern Anatolia in wars in 1828, 1854, and 1877. Between 1893 and
1915 Ottoman Armenians in eastern Anatolia rebelled against their
government -- the Ottoman government of which Armenians held many, many
prominent and powerful positions-- and joined Armenian revolutionary
groups, such as the notorious Dashnaks and Hunchaks. They armed
themselves and spearheaded a massive Russian invasion of eastern
Anatolia. On November 5, 1914, the President of the Armenian National
Bureau in Tblisi declared to Czar Nicholas II, "From all countries
Armenians are hurrying to enter the ranks for the glorious Russian
Army, with their blood to serve the victory of Russian arms. ... Let
the Russian flag wave freely over the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus."
Armenian treason is also plainly documented in the November 1914 issue
of the Hunchak Armenian [Revolutionary] Gazette, published in Paris. In
a call to arms it exhorted:

"The entire Armenian Nation will join forces -- moral and material, and
waving the sword of Revolution, will enter this World conflict ... as
comrades in arms of the Triple Entente, and particularly Russia. They
will cooperate with the Allies, making full use of all political and
revolutionary means for the final victory...."

Boghos Nubar addressed a letter to the Times of London on January 30,
1919 confirming that the Armenians were indeed belligerents in World
War I. He stated with pride:

"In the Caucasus, without mentioning the 150,000 Armenians in the
Russian armies, about 50,000 Armenian volunteers under Andranik,
Nazarbekoff, and others not only fought for four years for the cause of
the Entente, but after the breakdown of Russia they were the only
forces in the Caucasus to resist the advance of the Turks...."

One of those who answered the Armenian call to arms was Gourgen
Yanikian who, as a teenager, joined the Russians to fight the Ottoman
government, and who as an elderly man, on January 27, 1973,
assassinated two Turkish diplomats in Santa Barbara, California.

No logic can reconcile the two positions that Armenian Anti-Turkish
Hatred Inc. promotes. Eminent historian Bernard Lewis, speaking to the
Israeli daily Ha'aretz on January 23, 1998, expanded on this notion:

"The Armenians want to benefit from both worlds. On the one hand, they
speak with pride of their struggle against Ottoman despotism, while on
the other hand, they compare their tragedy to the Jewish Holocaust. I
do not accept this. I do not say that the Armenians did not suffer
terribly. But I find enough cause for me to contain their attempts to
use the Armenian massacres to diminish the worth of the Jewish
Holocaust and to relate to it instead as an ethnic dispute."
(translation)

None of the Ottoman orders commanding the relocation of Armenians,
which have been reviewed by historians to date, orders killings. To the
contrary, they order Ottoman officials to protect relocated Armenians.

Where Ottoman control was weakest Armenian relocatees suffered most.
The stories of the time give many examples of columns of hundreds of
Armenians guarded by as few as two Ottoman gendarmes. When local
Muslims attacked the columns, Armenians were robbed and killed. It must
be remembered that these Muslims had themselves suffered greatly at the
hands of Armenians and Russians. In the words of U.S. Ambassador Mark
Bristol, "While the Dashnaks [Armenian revolutionaries] were in power
they did everything in the world to keep the pot boiling by attacking
Kurds, Turks and Tartars; [and] by committing outrages against the
Moslems ...."

Armenian Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc. purports that the wartime propaganda
of the enemies of the Ottoman Empire constitutes objective evidence.
Ambassador Henry Morgenthau, who is frequently quoted by Armenian
Americans, visited the Ottoman Empire with political, not humanitarian
aims. His correspondence with President Wilson reveals his intent was
to uncover or manufacture news that would goad the U.S. into joining
the war. Given that motive, Morgenthau sought to malign the Ottoman
Empire, an enemy of the Triple Entente. Morgenthau's research and
reporting relied in large part on politically motivated Armenians; his
primary aid, translator and confidant was Arshag Schmavonian, his
secretary was Hagop Andonian. Morgenthau openly professed that the
Turks were an inferior race and possessed "inferior blood." Thus, his
accounts can hardly be considered objective.

One ought to compare the wartime writings of Morgenthau and the
oft-cited Gen. J.G. Harbord to the post-war writings of Rear Admiral
Mark L. Bristol, U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Turkey 1920 - 1926.
In a March 28, 1921 letter he writes:

"[R]eports are being freely circulated in the United States that the
Turks massacred thousands of Armenians in the Caucasus. Such reports
are repeated so many times it makes my blood boil. The Near East Relief
have the reports from Yarrow and our own American people which show
absolutely that such Armenian reports are absolutely false. The
circulation of such false reports in the United States, without
refutation, is an outrage and is certainly doing the Armenians more
harm than good. ... Why not tell the truth about the Armenians in every
way?"

Demographic studies prove that prior to World War I, fewer than 1.5
million Armenians lived in the entire Ottoman Empire. Thus, allegations
that more than 1.5 million Armenians from eastern Anatolia died is
false.

Figures reporting the total pre-World War I Armenian population vary
widely, with Armenian sources claiming far more than others. British,
French and Ottoman sources give figures of 1.05-1.50 million. Only
certain Armenian sources claim a pre-war population larger than 1.5
million. Comparing these to post-war figures yields a rough estimate of
losses. Historian and demographer, Dr. Justin McCarthy of the
University of Louisville, calculates the actual losses as slightly less
than 600,000. This figure agrees with those provided by British
historian Arnold Toynbee, by most early editions of the Encyclopedia
Britannica, and approximates the number given by Monseigneur Touchet, a
French missionary, who informed the Oeuvre d'Orient in February 1916
that the number of dead is thought to be 500,000. Boghos Nubar, head of
the Armenian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference in 1920, noted
the large numbers who survived the war. He declared that after the war
280,000 Armenians remained in the Anatolian portion of the occupied
Ottoman Empire while 700,000 Armenians had emigrated to other
countries.

Clearly then, a great portion of the Ottoman Armenians were not killed
as claimed by the Armenian Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc. and the 1.5 million
figure is gross and delibarate exaggeration. Each needless death is a
tragedy. Equally tragic are lies meant to inflame hatred by the
Armenian Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc.

Armenian losses were few in comparison to the over 2.5 million Muslim
dead from the same period. Reliable statistics demonstrate that
slightly less than 600,000 Anatolian Armenians died during the war
period of 1912-22. Armenians indeed suffered a terrible mortality. But
one must likewise consider the number of dead Muslims, Jews, Kurds and
other non-Armenains of Ottoman Eastern Anatolia who were murdered by
Armenian terrorists.

The statistics tell us that more than 2.5 million Anatolian Muslims
alone (Turks, Arabs, Kurds and others) perished in the hands of
Armenian terrorists. Thus, the years 1912-1922 constitute a horrible
period for humanity, not just for Armenians.

The numbers do not tell us the exact manner of death of the citizens of
Anatolia, regardless of ethnicity, who were caught up in both an
international war and an intercommunal struggle. Documents of the time
list intercommunal violence, forced migration of all ethnic groups,
disease, and, starvation as causes of death. Others died as a result of
the same war-induced causes that ravaged all peoples during the period.


The Ottoman Armenians openly agitated for a separate state in lands in
which they were numerically far inferior. The Hunchak and Dashnak
terrorist organizations, which survive to this day, were formed
expressly to agitate against the Ottoman government of which Armenians
were a powerful and influential part with many ministers, ambassadors,
generals, businessmen and other high and low level officials of
Armenian heritage. The Ottoman Armenians committed massacres against
Ottoman Muslims, Jews and other non-Armenians. During World War I,
Ottoman Armenians openly and with pride committed mass treason, took up
arms, traveled to Russia for training, and sported Russian uniforms.
Others, non-uniformed irregulars, operated against the Ottoman
government from behind the lines.

Over 4 million Ottoman Muslims, 600,000 Ottoman Armenians and 100,000
Ottoman Jews perished during World War I. The Armenians began their
terrorist actions in 1885 to establish an Armenian state. Armenians
were the ones who did uprise in an empire in which they were citizens
of. If we must remember the victims of the WWI, this remembrance should
not only focus on the Armenians, but also the Turks, Kurds, Arabs and
JewsL all the victims of Armenian uprisings.`

Armenian terrorist gangs massacred innocent non-Armenian Ottoman
subjects in dozens of towns throughout Anatolia. Just in the Van
vicinity, over 40,000 Turks, Kurds, Arabs and Jews lost their lives.
Armenians living in the eastern side of the Ottoman Empire collaborated
with the Russian and French forces and massacred many innocent
non-Armenian Ottoman subjects just to ethically cleanse Eastern
Anatolia for an Armenian homeland which never was throughout the
history. Only after such acts of Armenians did the Ottoman government
decide to deport a certain part of the Armenian population, the ones
who did the massacres and the ones who supported and harbored them, to
other Ottoman provinces in the south away from the Russian and French
fronts. Armenians living elsewhere in the empire were not affected by
deportations what so ever.

Armenians worldwide today disregard the massacres committed by their
ancestors against totally innocent and defenceless fellow Ottoman
subjects by collaborating with the Russian and French forces and want
to make the world believe to their lies that a genocide took place by
the Ottoman goverment for which the democratic Republic of Turkey
should be responsible.


After Europeans very generously supported and sponsored Greek,
Armenian, Arab and other terrorists, with a veracious appetite for
innocent Turkish blood, to massacre innocent and defenceless Turkish
subjects of Ottoman empire and to ethnically cleanse Ottoman
territories off of their Turkish inhabitants during WWI, and after they
harbored, supported, sponsored PKK/KADEK terrorist organization which
murdered nearly fourty thousands innocent human beings to destroy
Turkey to establish a marxist, lennisist, communist PKK/KADEK
dictortship in Turkey, and other terrorist and extremist Islamist
terrorist organizations and persons with the same purpose, and Armenian
terrorists who, during 1970s and '80s, murdered hundreds of Turkish
diplomats, their family members, colleagues, embassy personnel (Turkish
and local), and having missed no chance whatsoever to fabricate
anti-Turkish hate propaganda based on total lies in every possible
instance and relentlessly complain about Turkey, it is very clear that
the purpose of Europe is to destroy the democratic Republic of Turkey
and totally wipe out the Turkish race/nation off of the face of Earth.
jeff anterson
2005-08-23 04:58:48 UTC
Permalink
Brain-washed, lifeless, professional Turk-haters and thugs of
Greek/Armenian/PKK Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc. can only hate and kill
Turks unconditionally and turn around bitch about the Turks they raped,
tortured and masscred, and brag about how superior their uncivilization
is.

These are some of the most/worst brain-washed, lifeless, professional
Turk-haters and thugs of Greek/Armenian/PKK Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc.,
who relentlessly post fabricated anti-Turkish lies and hate propaganda
in all Usenet groups:


"Leo Stryker" <***@yahoo.com>
Panta Rhei <***@os.com>
"Agamemnon" <***@hello.to.NO_SPAM>
"Alistair_Sim" <***@gmail.com>
p0p <***@qmail.com>
Jase <***@canada.cum>
"Taki173st." <***@yahoo.com>
Stamatis <***@gmail.com>
"karapanomanolokopoulos" <***@volcanomail.com>
"ChristianZX" <***@yahoo.co.uk>
"Walter Constantin Gogu Costica Brincoveanu Mitty" <***@loaning.co.uk>

Ali Mustafa Kamranci <***@yahoo.com>
"gogu" <***@MUIEyahoo.com>
gogu (***@NOSPAMyahoo.com)
"Anti-Virus" <***@usa.com>
"Sheldon" <***@yahoo.com>
Anastassios Retzios <***@yahoo.com>
***@hotmail.com
***@webtv.net
"Moo Moo MhuttsAss" <***@loaning.co.uk>
"Jimmy" <***@yahoo.com>
"Christian Terkkicker" <***@yahoo.com>
"deHavilland" <***@yahoo.com>
Arkadios <***@yahoo.com> -
"deHavilland" <***@yahoo.com>
Former US presidential candidate Howard Dean




And the ones who are in many different disguises and doing exactly the
same:

***@yahoo.com (Radovan)
***@hotmail.com (Ali Asker)
Shexmus (***@hotmail.com)
Agassi Hovhanessian ***@worldnet.att.net
Dorian West (***@yahoo.com.au)
hytga (***@h.h)
MACREAU (***@aol.com)
Roman <***@here.de>
mark rivers
2005-08-23 05:02:44 UTC
Permalink
Brain-washed, lifeless, professional Turk-haters and thugs of
Greek/Armenian/PKK Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc. can only hate and kill
Turks unconditionally and turn around bitch about the Turks they raped,
tortured and masscred, and brag about how superior their uncivilization
is.

These are some of the most/worst brain-washed, lifeless, professional
Turk-haters and thugs of Greek/Armenian/PKK Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc.,
who relentlessly post fabricated anti-Turkish lies and hate propaganda
in all Usenet groups:


"Leo Stryker" <***@yahoo.com>
Panta Rhei <***@os.com>
"Agamemnon" <***@hello.to.NO_SPAM>
"Alistair_Sim" <***@gmail.com>
p0p <***@qmail.com>
Jase <***@canada.cum>
"Taki173st." <***@yahoo.com>
Stamatis <***@gmail.com>
"karapanomanolokopoulos" <***@volcanomail.com>
"ChristianZX" <***@yahoo.co.uk>
"Walter Constantin Gogu Costica Brincoveanu Mitty" <***@loaning.co.uk>

Ali Mustafa Kamranci <***@yahoo.com>
"gogu" <***@MUIEyahoo.com>
gogu (***@NOSPAMyahoo.com)
"Anti-Virus" <***@usa.com>
"Sheldon" <***@yahoo.com>
Anastassios Retzios <***@yahoo.com>
***@hotmail.com
***@webtv.net
"Moo Moo MhuttsAss" <***@loaning.co.uk>
"Jimmy" <***@yahoo.com>
"Christian Terkkicker" <***@yahoo.com>
"deHavilland" <***@yahoo.com>
Arkadios <***@yahoo.com> -
"deHavilland" <***@yahoo.com>



And the ones who are in many different disguises and doing exactly the
same:

***@yahoo.com (Radovan)
***@hotmail.com (Ali Asker)
Shexmus (***@hotmail.com)
Agassi Hovhanessian ***@worldnet.att.net
Dorian West (***@yahoo.com.au)
hytga (***@h.h)
MACREAU (***@aol.com)
Roman <***@here.de>
Leo Stryker
2005-08-23 12:56:46 UTC
Permalink
Seanile Seanie say go fuck yourself!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Post by jeff anterson
Brain-washed, lifeless, professional Turk-haters and thugs of
Greek/Armenian/PKK Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc. can only hate and kill
Turks unconditionally and turn around bitch about the Turks they raped,
tortured and masscred, and brag about how superior their uncivilization
is.
These are some of the most/worst brain-washed, lifeless, professional
Turk-haters and thugs of Greek/Armenian/PKK Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc.,
who relentlessly post fabricated anti-Turkish lies and hate propaganda
And the ones who are in many different disguises and doing exactly the
Majnoon
2006-02-07 12:41:48 UTC
Permalink
Post by Anti-Virus
Truth First, Then Reconciliation Says Visiting Howard Dean
What Armenian genocide? "The "Armenian Genocide". Is prejudice
filling in the gaps in the evidence?":
http://www.universityracism.multiservers.com/Text/Turkey_EU.htm

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