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An Armenian and Muslim Tragedy? Yes !Genocide? No By Bruce Fein
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GENOCIDES BY TURKEY'S ARMENIAN GENOCIDE CRITICS

By Bruce Fein

The Government of Turkey has been assailed by several members of the
European Union, the European Parliament, and various arms of government
in the United states for failing to concede that the 1915-23 treatment
of Armenian subjects by the Ottoman Empire constituted genocide under
terms of the Genocide Convention. One strategy for discouraging such
gratuitous insults to history and justice is to demonstrate that
Turkey's accusers have been guilty of the same misconduct but have
staunchly resisted self-condemnations as perpetrators of genocide, in
other words, they are applying a double and hypocritical legal standard
for the crime of genocide.

This essay elaborates on that strategy, and demonstrates the moral
selectivity of the EU and the United States in political and moral
posturing over the claimed Armenian genocide.

The Genocide Convention of 1948 defines the crime as any of the
following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a
national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

1. Killing group members; 2. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to
group members; 3. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of
life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in
part; 4. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
and, 5. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

The Convention also extends the crime of genocide to reach conspiracy,
direct and public incitement, and attempt to commit genocide, or
complicity in the same.

With regard to the claimed Armenian genocide, strong disproving
evidence can be summoned. The relocations and killings of Armenians
were not based on ethnicity, but on reasonable suspicions that they
were aiding and aborting the war enemies of the Ottoman Empire during
World War I. Indeed, at the Versailles Peace Conference, Armenians
boasted of their treason to the Ottoman government and military heroics
for the World War I victors,
especially Russia and France. Moreover, tens of thousands of Armenians
were left undisturbed during the war in Istanbul, Izmir and elsewhere
in non-military sensitive zones, which shows that the Armenian
relocation orders pivoted on reasonable war necessities, not ethnicity,
a fundamental element of genocide. Additionally, Ottoman officials
prosecuted and punished more than 1,000 wayward soldiers for killings
or abuses of Armenians.

Furthermore, a substantial number of Armenian massacres during the war
were retaliation for their massacres of Ottoman Muslims, not because of
ethnicity or religion. Moreover, there was no historical animosity of
the Ottoman's toward Armenians, who had climbed to peaks of official
power and economic prosperity within the Empire before the World War I.
More could be said against the claimed Armenian genocide, but the above
sketch of contrary evidence enables a comparison with the proof of
genocide charges that could be asserted against EU members and the
United States. The following summarizes some of the genocide
indictments that might reasonably be brought against Turkey's
detractors:

1. Germany
Germany committed genocide against the Herero tribe in then Southwest
Africa during its colonial occupation in the 1890s. The best evidence
shows the Germans slaughtered members of the tribe because they
believed they were genetically and mentally inferior. The tribe was not
guilty of treason and not provoked the German savagery by its own
massacres of Germans. The butchery of the Hereros was not during
wartime when excesses are inevitable. Those who survived the initial
German genocide revolted against their brutal treatment with the
Hoitentots in 1904, but were viciously destroyed with vastly superior
arms or otherwise.

2. France
Substantial evidence implicates France in Algerian genocide during
1954-62 war of independence in which more than 200,000 Muslims were
slaughtered. Senior French officers who fought in Algeria have recently
confessed that torture and summary executions were routine grisly
instruments of French warfare. President Chirac and Prime Minister
Jospin, however, have fiercely opposed a parliamentary inquiry into the
genocide as exploring a subject best left to historians.

3. Belgium
Belgium is seemingly guilty of genocide during its gruesome
colonization of Belgian Congo under King Leopold II. The genocide
spurred the legendary book by Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness. The
King deliberately inflicted on numerous Congolese tribes conditions of
calculated to bring about their physical destruction in whole or in
part. Belgium's ugly Congo genocide has been recently chronicled in the
book, King Leopold's Ghost.

4. Portugal
Portugal's apparent genocides uncurtained in Angola, Portuguese Guinea,
and Mozambique during colonial years. The Portuguese sold back tribal
members as slaves, and inflicted brutal conditions of slave and caused
death to Angolan, Guinean, and Mozambican tribes.

5. Spain
Spain seems implicated in the genocides of hundreds of Caribbean and
Central and South American peoples, like the Mexican Aztecs, and the
genocide of Basques in mainland Spain. Spanish killings and
enslavements of indigenous tribes and peoples are notorious, and
stretched over centuries. Ditto for Spanish Basques living on the
border with France. Slavery was not ended in Cuba until Spain's defeat
in 1898 Spanish-American war. Spain may also have been guilty of
genocide in Spanish Morocco during its colonization.

6. Great Britain
The British apparently committed genocide of the Irish during the Great
Potato Famine, 1845-48. the Irish lost ½ their population from
emigration provoked by starvation conditions, and the British
aggravated the starvation by callous policies permitting the exports of
foodstuffs from Ireland during the famine calamity. The state of New
York in the United States teaches the Potato Famine as an example of
genocide.

7. Austria
Austria is guilty of the Jewish Holocaust. The sole reason it escaped
that hideous stigma is because of Cold War politics after World War II
when it was occupied by the West and the Soviet Union until 1955.

8. Greece
Greece is guilty of genocide of Ottoman Muslims in Crete and of Turkish
Cypriots in Cyprus twice, 1963-64 and 1974. The evidence of genocide is
voluminous, including testimony from former U.S. Undersecretary of
State George Ball and foreign reporters on the scene.

9. Italy
Italy is guilty of genocide in Ethiopia and Somalia during its
colonization and war aggressions, and a co-inspirator in the Jewish
Holocaust as an ally of Hitler's Third Reich.

10. Netherlands
The Dutch seem indictable for genocide of Indonesian tribes during its
long colonial rule that ended only after World War II. The Dutch
slaughtered and subjugated indigenous populations for economic gain and
a belief in their racial and religious superiority.

11. United States
The United states is seemingly guilty of genocides of several Native
American Indian tribes and blacks during slavery. The Sand Creek
massacre of helpless Indian woman and children and General Phil
Sheridan's fighting fighting creed that only good Indian is a dead
Indian exemplifies the former genocides. The lethal conditions of black
slavery captured in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
illustrates the latter genocide.

12. Australia and New Zealand
Neither country is a EU member, but both associated with its lofty
ideology of moral superiority, and were former colonies of Great
Britain. Both under the colonialism of the latter and during their
early years of independence, these twin nations committed genocides
against Australian aboriginals and New Zealand Maoris, respectively.

-- An Armenian and Muslim Tragedy? Yes !Genocide? No By Bruce Fein -
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2005-01-16 03:35:08 UTC
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HISTORICAL EVIDENCE PROVES THERE WAS NO ARMENIAN GENOCIDE


By SAMUEL A. WEEMS

Today, Armenians claim they were victims of an Ottoman genocide
committed in 1915. The Armenians blame Turkey even though Turkey didn't
become a republic until 8 years after the "fake" Armenian claims. The
real historical truth is that there was no Armenian genocide and the
following historical facts are absolute proof that the self-claimed
Armenian genocide is nothing more than the figment of their rich and
vivid imaginations to try to get something for nothing. The Armenians
have created a "genocide industry" for one very simple and basic
reason--to deceive, fleece and scam the Christian world out of billions
of dollars. Examine the actual historical truth:

The word "genocide" was invented and first used to describe the Nazi
German attempted extermination of the entire Jewish race during the
World War II years starting in the mid 1930s and lasting until 1945.
Rafael Lemkin of Poland coined the phrase and invented the world
"genocide" in 1944 to describe the Nazis annihilation of specific
groups of people by both direct and indirect murder during World War
II. The Nazis efforts to destroy the entire Jewish race first began in
Germany and thereafter in every country they invaded and conquered.
This Nazi planned and carried out terror became known as the Holocaust
Genocide. The Nazi horror campaigns against Jews became the basis for
creation of an international crime in 1951. The 1915 Armenian fake
"massacre" claim of 1915 had nothing to do with the adoption of the
1951 international law as Armenians also falsely claim today.

There is no historical doubt but that the German Nazis carried out a
genocide of Jews and they carried out a ten year series of on-going
campaigns to murder every Jew they could get their hands on. Adolph
Hitler was the evil genius who concocted the theory that the Aryan race
was the master race of people and that all non-Aryan races were
inferior.

The Armenians claim their ancestors suffered from the first "genocide"
of the 20th century even though what they claim took place 29 years
before the word "genocide" was even invented. In addition, there is no
way to compare the Nazi World War II acts of ten long unending years
throughout Europe to one event during World War I in the Ottoman Empire
in 1915. What the Armenians complain of today is the fact that the
Ottoman government removed disloyal Armenians who were committing many
acts of treason from behind the Ottoman army in just one place within
their legal country. Let us look at the historical evidence that caused
the word "genocide" to be invented and compare the Armenian 1915
experience to what the Nazis did
between 1935-1945 to determine if the Armenian's treason can be called
a genocide as compared to the Jewish experiences of World War II.

April 15, 1924: Hitler began writing his book Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
while he was in prison for committing treason against Germany. Hitler
writes that the Jews must be eliminated from society.

July 18, 1925: The first phase of Mein Kampf is published. Hitler
begins his personal public hate campaign against the entire Jewish
race. This is Hitler's beginning to destroy the Jews. This 8 year
campaign continued throughout Germany until Hitler came to power in
1933. No Ottoman leader wrote such a book condemning the Armenians and
there was no long or short campaign to exterminate the entire Armenian
race by any Ottoman leader. There is no comparison on this point
between the Nazis and Ottomans.

January 30, 1933: Hitler comes to power as the unelected Chancellor of
Germany.

February 22, 1933 some 40,00 members of Hitler's private army are
appointed auxiliary policemen.

March 21, 1933: Hitler and his Nazis create special courts to persecute
political enemies. No such court was ever established within the
Ottoman Empire.

April 1, 1933 marks the date Hitler and his Nazis began their
"official" persecution of the Jews. This is the date there was a
national boycott in Germany of Jewish business and professional people.
The Ottomans never did such a thing to the Armenians.

April 26, 1933: Hitler organized the infamous Gestapo, this "above the
law" police force would lead in the Jewish extermination campaigns. The
Ottomans never had such a special police force to terrorize the
Armenians.

May 2, 1933: Hitler dissolved all labor unions. The Ottomans never did
such a thing. However, in Armenia today, labor unions like in Nazi
Germany are not permitted. Between 50% and 60% of all Armenian
businessmen do not pay any taxes. This is why the Armenian number one
import is foreign aid from the Christian nations of the world. In
Armenia today the privileged few, just as in Nazi Germany, get richer
while the working people of this tiny state remain in poverty and are
forced to live a life of squalor.

May 10, 1933; The Nazis burnt all books written by Jewish authors in
Berlin and throughout Germany. The Ottomans never burned books written
by Armenian authors.

September 15, 1935: The Nazi controlled German parliament passed what
became known as the "Nuremberg Laws." The Nazis disenfranchised all
Jews. The Ottomans never did such a thing to Armenians.

March 12, 1938: Germany invaded Austria. This was the beginning of Nazi
conquest of European countries and total extermination of Jews. The
Ottomans did not invade other nations during World War I that the
Armenians complain about.

October 28, 1938: the first Jews were deported just because they were
Jews. The Ottomans never deported anyone because of race. What the
Ottomans did was deport Armenians from only one part of their empire
for being disloyal citizens who were actively helping the invading
Russians. The Jews never helped anyone invade Germany. There is no way
anyone can compare the Jews to Armenians!

However, in 1938 when the first Jews were deported, Armenians were
voluntarily joining the Nazis to help them create the real genocide of
the 20th century. The evidence is absolute that more than 100,000
Armenians joined Hitler. The evidence is also absolute that Armenian
politicians took part in Hitler's racial purity campaigns.

November 9, 1938: This is the date that became known as the "Crystal
Night" because Nazi mobs throughout Germany attacked Jewish synagogues
and stores. The Muslim Ottoman government never attacked "Christian"
Armenian churches and stores. There is no way to compare this German
action to the Ottomans. Today, in modern day Turkey, there are more
Armenian churches operating that in Armenia.

November 12, 1938; German Jews were fined 1 billion marks solely
because of their race. The Ottomans never did such a thing.

November 15, 1938: All Jewish students were expelled from all German
schools for the sole reason of their race. The Ottomans never did such
a thing.

December 3, 1938: Hitler issued a decree for compulsory Aryan ownership
of all Jewish enterprises and shops throughout Germany and the occupied
countries. The Ottomans never did such a thing--ever!

July 4, 1939; Hitler decreed that German Jews were prohibited from
holding government jobs. The Ottomans never did such a thing.

July 21, 1939: Adolph Eichmann was appointed head of the Prague office
of Jewish Emigration. The Ottomans never set up such a system in their
lands or anywhere else as the Nazis did.

September 1, 1939: Hitler issued a decree that Jews in Germany were
forbidden to be outdoors after 8 P.M. in winter and 9 P.M in summer.
The Ottomans never did such a thing to the Armenians.

September 23, 1939; German Jews were forbidden to own wireless radios.
The Ottomans never did such things to the Armenians

October 6, 1939; Hitler issues a proclamation for the isolation of Jews
from the German population. The Ottomans never did such a thing.

October 12, 1939: Jews were removed from Vienna, Austria for the sole
reason they were Jews. The reason the Ottomans removed Armenians from
eastern Anatolia was because they were disloyal and were helping the
invading Russians. The Nazi acts do not compare to the Ottoman actions.
For anyone to compare Nazi Germany to the Ottoman Empire is to compare
an apple to a fence post.

February 12, 1940: The Nazis deported the first Jews from Germany just
because they were Jews. The Ottomans never did such a thing to the
Armenians.

August 15, 1940; Adoplh Eichmann presented what became known as the
Madagascar Plan for the removal of the entire Jewish race. The Ottomans
never did such a thing.

November 15, 1940: The Nazis sealed off the Jewish "ghetto" in Warsaw,
Poland.

March 7, 1941: Jews were compelled to provide forced (slave) labor for
the Nazis. The Ottomans never did such a thing to the Armenians.

July 31, 1941: The Nazis issued the order to remove all Jews from
German occupied territory in Europe. The Ottomans did not attack nor
occupy any other nations' land during World War I and there is no way
to compare the Nazi action to that taken by the Ottomans against
disloyal Armenians. The Nazis were on the offense capturing other
people's lands while the Ottomans were defending their empire from the
invading Russians who were being helped by Ottoman citizen Armenians.

September 1, 1941: This is the date Nazis decreed that all Jews must
wear a yellow star. The Ottomans never required the Armenians to wear
the Christian cross as contrasted to the yellow star of David the
Germans forced the Jews to wear.

September 17, 1941 marks the date the Nazis began the general
deportation of all German Jews. The Ottomans never attempted to deport
all Armenians. There is no way to compare the German acts to the
Ottomans'.

September 23, 1941: The Nazis began tests for gassing Jews at
Auschwitz. The Ottomans never did such a thing.

January 20, 1942: This is the date of the Wannsee Conference where the
decision for the "Final Solution" to mass murder the entire Jewish
population was made. The Ottomans never had such a conference and there
never was an Ottoman "Final Solution" for all Armenians.

March 29, 1942; The Nazis sent the fist train filled with Jews from
Paris, France to Auschwitz.

April 20, 1942: The Nazis issued a decree to ban all Jews from using
public transportation. The Ottomans never did such a thing.

September 18, 1942: The Nazis reduced food rations of Jews in Germany.
The Ottomans never did such a thing to Armenians throughout their
empire.

October 4, 1942: All Jews in German concentration camps were ordered to
be sent to Auschwitz. The Ottomans did not have concentration camps nor
did they use gas chambers to murder Armenians as the Nazis did to the
Jews.

December 15, 1942: The Armenian National Council was given official
Nazi recognition by Alfred Rosenberg, the German minister of Nazi
occupied areas. The Armenians had made a consecrated effort to prove to
Hitler that they were Aryans like he was and they were so accepted. The
proof is the Armenians were never persecuted in any Nazi occupied lands
because they were Armenians.

The Armenians made radio broadcasts from Berlin supporting Hitler's
Aryan and racially pure beliefs. Several Armenian newspapers also
supported Hitler's ethnic/racial pure beliefs during World War II. The
Ottomans never did such things. The actual proof is that during World
War II the Turks opposed Hitler while the Armenians within Turkey
supported first Hitler and then switched sides to the Russians when
they saw Germany losing the war.

February 27, 1943: Jews who were forced to work in the German armaments
industry were sent to Auschwitz. The Ottomans never did such a thing.

March 13, 1943: The Nazis opened their first new crematorium at
Auschwitz. The Ottomans never did such a thing.

April 14, 1943: The Nazis began transporting Jews from Athens, Greece
to Auschwitz. The Ottomans never did such a thing.

April 30, 1945: Approximately 33,000 inmates were freed from Nazi
concentration camps by American troops. The United States was never at
war with the Ottoman government in 1915 or ever. There were no
concentration camps used by the Ottomans.

November 20, 1945: The Nuremberg International Tribunal began to try
Nazi leaders for war crimes. There was no such international tribunal
who tried the Ottomans for war crimes after World War I. The truth is
the British and French did arrest a number of Ottoman citizens after
World War I ended. After holding these men in prison for some two years
each and every Ottoman citizen was released as the British could find
no evidence that they had committed any war crimes.

After World War I the Paris Peace Conference was held. The Armenians
presented their massacre claims to this conference who heard them out
and considered the evidence presented by the Armenians. The Peace
Conference rejected the Armenians massacre claims and gave them nothing
for damages. The Armenians refused to accept the Peace Conference "NO"
answer and again asked to be heard and to present more evidence. The
Paris Peace Conference agreed to allow the Armenians to present their
massacre claims a second time and again--for a second time the Paris
Peace Conference rejected the Armenians claim against the Ottoman
Empire and gave them nothing.

The Armenians have had their day in court not once, but twice, and they
offered their self-called proof twice and each time they received
nothing. Today the Armenians want land and reparations from Turkey,
which didn't even come into existence until 1923--8 years after the
self anointed Armenian genocide bogus claim. The Armenian government
demands today that the Turkish government admit to this fake genocide
claim. The question cries out to be answered: Why should the Turks
admit to any such thing? When will the Armenians work for peace in
their region of the world rather than starting war after war and making
false demands upon its neighbors?

The rest of the story is simply this:

(1) The Armenians have had their false claims of a massacre against the
Ottoman Empire heard in a friendly court not once but twice. The
Armenians have twice had their day in the proper courts. Each time the
friendly court rejected the Armenians own evidence. In plain language
the Armenians presented their claims. The losing World War I Ottoman
government did not appear to contest the Armenian claims. The truth is
the Armenians, not once, but twice lost their uncontested day in court.

(2) Today, the Armenians dare to compare their self-anointed bogus
"genocide" claim to what the Nazis did to the Jews during the World War
II era. The above listed examples are but a few of the many that are in
the history books to contrast and prove (as proof certain) there is no
real world way to compare the Nazis to the Ottomans as the Armenians
try to do.

(3) The rest of the story, based on actual historical evidence, proves
than more than 100,000 Armenians voluntarily joined the Nazis beginning
in 1935 to help create an ethnic/racial pure state. Today in Armenia,
the Armenian government honors one of its Nazi Armenian generals of
World War II fame. There is a youth leadership Institute bearing his
name. The question must be asked just what are the Armenians teaching
their children in the name of this Nazi who helped exterminate so may
Jews?

(4) Armenians produced a weekly radio program in Berlin titled
"Armenia. This Armenian radio program supported Hitler's Aryan
ethnic/racial pure state. Armenian newspapers also supported Hitler and
his Nazis.

(5) Armenian leadership conspired with Hitler's top lieutenants and the
end result was that Armenians were labeled by the Nazis as "racially
pure." After Hitler and his Nazis lost the war Armenians switched sides
and forged a document to falsely claim Hitler said at one time "Who
remembers the Armenians?" The truth is that Hitler and his Nazis
remembered the Armenians and they were so recognized by him as fellow
Aryans and together they committed a genocide of the Jews.

(6) The Paris Peace Conference, at the time, immediately after World
War I heard all the evidence and made decisions about what was right
and wrong. Since the Paris Peace Conference at the time rejected
Armenian claims--what right does any nation or group now have to reopen
this historical period of time to give Armenians damages from a country
that wasn't even in existence until 8 years after the false claim was
first made? To grant the Armenian "wish" of condemning modern day
Turkey of committing a genocide is just not justice in today's world.


-- An Armenian and Muslim Tragedy? Yes !Genocide? No By Bruce Fein -

--Genocides By Turkey's Armenian Genocide Critics By Bruce Fein
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2005-01-16 03:41:58 UTC
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http://www.atmg.org/AllegedGenocide.html



The alleged Armenian Genocide of 1915 and Nazi-Armenian Collaboration

The Armenians have been feverishly trying to attach a charge of
genocide on the Turks for the past 85 years or so. In the relentless
pursuit of it, they have declared April 24 as the date of commemoration
of this "alleged genocide". The British were the closest party to these
events from 1915 to 1922 because they were the principal occupying
power of the Ottoman Empire and its capital, Istanbul, and the Ottoman
archives etc. As such, the British led an international war crimes
tribunal on the island of Malta against 144 high Ottoman officials who
were charged with war crimes against the Armenians. Subsequently 56 out
of the 144 alleged criminals were deported to the Island of Malta to
stand a trial. After a wide scale frantic search of all the archival
material in the British and the US possession they concluded:

Sir H. Rumbold, His Majesty's High Commissioner at Istanbul as the head
of the occupying powers wrote in forwarding to London the "evidence"
against the deportees: "very few were available, that Armenian
Patriarchate at Istanbul had been the principal channel through which
information had been obtained, and that none of allied, associated and
neutral Governments had been asked to supply evidence". He admitted
"under these circumstances the Prosecution will find itself under grave
disadvantage", but he added, "he hoped that the American Government
could supply a large amount of documentary information". (Foreign
Office document 371/6500/E. 3557).

In failing to find any legally supportable evidence against the
deportees in the hands of the occupying powers, Lord Curzon, the
British foreign secretary at the time, informed Sir A. Geddes, the
British Ambassador at Washington, that there was a "considerable
difficulty" in establishing proof of guilty against the Turkish
detainees at Malta and requested him "to ascertain if United States
Government are in possession of any evidence that could be of value for
purpose of prosecution". (Foreign Office document 371/6502/E. 5845). On
July 13 1921, the British Embassy in Washington returned the following
reply:

"I regret to inform Your Lordship that there was nothing therein which
could be used as evidence against the Turks who are being detained for
trial at Malta? Having regard to this stipulation and the fact that the
reports in the possession of the Department of State do not appear in
any case to contain evidence against these Turks which would be useful
even for the purpose of corroborating information already in possession
of His Majesty's Government, I fear that nothing is to be hoped from
addressing any further inquiries to the United States Government in
this matter". (Foreign Office document 371/6504/E.8519. R.C. Craige,
British Embassy in Washington to Lord Curzon, No. 722, of July 13,
1921.)

Subsequently all the Ottoman detainees were dismissed of charges and
exchanged for the British prisoners in Turkiye (Turkey). And there were
no war crimes charges, let alone a charge of a "genocide" of the
Armenians.

Last year, again, the Armenians appealed to the British Government to
recognise the alleged Armenian genocide to which the British Government
replied. On April 14, 1999 the PA News from London reported: "A bid to
get the British Government to recognise as genocide the deportation and
massacre and slaughter of thousands of Armenians by the Ottoman
government of Turkiye in 1915, was rejected by ministers in the Lords
tonight".

Foreign Office spokesman, Baroness Ramsay of Cartvale, said "the
British Government had condemned the (alleged) massacres at the time.
But in the absence of unequivocal evidence that the Ottoman
administration took a specific decision to eliminate the Armenians
under their control at that time, British governments have not
recognised those events as indications of genocide".

"Nor do we believe it is the business of governments of today to review
events of over 80 years ago, with a view to pronouncing on them. The
events of 1915-16 remain a painful issue in relation to two states with
which we enjoy excellent relations".

The main reason the Armenians are making so much noise with their
genocide allegations is to divert the attention from their atrocities
and massacres of Turkish people during that period and their atrocities
committed against the Jews with their collaboration with the Nazis
later on. It is proven by the Western historians that the Armenians
were the guilty party, who committed mass murders of civilians in
Eastern Anatolia, with the hope of carving a state of their own during
the Allied Powers occupation of Turkiye. Knowing their numbers would
never justify their territorial ambitions; Armenians looked to Russia
and Europe for the fulfilment of their aims. Armenian treachery in this
regard culminated at the beginning of the First World War with the
decision of the revolutionary organisations to refuse to serve their
state, the Ottoman Empire, and to assist instead the invading Russian
armies. Their hope was their participation in the Russian success would
be rewarded with an independent Armenian state carved out of Ottoman
territories. With the Russian invasion of eastern Anatolia in 1914 at
the beginning of World War I, the degree of Armenian collaboration with
the Ottoman's enemy increased drastically. Ottoman supply lines were
cut by guerilla attacks; Armenian revolutionaries armed Armenian
civilian populations, who in turn massacred the Muslim population in
anticipation of expected arrival of the invading Russian armies.
Ottoman response was to order the relocation of its Armenian subjects
from the path of the invading Russians and other areas where they might
undermine the Ottoman war effort. The Ottomans could no longer
determine which of the Armenians would remain loyal and which would
follow the appeal of their leaders. Had the Ottoman government wanted
to eliminate all the Armenians in the Empire, it could have done so far
more easily by killing and disposing of them where they lived, rather
than undertaking a large-scale deportation of those in the Eastern war
zones under the eyes of foreign observers. Historian Prof. John
McCarthy admits that what passed on between the Armenians and the Turks
was not a genocide - it was a war! If the case against genocide of
Armenians need any further proof, one would have to look to Istanbul,
the capital of the Empire and the area most under the government
control.

Armenian propagandists and terror groups try to revive to justify the
same tactics of terror today, which brought such horrors to the Ottoman
Empire during the last century. The Armenians are still continuing
their atrocities with their terrorist organisations. During a 16-year
period from 1973 to 1986, various Armenian terrorist organisations
claimed responsibility for about 200 attacks on Turkish diplomatic and
non-diplomatic institutions and murdered 55 Turkish and 16 non-Turkish
people and wounded hundreds of others. Armenians also targeted their
own people who refused to make financial contribution to Armenian
terrorism.

Unfortunately most of the Western governments are being held hostages
by the Armenian terrorist organisations. The Western governments
usually give in to Armenian demands in order not to attract their
terrorist organisations vicious attacks.

A heap of dubious documents, revisionist history, greatly inflated
population figures and exercise of terror to cow the Turks over a span
of 85 years obviously do not spell genocide.

We urge the public to disregard the unsubstantiated Armenian
allegations and consider the other side of the coin as well.
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-16 04:08:53 UTC
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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/abdurrezzak.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

ABDURREZZAK AYAZ

Father's Name: Ömer Çavus
Mother's Name: Emine
Place of Birth: Van-Gevas

(Recounting the experiences of his father who died at 75 years old.)

Q: Can you tell us about the Armenian revolt and massacre which took
place before your father died?

A: My father was an artillery man who defended Van when the Russians
were advancing. In fact, they were able to keep the Russians back for
some time with cannon fire. Yet later, the Russian military again went
on the attack. As a result, the inhabitants of Van fled, and those from
Gevas later also became refugees. When the Russians entered, they
burned and destroyed the place as they had done to Van, including crops
and trees. Those on the road were starting to die because of hunger and
disease. Neither the army nor the refugees had anything to eat. My
father had told me about their situation with great sorrow. He said he
was very strong, so he returned to Gevas with his weapon and a sack
with the hopes of finding food to carry back. He found a dark cloud
over the city, with everything burned. He couldn't find anything to
eat. When he went to the creek, he saw a Russian horse which had died.
Their horses were very large. It was infested with worms because it had
laid there for a while, but undamaged parts remained. He cut off those
parts, put it in the sack, and brought it to his group. They ate off of
that for a while.

Q: Did he ever mention the massacre when he returned to Gevas?

A: Of course he did. He saw many corpses. All those who stayed behind
were killed. They even burned the animals and trees.

Q: Did the Russian military come that far?

A: They came as far as Bitlis. Their army and cannons passed through
these hills. The Russians attacked the population from one side, and
the Armenian brigands from the other. He said they went as far as
Siirt, and returned when the Russian army retreated. Everything was
damaged or destroyed. They harvested what the Armenians had sowed.
Slowly but surely they reestablished themselves, but came across many
human bones when digging up covered pits. He would always cry when
telling stories of suffering, but cut it off by saying "I hope God
keeps us from those experiences again."


+++++++++++++++++++++






http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/abbasgunes.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

ABBAS GÜNES

Place of Birth: Kars-Hakmehmet
Date of Birth: 1897

The Armenians came to our village of Hakmehmet. They called out to the
leaders of the village, promising peace. They gathered us in a mosque,
inviting all men, women, and children. After searching us, they took
the jewelry from the women. At night they led us like a pack of animals
out of the village. They again searched us, saying that they would kill
anyone who hid money. Some villagers turned in their money, others did
not. They ordered us to split into two groups and advance toward the
villages ahead. We started walking when an Armenian approached on
horseback, and recommended that we hurry, because the other Armenians
would kill us. We continued on the road. Women unable to carry their
small children left them at the foot of trees or rocks, or in ditches.
The children were crying. We reached the Iranian villages on foot. We
later heard that the remaining villagers were murdered. Some of them
were shot, others killed with swords, and then all thrown into a well.




++++++++++++++






http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/aysesevimli.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

AYSE SEVIMLI

Father's Name: Dervis
Mother's Name: Hayriye
Place of Birth: Van-Zeve
Date of Birth: 1897

When the villagers heard that the Armenians were approaching, they took
as many precautions as possible. They dug positions in the hills. The
inhabitants of seven villages filled up our village. There was little
room in the village to maneuver around the people and carts. On the day
that we heard the Armenians had almost reached the village, the men ran
to take their positions and begin fighting. We had no ammunition or
weapons assistance. When the Armenians entered our village, some of our
men died fighting; others were burned in their homes. I hid with my
mother and some others in a barn further away from the fighting. I got
under a large basket. The Armenians killed everyone they could find and
also fired at the barn. A bullet hit my mother's scarf, but she was not
hurt. I know of only two other women who survived.

The Armenians were in Bardakçž before coming to our village. My God,
when we went out at night, blood, gunfire, moaning, and wailing filled
the air. I witnessed them torture people by cutting "pockets" out of
skin while mockingly telling them they were decorating them with
medals. When we approached the Bardakçž village, I saw that on the
other side of the brook, in the field near Mehmet's house they had tied
the arms of five men together and were shooting at them. When they fell
to the ground, they stabbed them with bayonets. My mother handed them
all of her money and valuables so that we would not be hurt. They then
brought us to Van, and tortured the prisoners in unmentionable ways. We
stayed in the military barracks for four months. We later became
refugees, and remained as such until April 1918.


++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/birikasit.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

BIRIK ASIT

Place of Birth: Bitlis
Date of Birth: 1890

In anticipation of the Russian advance toward Bitlis, a battalion of
200 Armenians in Siirt led by a Turkish commander came to Bitlis. They
were going to defend Bitlis against the Russians. The front of Ulu
Mosque was an open bazaar at the time, and the Armenians rested there.
The commander was the only Turk in the army. The commander staying at
the old Hazro Inn next to the Alemdar bridge. A Turk was guarding the
front of the commander's home. In the morning the guard excitedly
knocked on the commander's door, saying not one soldier remained in the
city. When the battalion commander arrived at the bazaar, he saw that
not one of the Armenian soldiers were there. He later learned that they
went toward Bashan to join the Armenian Russian forces. They later
joined the Russian forces and participated in the massacres in the
city.

I witnessed three events during the Bitlis occupation which I will
never forget. First, the Russian soldiers housed more than 200 women,
children, and elderly in Hamza and sükrü Çelebi's home, and placed
an Armenian soldier to guard the door. At night this soldier notified
his friends, and they at night went to the home, and took the women
they liked. After taking advantage of them, they killed them at the
side of a brook.

A Russian commander made a surprise inspection visit. An older woman
told him that while they numbered 200 when they arrived, 80 were taken
away at night by Armenians, and only 120 remained. The Russian
commander then replaced the Armenian guard at the door with a Russian
one.

Second, there was a pregnant woman who lived in a home in the Dilan
neighborhood with her three children. When the Armenians entered their
home, they made a bet as to whether she was carrying a boy or girl, and
slit her stomach with a bayonet.

Thirdly, before the Russians came to Bitlis, ten Armenian families came
to my home, and said that they wanted to go to the mosque and convert
to Islam. We took them to the mosque, and they converted. We started to
see them more often, and help them. After the Russians came to Bitlis,
they asked us to take them to the Russian soldiers in exchange for
money. When I asked them why they wanted to go there, they answered
that they were Armenian, and were never Muslims.


+++++++++++++++++




http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/bekiryoruk.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

BEKIR YÖRÜK

Father's Name: Yusuf
Mother's Name: Gülnaz
Place of Birth: Van
Date of Birth: 1900

Q: Can you tell us as best as you can remember what the Armenians did
in Van and Gevas?

A: We lived in the same neighborhoods as the Armenians. We too lived in
the Norsin neighborhood and got along well until the Russians
intervened. In those days, Armenian youths established committees with
Russian encouragement, and started causing trouble. They killed the
superintendent of police and threw him in the park. They killed the
postman in Hasbagž. They bombed a building now replaced by a
bathhouse, and twenty people died in the explosion. When the
constitutional monarchy was declared, the mufti and the priest shook
hands and extolled the brotherhood of Muslims and Christians. The Mufti
cried as he shook hands, but events developed against us. The committee
members became increasingly out of control and the rebellion began. We
fought the Armenians for 29 days in Hasbagž. We had no weapons. When
the division went to Erzurum, we remained completely defenseless.

The Armenians who joined the army after the establishment of the
constitutional monarchy used our weapons to shoot at us, and those who
remained in the army hit our soldiers from behind. They also bombed the
barracks. The young people and the elderly left in the Muslim
neighborhoods would take turns guarding against the Armenians.
Meanwhile, the Russians were sending them gold to finance their effort.


This struggle lasted 29 days until the arrival of the Russians. The
elderly Armenians didn't want this fight because they were the
wealthiest inhabitants of the area, and feared sacrificing their
standard of living. Armenians owned up to 1,000 stores and sold
European cloth in the old part of the city of Van. When these events
broke out, inhabitants of nearby villages and towns all fled to Van,
and those stores disappeared within two days.

Fifty vessels full of people left Van, three of which carried wounded
soldiers. Cevdet Pasha saw the passengers off at the pier. We went to
Adžr Island, where the Armenians were training underground. We stayed
on the island for nine days. The waves destroyed some of the ships with
wooden sails. The island had wells and two bakeries. No one brought any
supplies from Van. We were hungry and distraught. My elder brother was
an officer and came back wounded from Erzurum. My brother realized that
the Armenians would cut us off. He convinced his captain, and ten ships
left from there, but we couldn't go very far. Thank God we stayed close
to shore. The next day we reached Tatvan, but under difficult
circumstances. The day we left Van the Armenians had set everything
ablaze. There were wounded soldiers from all parts of Turkey in Van,
and the Armenians fired on apartments used as hospitals where they were
staying. That is why Van is sacred ground with martyrs from 67
provinces [in Turkey].

My uncle, Terren Aga, was very old, and we couldn't take him with us
when we left Van. His wife, daughter, and two grandchildren remained
with him. Armenian hoodlums beat my uncle and the children with an ax
and killed them. His daughter hid in an abandoned American school. When
the Armenians found her, they killed her by throwing her from the
second floor.

We went to Bitlis from Tatvan where we remained for nearly two months.
When the Russians arrived, we again went on the road. We then went to
Hizan and Diyarbakžr. After we left, the Gendarme commander -- who was
crying like a baby -- brought my uncle (who was Deputy Governor Ömer
Bey) a report. A soldier named Mansur was also present. When we asked
him to explain, he said that three days after Van was emptied they went
to pick up the bodies. Hundreds of elderly women were impaled on
stakes. They still had their scarves on and looked as if they were
sitting. When they got closer they saw that they were killed before
being impaled. They saw a woman who was split in two and her unborn
child was placed on her chest.

Muslims who witnessed these thousands of examples of inconceivable
brutality tearfully reported the incidents to Ömer Bey, who then told
Mustafa Kemal. When the Russians finally arrived, they were displeased
with the savageness which resulted in the destruction of four-fifths of
Van. In addition to those massacred by the Armenians, many people also
died as they were fleeing. Many collapsed on the road from hunger and
disease. No one was able to take anything with them when they left Van.


When we returned to Van from exile three years later we found the
Muslim neighborhoods leveled to the ground, but the areas owned by
Armenians were left undamaged. When we returned there were about 2,000
Armenians living in Van who fled to the islands when the Turks started
returning. Two years later, the government sent them to Revan.

Q: Did you ever participate in the fighting or use a weapon?

A: No, I have never used a weapon. I didn't have a gun, plus they
didn't give me one because I was too young and didn't know how to use
it. Instead, I would bring food and water to the combatants.

Q: What kind of equipment were the Armenians using?

A: They had the latest equipment which was provided by Russia and
England. They gave them weapons and had them fight us. The Armenians
couldn't do anything to us, but when they were armed, the balance was
upset.

Q: Did many people die in these and other clashes?

A: Of course, thousands of people died. After fighting for 29 days, the
then-Governor Cevdet Pasha commanded us to leave Van when he heard that
the Russian forces were approaching. Cevdet Pasha was actually a very
courageous man, but we had neither guns nor ammunition, while the
Russians were armed with top of the line weapons.

Q: Didn't the Ottoman state take any precautions against the Armenians
arming themselves to this extent? Didn't word get around?

A: People knew, and the government knew. Yet the military was on the
fighting front, and only a few gendarmes were left in Van. They
couldn't do anything about it. The Armenians first shot Police
Lieutenant Nuri Efendi, and blew up the Hamitaga barracks. Many
soldiers were killed. Then they placed bombs in the Norsin Mosque and
Hacž Naci Hodja Mosque. They blew up Hafžz Hodja along with his son.
Our women were raped, and our children shot.

Q: How was the evacuation carried out?

A: We left from here on 50 ships. That day the weather was stormy and
rainy, as if all hell broke loose. The ships ran into each other. They
were unable to approach the pier for a long time. The weather hadn't
warmed up yet -- I think it was April. We left before the Russians
arrived. There were about 250 people in our group, and 60 died. Some
died at the hands of the Armenian bandits, others from cholera,
disease, and hunger.

My uncle, his family and children, were all cut into pieces with a
hatchet under the mulberry tree in our neighborhood. They [Armenians]
massacred all those that stayed behind when we left. We lived in the
Norsin neighborhood at the time. They burned all of Van.

All of this was planned by the Armenian committees which treacherously
manipulated the Armenian population.

Q: Do you remember the names of those committees?

A: Dashnak was the most prominent one. There were others as well, but I
don't remember their names now. They received money and gold from
Russia and England.

Q: Did the Armenians kill many women and children?

A: The elderly didn't bother much, but all of their young people were
armed. They killed whoever they could corner. They killed them and
threw them into the lake or into the fire. For example, a woman was
baking bread in a nearby village, and had her young child was at her
side. The Armenians went into her backyard and asked her what she was
doing. When she answered that she was baking bread, they insisted she
needed a kebab as well, and pierced her child and threw him into the
fire and burned him alive.

What else can I tell you? God knows the extent of what went on. During
our escape, we took off on the ships, and stayed around the islands for
four days. We couldn't sleep at night because of the wails, crying, and
screams we heard all night. These were the cries we heard from
surrounding villages: Zeve, Bardakçž, Kalaç, and Molla Kasžm. I
hope God ensures that we don't have to relive those days when these
massacres took place.

Q: Where did you go after the islands?

A: From the islands we went to the Dervis village. It took us all day
to get there. Ten ships were tied together at the edge of the lake. We
were very frightened. In the morning we left toward Tatvan, and finally
reached our destination. We were able to rest there, and later left
toward Bitlis.

Q: Do you remember how many people were with you in your convoy?

A: There were between 10 and 20 thousand people in our convoy.

Q: Did many people from your convoy die in the exodus?

A: Of course.

Q: Could you tell us how they died?

A: The women couldn't take care of the children. Some would leave them
in remote areas. Hunger and disease were rampant. For example, Ömer
Efendi wrapped his child in rags and left him alive under a tree as we
approached the Bitlis creek. There were many other children like this
thrown into the Bitlis creek, or buried when they died. But Ömer
Efendi regretted what he did, and a few days later went to retrieve the
child and brought him back alive.

Q: How long were you a refugee?

A: Three years.

Q: What did you find when you returned to Van? How was Van, was there
much damage?

A: I saw Van; it was completely destroyed and burned. When we were in
Bitlis, the Deputy Governor Ömer Bey was there. He would regularly
receive reports on the situation in Van. We would follow the situation
of the Russians from there. One day a soldier, Mansur, came to Bitlis.
He was from Halep and used to live near the Norsin Mosque. He was in
tears as he told us the story of how they entered Van, and saw that the
women were lined up in a row with their head scarves still on. As they
approached, they saw that they were impaled and killed. They painfully
removed them and buried them. The soldiers left all their work and
buried them. They then went to another location where the women had
been raped and then killed. There was blood everywhere.

A similar incident occurred in the Amik village which is close to here.
The inhabitants took refuge in the castle and pulled up the ladder when
the Armenians arrived. The Armenians approached and convinced them to
let down the ladder because they were now friendly and there was no
reason to be afraid. As soon as they ascended the stairs, they
separated the children and men and threw them down the hill. Some of
the women threw themselves from the castle, while the others were taken
to an unknown location.

Q: Did you hear about similar incidents at the time?

A: Of course I did, but what else can I tell you? Dignity, chastity,
and integrity all went out the window. We suffered so much, some people
even resorted to cannibalism. But we were so compassionate that when we
found Armenians hiding on the island, we didn't do anything to them.

Q: Were they the Armenians who stayed when you fled?

A: No, they were Armenians remaining on the island. During the exodus
they brought many Turks to this island and killed them. The ship
captains were Armenians. Many of our people were maliciously killed in
this way on the ships. As I told you earlier, we couldn't sleep because
of the wails in those days. When we left, Van was burning, and it was
still burning when the soldier Mansur came.

Q: Will you tell us about your situation in Bitlis?

A: When we arrived in Bitlis as refugees, they were angry with us
because we abandoned Van. Initially the people in Bitlis were not very
kind to us, asking us why we ran away and did not fight the enemy. We
answered that we had no other choice because we did not have guns or
ammunition. Not long after, the population of Bitlis had to flee as
well, and they understood our position. The heat was debilitating.
There was no food or water. Cholera and disease were spreading. Many
people died. One day we saw that vehicles from Elazžg were arriving.
The army corps came with Armenian drivers to bring salt to Harput.

Q: Were the drivers Armenian?

A: Yes, Armenian soldiers who were carrying salt. There was a captain
leading them, and my brother approached him and asked him to stay and
send a telegraph to arrange for a truck to carry us. We obtained
permission from Mustafa Kemal Pasha and they started to transport us
toward Diyarbakir. There was neither food nor water on the way. Many
people died from diseases. At that time, there was a landowner named
Mehmet. He has since died, but he was unique. He had fed the army and
its horses for a year, and had given the military the keys to his
stables. One year later Mustafa Kemal Pasha came, sat across from him,
and asked what they owed him. When he said "for what?", Mustafa Kemal
explained that the army had depended on him for a year. He responded
that they were welcome to the remaining food. Anyway, when he saw us,
he gave the order to set up a feast right away. Bulgur rice, lentils,
and meat were prepared and offered. Everyone ate to their heart's
content.

Let me tell you another story. I saw many of the men who had been
tortured by the Armenians with my own eyes. In some places they had no
meat on their bones. From hunger they ate human flesh. There was a
milkman called Faik whose father was carrying a child when we saw him.
When I asked him what he was doing, he said if he didn't carry the
child away, they would eat him too.

I hope God doesn't make us live through those days again. Hunger and
disease left us with nothing. No dignity, chastity, nothing.



++++++++++++++++




http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/cevahirkokum.html


Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

CEVAHIR KOKUM

Father's Name: Ibrahim
Place of Birth: Bitlis-Hizan-Çökekyazž
Date of Birth: 1899

When the Russian forces entered Bitlis in the beginning of March, we
were forced to become refugees. We abandoned our homes and marched
toward Hizan. We came across hundreds of people who fled like us on the
road. They were so frightened that they crawled under or into any
structure they could find on the road. Meanwhile, we were being
followed by Armenian bandits. When seyh Selahattin heard of this, he
came to us and asked that all men able to fight follow him. On the way,
he asked us to light a fire under a bush so that those who saw it would
think that we were a large group. We later learned that in a subsequent
fight the Armenians lost and that seyh Selahattin lost an eye to an
enemy's bullet.

Meanwhile, hunger had reached a peak level. We sent a convoy of 12 men
and 4 women to Hirit (Cökekyazž) village to get food. They were cut
off by Armenians in the Müskünüs (Düzköy) village. Although the
women were successful in escaping, the men were caught by the Russians.
These 12 men were tied to each other, a "pocket" was cut out of their
skin on their legs, and their hands were placed in these pockets. Their
organs were cut off and placed in their mouths. Unsatisfied by this
brutality, they built a fire in the middle of the rest of them, and
killed them all with a thousand and one torture methods.

My cousin Hüsniye was unable to escape and got stuck in the city. They
killed her six children, and when they were taking her away on
horseback, she jumped from the horse and ran toward the fields.
Unfortunately, she was caught by the Armenians, who raped and killed
her.

Were all the Armenians so barbaric? Weren't there any good ones? I am
sure there were. My deceased grandmother would always talk about an
Armenian named Manik. When talking about him, she would also pray in
thanks for all that he had done.

Manik worked as a servant for Hacž Yusufzade. This Armenian saved my
grandmother and her other relatives from the Armenian massacre. Let's
hear the story from Hanife Boran.

"I, my father Hase, my uncle Süleyman, and my aunt Felek were left
among the enemy, but our Armenian servant Manik saved us from the
Russians and Armenians.

"One day an Armenian general came to our home and asked us for some
milk. Since it was winter, we were feeding our animals a bitter plant,
a taste which naturally was reflected in the milk. When the Armenian
general drank the bitter milk, he ordered to have my uncle Solomon
murdered as punishment. They tied my uncle to two side by side steel
doors, and fiercely tortured him by opening and shutting the door.
Unsatisfied with this, they took him away. Manik went and got my
father.

"A few days later they picked out and took away all of the pregnant
women among us. We later learned that they tied them all to poles, bet
on whether they were carrying boys or girls, and killed them by cutting
them open. Manik was unable to do anything about this, he simply was
not powerful enough.

"They later took us from the Avih neighborhood to the convent of Emin
Efendi in the city. They taped red crosses to our arms. Manik
immediately took them off our arms. When we later asked him the meaning
of that, he said the crosses marked those that would be taken to
Russia. One day, Manik came running to us. He said the home we were in
was going to be hit by Russian cannon fire. When he brought us to
another house, he kept us hidden by following the sewers. Manik would
leave in the day, and return at nightfall with all of the bread, sugar,
and other food supplies he could find. When we asked why he was doing
this, he replied that he could not betray us after eating our bread for
so many years.

"One day, Manik came to us excitedly and said that the Russians had
emptied the city, and that it was not right for him to stay after
everything that the Armenians had done, and that he would emigrate to
Russia with the rest of the Armenians. We sat and cried, since Manik
was the only adult left with us. His leaving would mean that we were
left all alone. Manik left, but we did not forget him or what he did.

"We can only thank Manik and those like him. We have nothing else to
say."


+++++++++++++++++




http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/devazseyhoglu.html


Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

DEVAZ SEYHOGLU
ÖMER MUSTAFAOGLU
TAYYIP ABDÜLHAMITOGLU

Place of Birth: Bitlis
Dates of Birth: 1897-1899-1901

On July 12, 1915, the platoon commander in Kotum warned the village
elders that the Russians and Armenians were approaching the village.
The inhabitants prepared to flee toward Bitlis. A half hour before
reaching the Armenian village of Dog, a few hundred Armenians and
Kazakhs attacked the refugees. Even though they raised their arms to
surrender, men, women and children were brutally murdered. Only 30 of
them survived.



+++++++++++++++++++++++







http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/ebubekir.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

EBUBEKIR AND ABDÜLKERIM
Places of Birth: Bitlis-Kolpiç
Dates of Birth: 1900-1901

We had been out of the village when some of the villagers went to
Bitlis. When they returned, they told us about the fall of the city.
When we learned that the enemy was advancing from the Tatik plains,
some of our men went there with the goal of stopping them. Others went
toward Karcžgan. When it was clear during our fight with the enemy
that we would not last long, we immediately fled to save our families.
At this critical time, the Russians and a large number of Armenians
were charging toward our village from two different directions.

They started to kill people and burn their homes. One hundred and fifty
people were killed with swords. As we escaped, Armenians named Bidet,
Arsak from the Orans village, Sandir from the Herit Armenian village,
and Krizikio from the sube village were chasing us and cursing our
Muslim religion as well as hurling insults at our prophet.

The Russians and Armenians had tortured the population so much that on
our return, no one could hold back the tears. Naked men and women were
tied to each other and hanged from trees. Dead mothers who had their
heads and breasts cut still held their lifeless children in their arms.
They had kidnapped the young and beautiful women. The bandits also took
the furniture they could use with them, and burned the rest.


++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/fevzifeyyat.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

FEVZI FEYYAT

Father's Name: Hacž
Mother's Name: Zekiye
Place of Birth: Van-Gevas
Date of Birth: 1906

Q: Could you tell us about the period of Armenian revolt, and its
causes?

A: The Armenians started to revolt against the Turkish nation and the
Muslim nation. They were getting support from Yerevan, as well as from
Russia and from Armenians in Russia. They were cutting up the Turkish
people without remorse. For example, they hanged and cut up the
inhabitants of the Arkalan village. They skinned them alive, and killed
the gendarmes. Hursit Aga, a community leader, was killed the first
day. The villagers were spared no cruelties. A massacre to this extent
wasn't even witnessed in the first days of history.

Q: Do you remember other incidents like this one?

A: Of course, there are more. For example, we had a village called
Müküs, whose name has changed to Bahçesaray. Bahçesaray is in the
Kžrmžzžköprü region. They used swords to wipe out the entire
village. Families left all of their possessions behind and fled. Those
that couldn't run were killed. The residents of three or four of the
neighboring villages were unable to flee the Armenian massacres.

Q: Wasn't there a national force to protect these villages?

A: No, there was nothing. No weapons. The troops had gone to war. The
Russian war had started, and the youth had joined the army. Then old
men like me, women, and children stayed behind. In fact, during the
exodus, it was women, not men who were carrying what they could from
their homes. Women and children were left to do all of the work. I was
around eight or nine years old at the time, and remember quite well. We
went to Resadiye. My father later caught up with us when he was on
leave from the army, and helped us out for a while.

At that time when the Turkish men were being drafted, there were a lot
of Armenians. In fact, some of the villages were completely occupied by
Armenians. Turks were located closer to the center of town. There were
a few Turkish families left in some of the Armenian villages, but at
the first opportunity they migrated to places where Turks were a
majority.

The Armenians cut off the roads. In Gevas we could not go out and act
comfortably. The country was at war, and the Armenians saw that as
their opportunity and started a civil war. They raided many villages.
In some, there were only three or four homes that survived. In the
village of Dereagzž, they cut up all of the inhabitants by sword.

Q: When you fled the village, who was with you?

A: My mother, my father, and two uncles were with me. Van was evacuated
on the rumor that the Russians were approaching, but of course, there
were some that stayed. We left from there, and joined the refugees on
the road. Many did not have any belongings with them. Some had one or
two donkeys with them loaded with what they could carry, food and
drink.Q: Were there many elderly women and men with you? Were there
many children?

A: There were lots of children. Of course, many died in front of our
eyes, some of which were either thrown in the lake or left behind. Some
were left behind because they could not be carried. I remember very
well. A woman wrapped her daughter in a red dress, kissed her several
times, and threw her in the lake. Some died because of hunger and
disease. Some were successful in carrying their children even though
they were hungry and destitute.Q: Did you come across any Armenian
rebels during your flight?

A: No, disease and weather conditions hurt us more.

Q: How did you acquire food and drink?

A: We had brought some with us when we left. It was spring, however it
was not possible to find water. I remember well, it was May 16th.

Q: Could you tell us about those that left Van on ships?

A: Yes, some came to Tatvan on boats.

Q: Could you tell us about their experiences?

A: They too left Van because the Russians were approaching, but because
the captains of the ships were Armenian, many were killed on the
islands. Only a few were able to get away. Anyway, after Armenians
occupied Van, those that stayed were killed and cut up too.

Q: How long were you refugees?

A: Three years, after which we returned to Van. We reaped the crops
that the Armenians had left. This time they ran away.

Q: Do you remember what Van was like then?

A: The homes belonging to the Muslim Turks were all burned and
destroyed, while some of the Armenian homes were still painted and
furnished. The animals and belongings they were unable to carry were
left to us.

Q: What else can you tell us?

A: I remember that we went to Resadiye and came back to get wheat. We
wanted to get some wheat to take to the mill. A crowd appeared,
declaring that the Russians were coming. When we tried to return, the
Turkish soldiers on the road did not let us. Then Halil Pasha's
division made several gains against the Russian army. After the cannon
ball noise died down, the division commander gave us permission to
continue. We continued our journey with horses laden with food. Our
army, praise God, was later victorious.

Q: Did you ever face death during your journey?

A: No, we were never attacked on the road, but those who fled on boats
were in a terrible situation. Someone called Sait told us about it. He
said he fell asleep, but when he awoke he saw that the ship had
approached an island, and asked the captain why this was so. He told
the captain there were Armenian brigands on the island, which the
captain denied. They didn't believe him. The Armenians on the island
then started to shoot at them. Many people were shot and died, but Sait
and others were able to get away.

There are so many stories, but which one should I tell? I hope God
doesn't make us relive those days.


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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/farissurum.html





Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

FARIS SÜRÜM
Father's Name: Kasim
Place of Birth: Bitlis-Cevizyatagi
Date of Birth: 1904

Around the time that Bitlis was going to be saved from the Russians,
we were continuously fighting. During this time the Russians and
Armenians would cut up anyone they found in the city. There was a two
story house in the Mermutlu neighborhood, next to Sütlü Bulag. The
Muslims hid there out of fear. Those barbarians cut up all of the
defenseless people there. I don't know the exact number, but there were
so many Muslims killed that the blood was flowing from the door. They
carried the bodies to the second floor since there was not enough room
for them on the first floor.

When we later took back Bitlis from the Russians, we started to follow
the Russian forces. The enemy was retreating toward Ahlat. When we
arrived to the Zigag village near Ahlat, we couldn't hold back our
tears in the face of the brutality we witnessed. The Armenians had
planted sharp metal poles, and impaled pregnant women stomach first on
those poles. Some of the poles went into their stomachs and out of
their backs. I will never forget this savageness until I die.



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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/policeofficer.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

POLICE OFFICER HASAN ÇABUK

Father's Name: Yusuf
Place of Birth: Bitlis
Date of Birth: 1896

The Armenians committed tremendous cruelties in Bitlis. I was in Bitlis
at the time. I had graduated from the Sultan high school there. When
the war broke out, I was drafted. After fighting in Erzurum and Pasin,
I fell into the water in Bitlis on the way to Baghdad, and stayed in
Bitlis because I became ill. That is how I witnessed the atrocities
first-hand.

Most of the population had fled before the occupation, but those that
remained were subject to the massacres. The Armenians killed Mr. Polat
and his family. Women and girls were rounded up by the Armenians and
taken to the Aynel Barut mosque where they were killed after being
raped repeatedly.


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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/hacicemal.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

HACI CEMAL ÇUVAÇ

Father's Name: Ibrahim
Mother's Name: Fidan
Place of Birth: Van-Köprüköy
Date of Birth: 1905

When the Armenian riots broke out we were living in Köprüköy. Our
relations with the Armenians in surrounding villages weren't bad. In
fact, they were quite good. But before the inhabitants of Van became
refugees, Armenian fighters began shooting at the Muslims. Their leader
was Aram the Blind. Our youth had all joined the army because of the
declared mobilization. In fact, my three brothers were martyred while
serving as soldiers in Erzurum. There were old people like me and
children left in the village. Men older than sixty were serving as
militia.

We hadn't heard that the inhabitants of Van had fled -- we didn't know,
so we stayed. One week we stayed in the sehayne village. When we
learned that the Russians were approaching from this side, we fled to
Van, but heard that Van was being evacuated. We got caught in the
crossfire.

When we were between the villages of Kalecik and Iskele, the Armenians
of Kalecik started to fire on us. We didn't know where to go. Armenians
captured Van, and the Russians were behind us. If we didn't flee, the
Armenians would cut us up. At the end we decided to flee to Iran,
because Hacž Nebi from sžhkara had served as a soldier on the Iranian
border and said he knew the way and we could easily reach Iran. The
inhabitants of the village met at the top of the hill and divided into
two. Half of us joined the Gülsünler villagers and took the road to
Iran, while the others stayed. During this time Halil Bey's forces were
losing and retreating, so we couldn't go to Iran either. So we took to
the Nardis mountains and went to Siirt via Hosap and Hasir. We spent 32
days traveling in the mountains. We suffered from hunger and thirst. We
slaughtered a few animals we had with us, and ate grass to survive. But
we owe the soldiers for the fact that we arrived safely in Siirt. They
fought during the day, while at night we would advance in their shadow.
We fled without taking anything with us.

Those whostayed behind went to the village of Zeve along with the
inhabitants of seven villages. All but a few of them were massacred by
the Armenians. I knew Hamza who was among the survivors. He was from
the village of Amik, but now he's dead as well. Only one or two women
and children survived.

They raped and killed the women in their custody. Hamza would tell us
about it. They would throw children into the air and pierce them with
bayonets. They stuffed most of the people into homes and committed mass
massacres before setting the homes on fire.

There were 18 people in our family who became refugees, but only my
father and I survived. The rest died on the road. We went to Siverek
and Urfa via Siirt and Diyarbakžr. We were in Urfa for three years.
When we returned to Van, the Muslim villages were burned down and
destroyed. For example, while Hždžr, and our village Gülsünler were
completely burned down, not one house in the Armenian village of
Muprutepe was destroyed. We stayed a while in that village, then
rebuilt our own village. We were able to return to our village with Mr.
Abdurrahman. But I can't explain in words what the Armenians did to us.
The inhabitants of Van, Bitlis, and Mus all fled, while those that
stayed were massacred.

When we returned around 1,500-2,000 Armenians had remained. When the
Turkish army entered Van they sought refuge on the island of Çarpanak.
The government took care of them for one and a half to two years, and
later sent them to Revan. But we never retaliated for the repression we
suffered. In fact, we fed them for two years.


++++++++++++++++






http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/haydarisaoglu.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

HAYDAR ISAOGLU
Place of Birth: Bitlis
Date of Birth: 1898


In February 1916, I was in a village of Bitlis called Tako. When I saw
a convoy of inhabitants from Bitlis on the road, I asked them why they
were leaving. They told me that the city was unexpectedly invaded by
Russian and Armenian forces, that these forces were composed mainly of
Armenian soldiers, and that they were killing all Muslim men, women and
children that they came across.

When I sent word, Ali, the son of Süleyman, who lived in Bitlis'
Hersan neighborhood, told me the following story. He said his brothers
Ismail and Halil were killed by Armenians in front of their door. The
wife of my brother, daughter of Yakup, was forcibly taken away. His
brother-in-law, Hacž Ali's son Yusuf was also killed, and his cousin
Mercan was taken away by bandits who later committed an outrageous
murder. His neighbor seyh Harzan was ill and was killed in bed, and his
wife semo and one of their servants were also killed. Recep, the son of
Mustafa who had come to visit the seyh, also faced the same fate. They
killed Hasan, the son of Kilincizade near his home, even after
collecting a large ransom. Many people were forced into carrying heavy
objects for long distances barefoot and without any head coverings
despite the snow and brutally cold weather. Among them was Ahlatlž
Nigar, a woman around 80 years old, Tero's sick wife Bezirgan, Halil,
the son of Ismail, Mehmet, the son of Ahmet, his brother Mithat, and
his uncle seyh Hafi, who was around 50 years old. After this news, I
did not have the courage to go to Bitlis, and returned to my village
Tako.



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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/hacihuseyin.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

HACI HÜSEYIN KOCA
Place of Birth: Bitlis-Ahlat
Date of Birth: 1904

I am from Ahlat. I was a child during the mobilization years. The
Armenians formed committees and massacred people. But they did it more
around Van then Bitlis or Ahlat. We were forced to become refugees
because of the Armenian revolt against the Muslim population. We went
to Diyarbakžr where we stayed for one year, and later went to Batman
where we stayed four years. My brother was in Nusaybin. My sister and I
were the only members of my family who survived when we went to Batman.
The rest died on the road during the flight.


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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/hasanmehmetoglu.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

HASAN MEHMETOGLU
Place of Birth: Bitlis
Date of Birth: 1890

I was on duty at night around ten o'clock when the city of Bitlis was
invaded and occupied. My sister came and told us that the city was
invaded by the enemy. When we went out on the street, we saw the people
running. We heard thousands of guns and machine guns. I was forced to
go to Arapköprüsü, a half an hour away from Bitlis to save my
family.

Behind us, the Russian forces and Armenian brigands were killing all of
the Muslims who were trying to save themselves by stopping them with a
forceful bullet. On the other side, the Russian Cossacks were trampling
them with their horses.

The mixture of screams, hopelessness, and the children's wails were
emanating from all sides. It was a miracle that a small group like ours
survived. While we were running away, assistant police chief Mehmet
Vehbi was shot and wounded.

All those that were left behind were the victims of Russian and
Armenian impetuousness. Among the ill-fated victims were the following
people I knew: Van Assistant Chief of Police Mr. Vefik, Police Officer
Ali, Assistant Superintendent of Police Mr. Süleyman, Remzi, and Sait
who were from Van but were serving in Bitlis, Bitlis policemen Mr.
Hamdi and Mr. Resul, Bitlis Courthouse Records Administrator saban
Vehbi, and Hoca Ishak's son, Abdurrezzak.



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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/hacirasit.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

HACI RASIT BARIS

Father's Name: Basu
Mother's Name: Cevahir
Place of Birth: Van-Ercis-Yukarž Isiklž
Date of Birth: 1901

I am from the Yukarž Isžklž village of Ercis. After the
mobilization was declared, the Russians arrived. Armenians had already
rebelled by then, and we could only defend ourselves from them for a
month, after which we fled. I remember that my father was wounded at
that time. The Armenians shot him, shrapnel split his head, and he was
severely hurt, but did not die. We first went to Bitlis, Mardin, and
Diyarbakir. When we returned to our village it was completely ruined.


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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/hacisadi.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

HACI SADI ALDANMAZ
Father's Name: Bahri
Place of Birth: Bitlis
Date of Birth: 1902

We left Bitlis before the Russians occupied the city. I was 13 years
old at the time. There were up to 100 children left on the side of the
road on the snow from Arapköprüsü to Duhan. Those that stayed in the
city were subject to a frightful massacre. The Armenian commander
Antranik bayoneted 16 women and children with his own hands. The
Armenians were committing atrocities [in Bitlis] before the Russian
invasion as well, but after the occupation, the crimes accelerated. As
far as I remember, 9 year old Hatice who lived in the Hersan
neighborhood was taken from her mother's arms by the Armenians, and
viciously raped without reference to the fact that she was a child.
Hako was the Armenian who took this child from her mother and raped
her. He was known as cold blooded Hako.


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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/hikmetsaylik.html






Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

HIKMET SAYLIK
Father's Name: Ziver
Mother's Name: söhret
Place of Birth: Van-Gülsünler
Date of Birth: 1901

I am from the village of Gülsünler, which used to be called sžhkara.
We left the village when the Armenians raided the villages and started
massacring the Muslim population. We were going toward Van, but the
Armenians stopped us before we arrived. We had no choice but to return.
About 300 people from the village gathered in Zeve, while an equal
number returned to the village. We fled toward Hosap as a group.
Turkish soldiers were in Hosap, and they told us to leave as soon as
possible and get out of the line of fire. In spite of the difficulties
we faced, we went as far as Siirt. Many of the refugees suffered and
died due to widespread hunger and disease. From there, we arrived in
Diyarbakžr, Mardin, and finally in Adana. We then went to Konya,
because the French had occupied Adana. The government then sent us to
Mersin, but when the Turkish military took back Van we returned. But
Van and its villages were completely ruined: quiet, burned, and
destroyed. Three hundred people were martyred in our village. They
gathered the people in houses and burned them alive. The inhabitants of
Van fled, and those that remained were cut up by the Armenians. When we
returned, not all of the Armenians had left. Some of the villages, such
as Alaköy remained as they were, and the Muslims did not hurt anyone
there. The government later sent the Armenians to Russia. Many members
of my family were martyred in this village including my mother, father,
brother Mustafa, and other relatives. Around 30-40 families fled with
us, but only ten families returned. Those that stayed and those that
went to Zeve were all massacred. I found the skeletons of nearly 200
Muslims killed by Armenians. I buried them here, but could not afford
to provide headstones. This includes the graves of my mother and father
as well as many relatives. The Armenians had burned them alive.




++++++++++++++++








http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/hacizekeriya.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

HACI ZEKERIYA KOÇ

Father's Name: Yakup
Mother's Name: Nadide
Place of Birth: Van-Ayanžs
Date of Birth: 1908

When the Armenian incidents broke out we were in our village, Ayanžs.
Zeve, Mollakasžm and Ayanžs were the villages in the region inhabited
entirely by Muslims. There were five or ten Armenian homes in the other
villages. Before these problems broke out, we had excellent relations
with the Armenians. We got along particularly well with
Armenian-inhabited Alaköy. We would invite each other to banquets, and
there were no hostilities between us.

Then when everything started and the residents of Van fled, we decided
to migrate as well. We got together, filled four carts as much as
possible, and got on the road. As we were leaving the village, a man
came from Van, and asked us where we were going. When we told him, he
urged us to stay, saying he had cannons, guns, and military supplies.
On his encouragement, everyone returned home. Three days passed. On the
fourth day, we were at my grandmother's. I was standing and eating a
piece of buttered bread my grandmother prepared for me. Three villagers
were there helping us out. We heard one gunshot, and the men said "This
noise is from Armenian guns, it buzzes like tin. Our weapons clatter.
Something is going on."

Meanwhile someone came from Mollakasžm, stood on the hilltop of our
village, and yelled "Why are you still around? Kurds raided and
plundered Alaköy, and the Armenians are attacking villages." Right
after this my cousin Dursun showed up. An elderly woman asked him why
he came. He had a bullet through his thumb and said, "They destroyed
the village and I ran away. Before the villagers had a chance to
organize, the Armenians surrounded the village. The Armenians captured
our livestock near the cemetery and took them to Alaköy. The Armenians
went into the village and separated the men and stuffed them into a
room. Their leader was Hamados Pasha, who had paid Iranian Kurds to
fight with him. He told his fighters to separate all males over the age
of seven, and add them to the men to be burned.

They spoke Turkish almost as well as we did. At that time I was seven
years old. My mother immediately wrapped a scarf around my head, put a
loose dress on me, and pulled me toward her. I survived, but they
picked out four or five people from among us and took them away near
the men. As soon as they added them to the men they poured gasoline on
the crowd and lit a fire. The screams emanating from there reached the
skies. They rounded up the women and took them outside. They would mock
us by saying "ladies why don't you sit here and rest. Look how nicely
the dogs are at each other's throats." The "dogs" they referred to were
someone's son, husband, father or uncle, crying "oh my God" in
agonizing pain. They made us sit there for up to an hour. When we
walked by the cemetery, one of the Armenians began singing a ballad
mocking us.

At that moment we saw that the Armenians had shot my mother's cousin
with her child still nursing on her breast. Then an Armenian came and
killed the child with a bayonet. They killed a lot of people in that
area. Those that could run away escaped, those that couldn't had gas
poured over them and were burned. We were forced to sit there for quite
a while.

Hamza, Hacž Ümmet's uncle lived in our village. He always carried a
dagger. The Armenians were going to carry him away and kill him, but he
ran toward them. He was either going to kill them or be killed. He
could not overcome them. Before they killed him they carved out
"pockets" in his thighs and placed his hands inside. Excuse my
language, but they cut his organ and placed it in his mouth, and cut
his nose and placed it in his behind.

They then took us to a hilltop in Alaköy before taking us into the
village. There they packed us into a barn. The children in the group
were starving and began to wail from hunger. The Armenians cut off the
hands, feet, and other appendages of the dead men, cooked, them, and
brought them as food. The children could not understand, but the women
said that it was preferable to starve, and had to explain this to the
children. When nightfall came, they flooded the barn with water. The
women had placed the children on their shoulders and were shouting.
After some time they emptied the water out of the barn by opening a
trench. The next day the women were escorted out, and dried their
clothes on rocks outside the village. The women of Mollakasžm lived a
little further down than us. The Armenians had killed the men in the
village there and imprisoned the women.

In other words they were raiding Muslim villages, killing the men, and
imprisoning the women. In Alaköy they led us onto the road toward Van.
When we arrived at the Mermit stream, some of the women threw
themselves into the water rather than die in the hands of their
captors. The infidels shot them from behind and killed some of them.
They broke the arms and bashed the heads of some that wanted to jump
into the water. I was with my mother, aunt, and grandmother. My mother
was still nursing my sister. When my mother wanted to throw herself
into the water and kill herself, my grandmother held onto her and would
not let her go. The Armenians put blockades by the stream to prevent
people from jumping. The next thing we knew, an Armenian came to us and
asked my grandmother who we were, and from which village we came. My
grandmother was rude at first, but told him when he insisted. When she
responded that we were from the village of Ayanžs, and that my
grandfather's name was Muhittin, her sons Yakup and Niyazi, he grabbed
her and said he would never want or permit harm to come to us. We were
stunned. He then told us a story of when they were coming from
Bahçesaray to Van in eight wagons. My father stopped some men who
wanted to kill the Armenians from doing so. Instead, he escorted them
all of the way to Van, then he turned around and came back to the
village.

That man gave us some bread, old cheese, and yogurt. Well into the
morning they took us from there and brought us to Bardakçž. At night
we slept in the plains of the village with armed guards at our sides.
What harm could women inflict anyway? There were about 700-800 of us.
Then in the morning they woke us, and took us to the foot of the castle
in Van. There the governor of Van, Cevdet Pasha, had a three-story
detention center. They brought a lot of people there before us. One of
the women who was there gave birth to a baby. The Armenians threw the
child off the roof of the building, and the child was lost. We stayed
there for five days. In the afternoon they let us go out in the fields,
and people gathered whatever they could find to eat.

After five days, they brought two more groups of people. In the
afternoon they moved us to Hacž Bekir's detention center near the old
Governor's home. They had also brought the inhabitants of the Muslim
village Pürüt there. Before they passed out bread, they added sulphur
and other things to it. Up to 70 people a day died as a result. The
Armenians dug ditches along the wall across from the barracks and
brought in the dead on stretchers and threw them there. Here too, we
ran across one of the Armenians which my father had saved. That
Armenian fed us for a few days. People were attacking the food.

One week went by, and they told us the Russians had arrived. One day a
major, a captain, and two soldiers came into the barracks and counted
and recorded the prisoners. The next day we were fed rice with meat,
and taken outside where there were Russian guards. The Russians asked
about our villages, and told us they would take us there. When we all
wanted to go to Mollakasžm, they accepted. In the morning they loaded
us onto 70 to 80 wagons and took us to Mollakasžm. After arriving, we
stuck together out of fear of the Armenians. We picked a leader from
among us, and lived that way until the Turkish army came to Van. After
some time, we rehabilitated the villages which the Armenians had burned
and plundered.



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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/izzetcengiz.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

IZZET CENGIZ
Father's Name: Mehmet
Mother's Name: Ifakat
Place of Birth: Bitlis-Ahlat-Adabag
Date of Birth: 1906

I am from the Adaba g village of Ahlat. We used to have Armenian
villages nearby: Karnuç, and on this side of Ahlat, Agag, Kžzva , Zi
ga g, Sivot, and Tevot (on the outskirts of Nemrut mountain).

I was about six or seven years old, and remember the Armenians
rebelling. From what I heard, I remember that the Armenians set up
committees, brought in fighters, and massacred Muslims who boarded
Armenian-run ships on the Van lake. From time to time they robbed and
plundered our village too. When events started to take place where we
lived, they kidnaped my grandfather Dervis who was in Kotan. There is a
stone quarry facing Mecca, where three men attacked my grandfather with
the intention of cutting him up. He saw that one of them was Serop who
worked with him for three years. My grandfather asked him if he was
killing him because he took care of him for three years. Serop let him
go, saying he was going to cut him up thinking he was Nadir. Yet
shortly after, my grandfather became very ill with fear and died soon
after.

One evening some young visitors came from Kotan, and were having dinner
with us. My father had recently returned from a trip and was sitting
with them. Soon after, my uncle Osman came in, and asked my mother for
some bread for a caravan which came to the village. When my mother
brought him some, he said it was not enough, and told her to round up
all she had and follow him. Since our village isn't really on the road
to anything, my father became suspicious of the caravan story. He
followed my uncle to see what is going on. At the edge of the castle he
saw a ship with Armenian bandits near the shore. They were roasting a
cow which they caught while it was grazing near the castle. They had
secretly set up an ambush and were waiting.

When my uncle had gone out to look for the animals, they cut him off,
asking for bread, but demanding that he tell no one. They told him they
would return his cow if he did as they said. My father went and got my
cousins Davut and Hursit, so they could all go and keep watch at the
castle. They also sent a messenger to Ahlat to tell the army. At
daybreak they fired at the ship and sunk it. When the Armenian issue
flared up in and around Van, it really became heated around here.

We left our village once, anticipating the arrival of the Russians who
came to Deliklitas (Bitlis). We went as far as Kurtalan, also known as
Zoh, and stayed about three months. We returned to the village when we
heard that the Russians had retreated. The crops had dried up, and
there was no feed for the animals. The villagers then gathered their
animals and sent them to Diyarbakžr. A shepherd called Ahlatlž Sadžk
came to the village to pick up his herd. The Russians arrived before he
could leave, and we all became refugees again. Since the Rahva grassy
plains were covered with snow, the villagers used the back roads. My
mother's uncle was ill, and could only walk with crutches. He had three
sons, who left with my other uncles and my brother. My mother sewed her
valuable jewelry onto the clothing of my brother. She never told him,
but always worried that he may lose it. I stayed in the village with my
mother and her uncle. My cousins were going to bring a sled because of
the snow, and all the children remaining in the village were going to
leave on it, including my grandmother, my little cousins, and others.

One day while we were waiting for the sled, Armenians dressed in
Russian military uniforms raided the village. They gathered us all in
front of our house, and surrounded the village. We had no weapons, we
were all women and children. They threatened us, and the Armenian
revolutionary committee leaders placed a guard with us and went to
pillage the other homes. I was standing near my mother at the edge of
the wall. Before I knew it, my mother was slowly creeping around the
wall, and then she ran. I was only a child. I thought for a moment, and
ran after her by following her footsteps. When we had cleared the
village, I started to cry because I was afraid. As I approached the
rocks overlooking the lake, I saw that my mother was standing at the
edge of the rocks and was going to throw herself into the water. I
started to scream as loud as I could, asking her what she was doing.
She told me to go back, saying that they would not hurt me since I was
a child, but that they would soil her innocence. When I told her I
would jump after her, she changed her mind and returned. She carried me
on her back and we went and hid in an area used as a wool storage
center by our neighbors. When I tried to cry once, my mother covered my
mouth. She said I didn't let her kill herself and escape, and we
couldn't let the Armenians discover us.

We stayed there until late the following day. My mother asked me to go
check on the dog quietly. If it was resting, she said, there were no
foreigners in the village. But if it was up and barking, it meant the
Armenians were still there. I went out, saw that the dog was laying
down, and told my mother. She got out, and saw that my grandmother, who
had been wounded by a bullet on the lower right side of her body, was
looking for us. It turns out that an Armenian knew my father, and
wanted to mock her by asking her where he was. She answered that her
son had been martyred, and added that if he were alive he surely would
protect her. With that, the Armenian fired at her. The bullet hit her
right cavity, near her stomach. Even though my grandmother told him to
shoot again because she was still alive, the Armenian answered that
this was enough for her, and walked away. We learned from my
grandmother that my aunt Vahide was injured, a women named Hasret
jumped in the lake and was shot by the Armenians, and another woman
from another neighborhood died when her arm was torn off.

We were miserable in a village burned, destroyed, and pillaged. We
boiled the bones of dead animals and drank the water. We survived for
three days by eating the snow at the edge of the rocks. After four
days, the Russian soldiers arrived, took us captive, and brought us to
Agrž. There were roughly 70-80 military prisoners along with us. They
left my mother's uncle behind with the promise of sending a vehicle to
pick him up later. My mother laid out half of a blanket under him, and
covered him with the other half. She also left a small bundle of money
with him.

Later during the journey, she saw that same bundle of money being
carried on the money belt of a soldier. When she asked what happened to
her uncle, he replied that he wasn't there when they returned -- he
seemed to have disappeared. We never learned what happened to him.
There were many Armenians in the Russian army, and they were hurling
insults at the captives. There was an older prisoner named Mr. Sadžk
among us, who noticed that one of the Russian soldiers was reading the
Koran. Mr. Sadžk, who spoke Russian, asked him why. The soldier said
he was a Turk from Kazan, and a Muslim. He asked us to appeal to the
highest Russian military official in Agrž's Yogurtyemez village for
protection from the Armenian massacres.

They later handed us over to a Tatar guard. Among the prisoners from my
village whose names I remember were my mother, my aunt Mahi (whose
child they took from her arms and we never heard of again), my aunt
Gülsüm, her daughter Hayriye, Mr. Sadžk, his wife Zeliha, their
daughter Selvi, their daughter-in-law Nergis, and my cousin Mikail.

The Russians settled us in the Yekmal village of Agrž, where we stayed
three years. When they retreated during the Russian revolution, they
left all of their belongings to the Armenians. We later settled in the
Sofyan village. An Armenian named Agop from the Kazer village sent us
word that we needed to be prepared against an Armenian group advancing
before the Ottomans. He said he was Muslim, but planned to go with them
because he feared that they would hurt him otherwise. On this news, we
went to the Birikan village. Men who could carry weapons in the Birikan
and Sofyan villages put up a good fight against the Armenians from
Sofyan. But in the Gilasor village, the Armenians loaded the Muslim
population into two homes and burned them. The same things happened in
the village of Lesko.


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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/village.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

ISO FROM THE TIL VILLAGE
OSMAN FROM BITLIS
FERHAT FROM KARSIN
HALIT FROM OSKAVAK

Place of Birth: Bitlis
Dates of Birth: 1896, 1898, 1899, 1902, respectively.

The Armenian bandits, who were supported by the Cossacks during the
Russian assault, were leading the greater Russian army. They were
responsible for attacking the villages and creating confusion. The
inhabitants of the attacked villages were hiding on the trails so that
they would not be followed by the bandits, but they were discovered and
carried away by the Russian soldiers. The stronger men were taken into
Russia as prisoners of war by the Russian army. But the Muslims taken
away by the Armenians and Cossacks were massacred without exception.

The remaining were led on a march with thirty guards in April, 1916.
The sergeant and some of the guards were Armenians from the Caucasus.
On the first day, they continued to walk, but when they reached the
trail on the second day, the sergeant said to one of the guards in a
low voice in Armenian, "let's kill them." Haydar from Derbo who
understood Armenian, relayed the death command to his friends, and
suggested that it was better to attack the guards than die like
sacrificial lambs.

When they reached sahniyan, the smell of death permeated the air.
Bodies torn into pieces were laying on the side of the rocks. Everyone
felt that death had arrived. Despite this, they attacked the guards.
Six prisoners died, but some guards also lost their lives.


+++++++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/ibrahimsargin.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

IBRAHIM SARGIN

Father's Name: Halil
Place of Birth: Van-Zeve
Date of Birth: 1903

I am from the well-known Zeve village, site of the most rampant
Armenian massacres.

Q: How old were you when the Armenians rebelled?

A: I had just turned 11 at the time.

Q: Were your parents alive at the time?

A: Yes, they were.

Q: Were they subjected to Armenian atrocities?

A: I will tell you all about that later. I first want to try to explain
the Armenians' position.

We know how untrustworthy the Armenians and Russians were, and about
their efforts to attack the Ottoman State from behind by forming bands
of rebels. At that time, Russians were paying Armenians a stipend.
However, the Armenians were paying the Ottoman State only one gold coin
in taxes, while those unable to pay that much were paying five silver
coins. There were certain changes during the rule of Sultans Hamit and
Resat. They extended equal rights to the Armenians, declaring that they
would be equal to Muslims, like brothers. They passed a law lifting the
tax imposed on them, and made them equal to us. There was jubilation in
the streets. Armenian priests and our religious leaders hugged and
kissed. At this time it was also decided that Armenians would serve in
the military with us and study in our schools. The Armenians were
thrilled with these changes. As soon as they had the opportunity, they
established committees and asked for money from France and England and
arms from Russia. They figured they could cooperate with the Russians,
receive military supplies from them, and attack the Ottomans from
within while the Russians could advance from the outside.

What did the Russians do? They constructed storage bins out of the
stove pipes and stove metal. These bins were three feet long and one
and a half feet wide, and filled with arms and munitions. Some of our
supplies including kerosene came from Russia at the time. The Russians
delivered these military supplies to the Armenians by hiding them in
the bins and covering them with kerosene containers. Having armed the
Armenians in this way, the Russians sent a member of the secret
revolutionary society from Russia. His name was Aram, and he was blind
in one eye. A Russian Armenian, they named him Aram Pasha. Then they
brought someone named Antranik to the Mus area, and called him Antranik
Pasha. Plus, there was an Armenian revolutionary committee leader
nicknamed sahin in the Karagündüz village of the Erçek region. They
would set up committee organizations and head for the Turkish borders.
They crossed into Turkish villages where they would attack and kill
Turks, and then retreat. They carried weapons and bandits to
Karagündüz on horseback.

Q: Do you remember the revolutionary committees in the region and the
names of their leaders?

A: I named some of them a little earlier. I don't remember any other
names. They armed themselves with the help of the Russians, and came
with their horses. They created storage areas in the sisanus village,
and moved to a lake village which was completely inhabited by Armenians
who had moved into the village earlier. On the lake there were enormous
ships which could carry 500-600 people. These ships would carry arms
and ammunition to Adilcevaz, Ahlat, Ercis, and Gevas. Some would later
be sent to Tatvan, Mus and Bitlis. The Armenians armed themselves well
with these supplies, and started to form guerilla groups. More
specifically, they organized fighters and hid them on the islands of
Akdamar, Çarpanak, and Kadir. These fighters later scattered
throughout the area, insulting and provoking the public. After a while,
they decided to get along with the Russians. After the Russians
declared war on the Ottoman Empire, all of our soldiers left the area.
Some went to the Caucasian front line, while others went to the Iranian
front line. The Armenian soldiers accompanied our soldiers. After the
two sides started fighting, our soldiers noticed that they were being
shot from behind. The doctors could not understand why soldiers who
should be hit from the front were hit from behind. Then they realized
that Armenian soldiers would kill ours whenever the opportunity arose.
We lost perhaps thousands of our soldiers in this way, but it was too
late when it was discovered. Some of the traitors were found, while
some joined the Russian fighters. This war lasted two and a half years.
Our soldiers were in terrible shape, and were forced to retreat. The
Russian military started to advance. When they arrived at the
Çaldžran plains, they came across the Hamidiye regiment which was
formed during the reign of Sultan Hamit and was composed of tribes. The
Russians used the Hamidiye organization for their own means, telling
them to provide soldiers to defend the area, while they would provide
munitions and arms.

A soldier who heard that the Russians arrived in Çaldžran ran to his
village (Derebey) and told the village headman that it was futile to
work in the fields since the Russians had already arrived in
Çaldžran, which meant they would be in the village either that day or
the next. He told the villagers they would all be killed if they didn't
flee. Hearing this, the villagers gathered together, took some food and
whatever they could carry, and left toward Van. They first reached the
Zorava village, which is Circassian. When the inhabitants asked them
what was going on, they told them that they were headed to Van because
the Russians had entered Çaldžran and were advancing toward Muradiye.


Hearing this, the villagers in Zorava joined the refugees. Later there
were eight villages which joined this caravan to Van; Hakis, Zorava,
Derebey, sžh Ömer, sžhkara, sžhayne, Hždžr, and Göllü. They had
no idea that Van was emptied and that its inhabitants had migrated.
When they arrived at the Everek plains, they saw some Armenians who
asked them in Armenian: "Where are you mindless people going?" to which
they answered, "We're going to Van. We will go wherever the inhabitants
of Van go." To this the Armenians showered them with insults and added
"Turks left Van over six or seven days ago, and are refugees. The era
of Cevdet Pasha has been over for a long time. The Aram Pasha
Administration has been formed. All of the wounded, hospitalized, women
and children in Van were killed. Mosques were torched, barracks burned.
We cut up all of the Muslims in Van. There were only 20-30 women
remaining, and we gave them to Aram Pasha." To this, Circassian Ibo
said that they would become prisoners, and proposed that they go to
Zeve, which was very close to the lake. He suggested they could find a
ship there and save the women and children.

By the time this group of refugees reached our village (Zeve), we saw
that there were over 2,000 of them. When we asked them what happened,
they responded, "We were fleeing to Van, but Armenians preempted us and
told us that the inhabitants of Van had migrated, so we came here to
acquire a ship in the hopes of saving our women and children."

It was spring, and it was not easy to settle the refugees in our small
village, but we did our best. We settled them in homes, tents, and
barns. There were more than 2,000 of them, and they stayed with our
villagers, who numbered about 500. In addition, soldiers disbanded from
the army came home to our village. You should have seen them. They had
long beards, their uniforms were torn, they were full of lice. We
settled them, too. One was my brother Necip, my cousin Mustafa, my
brother-in-law Mehmet, my cousin Ilyas, Recep, son of saban, Mustafa's
son Seyyat, and Emrah's son sükrü. They were emaciated -- just skin
and bones. They took off their clothes and burned them and pulled off
the lice. My uncle Yusuf was a good barber. After scrubbing their heads
with hot water, he shaved them with a razor. Believe me, because of the
lice, blood was dripping from their faces and eyes. They were somewhat
more comfortable after that.

Two days had passed. On the third day, the village Hodja began his
morning call to prayer. Those that wanted to pray went, others went to
their jobs. There was a river in the middle of our village. It flows
all the way from the Iranian border, and becomes a lake in the spring
when the snow melts. But we were never sure exactly where this water
came from. One day we heard a woman's voice from the other side of the
river calling for someone to carry her to our side. On hearing this, my
uncle grabbed his horse, followed the sounds, and what did he see, but
Esma, the daughter of Ahmet. He was amazed when he saw Esma, who had
married into the Molla Kasžm village. She promised to tell her story
after my uncle helped her cross the river. He helped her onto the
saddle and brought her to this side of the river. At this time the
villagers had finished their morning prayer and had gathered around
them. She told them to fend for themselves, that Hamit, Molla Kasžm,
and Ayanos had been killed, and that the perpetrators would be in our
village any day now. The Hodja addressed the crowd with "Friends, we
are Muslims. It doesn't fit our religion for us to die needlessly. We
have about 60 weapons, 2 chests full of ammunition, and eight or nine
soldiers with guns and bullets. Let's defend our village. My father's
cousin, Hodja Osman who served with Cevdet Pasha had sent 60 guns and
the ammunition."

There were hills near our village, below the bridge. There were plains
on the top, and grasslands below. The villagers took their positions on
the top part of the hills, and waited for the Armenians to advance.
When the Armenians surrounded the village on three fronts and attacked,
our villagers were prepared. They fought the Armenians until noon. When
our side charged them, the Armenians were startled. Some of them fled
to Mermit village, while others went to Vadar village. After they fled
they started to regroup. There were other Armenian villages such as the
enormous Alay village comprised of 400 homes. They gathered together
all of the Armenians, and again started a battle which continued until
the end of the mid-afternoon prayer. After the mid-afternoon prayer,
there were up to one hundred horses speeding down Erzurum Street which
originated in Van. The villagers thought that they were Ottoman
soldiers who came to their assistance after hearing gunfire, but soon
saw that they were Russian Armenians who heard the gunfire and came to
the village. The fighting started again, and our villagers started to
run out of bullets. The Armenians saw this as an opportunity and
entered the village by killing the Turks who were guarding it. The
village was burning, and herds of people numbering two or three
thousand started to flee. The Armenians were throwing small children in
the air and piercing them with bayonets or sticking them in the stomach
with bayonets. The children let out shrill cries and fell to the ground
like baby birds. In desperation, some of the women and young girls
threw themselves into the river, while others lit fire to bails of
grass and threw themselves into the bonfire.

They captured Corporal Seyyat alive, laid him on the ground, undressed
him, and skinned him alive. They also carved out his shoulders and
carved into his sides, taunting him by saying that Sultan Resat
promoted him and gave him a medal. The Armenians also set fire to the
grass and threw some of our women and children into the fire and burned
them alive. They sliced the throats of the rest of the survivors as if
they were sacrificial lambs. Not one child survived. After massacring
the entire village, they killed the five most attractive women; my
cousin Seher, Esma, the headman's wife, a distant relative Hayriye, my
aunt Ayse, and Güllü. Then they left. I'll explain to you how I
survived even though the Armenians vowed to continue the massacres
until we were all dead. My father was very well known, and he had
extended much kindness to the Bardakçž village. My father had once
saved the life of Kžrbe, and his son Asvador was among the Armenians.
Although at the time my father was in Iran as a reserve officer,
Asvador came to us during the massacre. Asvador told the Armenians not
to touch me, my mother, and one of my sisters and saved our lives.
After the Armenians left, Asvador took us out of hiding. The wounded
were moaning from pain, begging for someone to wrap their wounds or
give them some water.

Asvador brought us to the Bardakçž village where we stayed for some
time. My cousin Sema in Bardakçž would swear to us that in the
evening the Armenians would come and pick out ten or eleven women out
of the 150, and rape them until the morning. The women would be covered
with blood, and after they were dropped off they were unable to even
sit.

Meanwhile a Russian government was established in Van and Aram Pasha
became its leader. Aram Pasha's government proclaimed that any refugees
in need of food or water were welcome in Van. My father at this time
was in the Haçik village where he and my uncles were on Halil Pasha's
boat. From there they went to a village in the Hosap region. When my
uncles heard the proclamation they went to Van. They were shocked to
see that the city was burned and completely destroyed. The city used to
be at the foothill of the castle. Everything was completely destroyed:
the buildings, barracks, mosques, bathhouses, and government buildings.


My father was from the Haçbahan neighborhood where there were Armenian
homes and stores. Coincidentally, Asvador ran into him on the street.
After the customary greeting, my father asked him if he had any news
about our village. Asvador responded that they had slaughtered all of
Zeve, but that his younger wife, child and daughter were safe with him.
He volunteered to hand us over to my father. My father acknowledged the
favor by Asvador, but feared that the Armenians would kill him if he
went to the village, so he suggested that Asvador bring us to him
instead so that he could take us away. When Asvador came to see us that
night, he told us that he ran into my father, and that we should
prepare ourselves so that he could take us to him. In the morning he
loaded us onto an ox cart, took us to Van, and delivered us to my
father. I will never forget that day. My father took us to Hosap from
there. We didn't stay long because the Armenians were raiding a village
a day. Many people were fleeing either toward Iran, Mardin or
Diyarbakžr to save their lives.

Q: Mr. Ibrahim, can you tell us about what happened in Van. Apparently
the first revolt took place there, where the castle was toppled by
cannon fire, the city was completely destroyed, and an Armenian
government was set up. Since you were in Zeve you may have seen the
troubles in Van. Do you have any knowledge of the incidents in Van?

A: They used cannon fire to burn the castle. At that time we were in
the village of Bardakçž, and could see the fire in Van from there.
Mosques, buildings and barracks were burned. After capturing the
castle, they aimed some of the cannon fire downhill. The mosque near
the castle also was burned and destroyed, as well as the Hamitaga
barracks. They butchered almost all of the Muslims there &endash; only
a few women survived. After the Russian government was established,
these women complained to the Russians about the Armenians, and asked
for protection because they trusted the Russians more. The Russians had
the women guarded and did not violate their virtue, but the Armenians
raped our women and massacred the children and elderly.

Q: Mr. Ibrahim, is it possible that one of the reasons that the Russian
soldiers did not touch our women was the possible presence of Turks in
the Russian army?

A: Yes. There were Crimean and Caucasian soldiers and officers. They
protected our women because they too were Muslims. In fact, they even
sent them back to their villages including the Molla Kasžm village.
During the massacres they could only send 30 of the 150 women. They
planned to stay in the Molla Kasžm village until the Ottoman military
arrived. However, they were subject to even further hardships. When the
Russians retreated, the Armenians stayed behind. The Armenians
suggested that the Russians leave their weapons, ammunition, cannons,
and supplies, so they could fight the Ottoman government. When the
Russians left all of their equipment to them, the Armenians became even
more ruthless and continued the massacres. When our army starting
arriving from Bitlis to Gevas and clashing with these Armenians, the
Armenians headed to Van toward Muradiye and Kars. They ultimately went
to Russia and Iran. Only a handful of Armenians remained behind. They
stayed on small islands in Lake Van such as Çarpanak.

Q: Were there any Armenians in your Zeve village?

A: No, none.

Q: Where were you at the time that the Armenians established an
Armenian government with the Russians?

A: We were in Zeve at the time.

Q: How many people from Zeve survived?

A: In addition to myself, six women were saved from Zeve, and that was
only because of a good deed my father had done earlier. Everyone else
was murdered, including many women and children.

Q: They say that a mosque near the Van castle was burned. Was this
mosque in Van or Zeve?

A: It was in Van, but mosques in Zeve were burned down as well. In Van
they burned other mosques such as the Kayaçelebi, Ulu, and Hüsrev
Pasha, as well as many smaller mosques. You can still see all of their
traces.

Q: Were there any people inside the mosques in Van when they were
burned down?

A: Without a doubt.

Q: How about in Zeve?

A: Many had gone into the mosque for protection. Among them were uncle
Hamza, Dervis, and Derebeyli. I don't remember the names of the others
except for a great personality in Zeve whose name you may have heard;
Sultan Hacž Hamza. He built the first dervish lodge in the area.

Q: Isn't it true that during the massacres the Turks sought refuge in
the lodge thinking that they would not be killed?

A: They sought shelter in the tomb, not the lodge.

Q: They say that the Armenians burned down the tomb, is that right?

A: It is true. They set fire to the tomb too, and thought everyone
inside had been killed, but three people survived. Unfortunately,
mosques, tombs made no difference to them. They burned them down with
everyone inside. I hope God will protect us from similar events in the
future.


+++++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/imamzeynel.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses


IMAM ZEYNELABIDIN

Place of Birth: Kars
Date of Birth: 1908

I am 82 years old, and witnessed the Armenian massacres. The Armenians
raided the refugee tents of Mr. Abdullah, and killed him and many other
people whose names I do not know. Since Mr. Abdullah's second wife
Zeytun was very attractive, they took her away and killed him. One day,
they gathered the Muslims from Digor, and placed the men in Laz Hasan's
house. The women were put in the ditch near Hacž Aziz's home. They
fired into the ditch and killed more than 400 Muslims that way. As for
the men, they would take them out two by two and cut their heads off
with axes. From Mr. Halil's family, they killed him, his sons and the
rest of the family. I know their names because we were relatives.
Yusuf, his son, father of Esen, the mayor, was wounded but able to save
himself. His brothers Asaf, Arslan, and Tahir all died. They stole a
lot of personal property. All the people sought refuge in the
mountains. The elderly and sick that were left behind in the village
were all killed. I can't tell you all of the terrible things the
Armenians did. Thank God for our soldiers who saved Kars.


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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/kayacelebi.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

KAYA ÇELEBI
Father's Name: Vehbi
Mother's Name: Cemile
Place of Birth: Van
Date of Birth: 1925

Kaya Çelebi retells the stories told by his mother Cemile
(1884-1984).

Q: When did your mother pass away?

A: She passed away a month ago at the age of 100.

Q: Can you tell us, without editorializing, or becoming emotional, what
your mother said about the incidents in Van, the Armenian revolt, and
the reason that it happened?

A: You know the reasons. The Armenians lived under the protection of
the Ottoman State for 600 years, and had every privilege. They took
advantage of this land and of us. They rose to high positions including
ministers in government agencies. There was no pressure on them.
However, this favorable treatment caused a reaction. I predict that
they got the idea of forming their own state.

Q: Do you remember your mother's description of the development of the
revolt in Van and the accompanying incidents?

A: I can tell you about it. Their only goal was to establish an
Armenian state in eastern Anatolia with Van at its center. Revolts and
terrorist incidents started to take place everywhere. These even
started before the First World War, but the war was an opportunity for
them to collaborate with the Russians. The Armenians in Van and Erzurum
ensured the Russian entry into Van by leading them to the city after
the start of the war. Naturally, with the Russian occupation, many
Turks became refugees. In fact, they had previously sent a division in
Van to Erzurum, and Van was left without the presence of soldiers.
Van's leaders at the time went to the governor and asked him how he
permitted the departure of a division with the presence of an Armenian
threat. The governor responded that he could defend the city with a
squadron, since the opposition was not even a state. Despite all the
insistence, the division was sent to the front from Van. The public
became worried and held a meeting. They sent the division off, crying
and screaming, as if they knew what fate was awaiting them. Armenian
brigands took advantage of this situation and positioned themselves.
Van was occupied by Russian forces on May 20, 1915. Their terror
continued for two years, ten months, and eleven days until April 2,
1918. Given the oppression, the governor decided to evacuate Van.

Q: Since the revolt started in April, and the occupation was in May,
can you tell us about the beginning of the revolt as described by your
mother?

A: There were rebellions earlier as well, but the initial large revolt
was in April. The then-governor Cevdet Pasha saw that the situation had
deteriorated, and commanded that all women, children, elderly, men and
women board ships docked in Lake Van. Anyone that could carry a weapon
was already in the army &endash; most of them on the Erzurum front.
Those that were in Van could not have defended themselves. The ships
were full when they left, but since the owners were Armenian, they
carried the passengers to the side of the Çarpanak island and killed
many of them. This was later discovered, and the public then opted for
land transportation. My mother was pregnant, and had three other
children, 10, 7, and 5 years old. That day my mother gave birth. When
we learned that the Russians had started to advance from Çatak, she
wrapped up the child without recovering, and hit the road even though
she was ill. She was trying to follow a group to Edremit. Although she
was slowing down the crowd of 60-70 because she did not feel well, they
waited for her. My grandfather was a retired police officer, and my
father was a manager in Gürpžnar. My grandfather was with my mother
and helped her, because many people were too weak to carry their
children. For this reason there were many abandoned children on the
road. In fact, my grandfather thought it was best to leave the child,
but when my mother refused, he had no choice but to give up.

As the crowd left for Edremit, 7 guards were provided for protection.
However, 20-30 Armenian bandits cut them off around Edremit, and fought
with the guards. When the guards lost, the crowd was taken hostage. The
men were shot on the spot, and my grandfather died on my mother's lap.
Two of the bullets scraped my mother's shoulders, and the scars
remained for the rest of her life. After killing the elderly men in
cold blood, the Armenian bandits gathered the women and children, and
told them that they would be taken back to Van. After insulting,
torturing, and hitting them with the butt of guns, they took them to an
area outside of Van where they asked them to wait because they would
take them to the American Embassy. However, they explained that they
could not take the entire group at one time because the Russians would
kill them if they saw them, so they would take them in groups of three
or five. The bandits started leading small groups through the trees.
Among them was my mother's mother-in-law and other relatives. Soon
shots were heard, and the group thought there was a skirmish. In fact,
when they were out of sight, Armenians killed them and put them in
sacks. Another group was taken away, and again, shots were heard. When
the next group was taken, my mother was left behind since she had a
small child. However, they took away my siblings and two grandmothers,
and killed them as well. Meanwhile, an Armenian girl approached my
mother. My mother said she was their gardener's daughter. My
grandfather was one of the outstanding citizens of Van.

Q: What was your grandfather's name?

A: It was Mahmut. The Armenian girl asked why my mother was sitting
around. She responded that she would be taken to the American Embassy,
just like her mother, mother-in-law, children, and other relatives
before her. The girl revealed that they were all taken further down the
road to be killed, and offered to take my mother to the Embassy since
she was considered a family friend.

My mother then followed her and fled to the American consulate without
being discovered among the trees. She sought refuge there for some
time, but the Russians claimed the refugees as their prisoners, and
took all of the women, with the understanding that they would be led to
Batum and Tiflis. They hit the road under Russian military
surveillance, and traveled with horses and donkeys.

Q: Was this group massacred as well?

A: Armenian bandits stopped them as well, and tried to take them away
by force. The Russians did not permit them, but there were casualties
in the process.

Q: Was your mother saved?

A: My mother was saved, and went as far as Tiflis where Azeri Turks
lived. They distributed one or two people per home, and my mother was
placed in a Turkish home. She did not know her children were killed,
and told the man of the house that her children were sent to the
consulate in Batum. She asked to be taken there so that she could look
for them. Because the gentleman was well off, he was able to send her
to Batumi shortly, where she visited all of the orphanages. Despite her
endeavors and search, she was unable to locate her children or
relatives, and had to give up. These orphanages were established by
Azeri Turks, and took care of all refugee children. When they
discovered that my mother could read and write, they made her manager
of one of the orphanages. My mother was around thirty years old at the
time, and managed the orphanage for about three years. She cared for
and taught the children. Finally, after three years, Van was liberated
by the Turks on April 2, 1918. A truce was later signed, and prisoners
were exchanged. That is when my mother arrived in Istanbul on a ship
called "Nurcemal". After an exhaustive search, she found some
relatives, and settled down near them. Meanwhile, my father looked for
my mother in Batum. After learning from the prisoners that she had gone
to Istanbul, he travelled there and found her. Five years later, my
father opened a tea house and took a civilian job with the military. He
joined a group in Besiktas which took officers to the independence
struggle in Anatolia. They carried men at night in boats and ships. He
thereby helped Atatürk by supplying him with very capable commanders.

Q: Do you remember what your mother told you about the atrocities the
Armenians committed in Van?

A: She said this about the massacres: Instead of taking them to the
American consulate, they stuffed many Turks into homes, poured gasoline
on them, and burned the inhabitants alive. The other massacres took
place in the Zeve village near Van. The Armenians raided this village.
Of course, there were no men that were able to fight in this village,
they were all at the front. There were only women and the elderly, who
tried to defend themselves with weapon scraps. But when they ran out of
ammunition, the Armenians entered the village. Some of the Turks hid,
and hoped they would not be hurt, but the Armenians started to kill
women, children, the elderly, and anyone who crossed their paths. They
burned some of them alive, and raped the women. Some women could not
tolerate what was happening, and threw themselves in the river hoping
to preserve their dignity. They took their lives without surrendering.
As a result, more than 2,000 people died.

We built a monument to the martyrs in Zeve to commemorate these
incidents. We unveiled it in 1973 at the 50th anniversary of the
Republic. We tried to publicize the massacre to the world in this way.


++++++++++++++++






http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/kadriyeduran.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

KADRIYE DURAN
Father's Name: Hamid
Mother's Name: Nigar
Place of Birth: Van-Kavunlu (Çoravanis)
Date of Birth: 1904

I was ten years old when we became refugees. Before we fled, Degirmen
was an Armenian village which included 80 Armenian families and three
Muslim Turkish families. One day the Armenians gathered the three
families, cut them up, and tossed them into a well. They tortured and
killed the young men by cutting "pockets" into their thighs and
crucified them by nailing them to the wall by their foreheads. Roughly
30 young people died this way. A woman whose father-in-law lived in the
Degirmen village came to tell a cleric in our village what was going on
in Degirmen. After this, conflicts arose with the Armenians living in
our village, and a few Armenians were killed. After what happened in
the Degirmen village, a weapon was distributed to every home in our
village as a precaution. My father was the headman of our village.
Since the surrounding villages were Armenian, the Muslim population
feared that our village would be attacked, and gathered in the mosque.
We filled sacks with sand and used them as barriers.

During this time, two young Armenians were locked into a home because
our villagers could not bear to kill them. But they dug a tunnel under
the house, and fled to Degirmen village carrying news. Then the
inhabitants of three villages, Degirmen, Faržh and another Armenian
village raided our village. The fighting lasted for more than an hour.
The Armenians controlled the bridge above the stream, and invaded
Ziyaret as well. The stream overflowed with melted snow, and it was
pure chaos when we tried to cross the stream. When my mother entered
the water, it reached her chest. Naturally, people broke their arms,
legs, or heads, while children were carried away by the water. It was
hell, pure hell. The Armenians were throwing the dead bodies onto heaps
of wheat. The bodies had piled up like hills. My father jumped on his
horse and went to Van from Akköprü. Since Sžhke was an Armenian
village, they didn't give him permission to pass through. My father
explained the situation to the governor of Van, Cevdet Pasha and asked
for his help. One hundred soldiers came to our rescue, and the
Armenians fled. We hid in the village of Dirandaz which was Muslim.
After spending the night there, my father went to Van in the morning
and asked those entering the city if we should return to our village.
They said that we shouldn't, so we were forced to become refugees. My
sisters and I wore men's clothing and hit the road.

We were going towards Edremit when the Armenians raided Van. The city
was burning, and the houses were in flames which reached the sky. We
reached Edremit, but they raided that too. We went from there to
Bitlis, from Bitlis to Siirt, to Diyarbakžr, and then to Siverek. We
stayed there three years. There were eight people in our family who
became refugees. On the way, my brother Ali was captured. The rest died
on the road. Only my mother and I were able to return to Van. We
weren't the only ones affected. The inhabitants of Van, Edremit, and
Van's Muslim villages all became refugees. Those that didn't run were
killed at the hands of the enemy, while most of those that got away
died on the road.

A few years later, my mother and I returned to Van, and what did we
see? There were ruins everywhere, a few people, but they were all
hungry, thirsty, and miserable. Neighborhoods and houses were empty.
There was no bread, wheat, or anything. We were compelled to return to
the village of Çoravanis. The wheat there was starting to mature. We
cracked the bitter seeds, boiled them, and drank the water. The
Armenians took whatever furniture, goods, animals, or whatever they
could find, and destroyed our houses as well. A man on a horse who saw
us alone in the village told us that there was a grain storage area
near the pier. My mother and I went to get 60 kilos of flour there, but
it was later stolen. The Armenians had not yet withdrawn completely.
There were bandits everywhere. One time my mother and I went to the
Erek mountain to gather pieces of metal which we wanted to trade for
bread with the soldiers. We ran into six Armenians who were going to
kill us, but when it suddenly started to rain and hail, we ran away and
hid in a cave. We barely saved our lives.

We suffered considerably. Three years later my brother died in
captivity. We were told that the Armenians were going to kill him, but
the Russians objected. They had made him build roads in Armenian
villages by hand. We rebuilt our homes, planted our fields, and started
anew.



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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/kamileelibol.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses


KAMILE ELIBOL
Father's Name: Ali
Mother's Name: Kisma
Place of Birth: Van-Ercis-Gölagzž

I am from the Gölagzž village of Ercis, which is now a neighborhood
of Ercis. I was ten years old when the Armenians raided our village. We
had no early warning or intelligence that the Armenians and Russians
would invade. One day we were told that Ercis was destroyed, and that
the Russians had invaded. Those that heard the news in time fled, but
we were caught by surprise. We too gathered our belongings and joined
the refugees. When the Armenians invaded, those that were able to get
away did -- those remaining were all killed. Many men were able to get
away, but the women and children were caught. They were collected and
brought to the castle. My God, they raped the children, then they
killed them. They killed so many people that they piled the bodies onto
ships and threw them into the Lake Van. Of course, I had relatives that
died too. The relatives on my father's side whose names I can remember
are Celal, Cemal, Ali, and Nurettin. We first ran away to Ahlat, and
from there to Tatvan, Bitlis, Diyarbakžr, Adana, and Konya where we
stayed about ten years. When we returned, Ercis and Gölagzž were
burned and destroyed. The Armenians left nothing, they destroyed
everything.




++++++++++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/mehmethatunoglu.html


Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

MEHMET HATUNOGLU

Father's Name: Veli Çavus

Some of us young people, and the elderly able to fire a gun went up to
the mountains to defend ourselves against the Armenian massacres. We
learned that the Armenians burned Ercis, along with the old Karayusuf
Pasha Mosque, sükrü's home, and many other buildings with our women
and children inside. We chose the most courageous among us and sent
them down to the city at night to learn what was going on. I can't tell
you what I saw, it was so hideous. They [Armenians] planted a stake
every fifty meters on the Pulur (now Ǟnarlž neighborhood), and
Ercis -Egans road, and impaled the elderly taken from the mosques on
these stakes. They all died in a pool of blood. Then we went into the
large Çavusoglu barn, and saw people sliced up and laying in blood,
most of which were relatives or people we knew. They were beaten and
killed with axes, shovels, and cleavers. They placed a basket over the
head of Haydar Imam, and impaled him. We thought that no one was left
alive, but later learned that Kžçe, who worked as a maid with the
Armenians, survived but had lost consciousness.

The Armenian simo had a beautiful daughter who was very helpful to
Muslim Turks. She would bring them water and intelligence. According to
rumor, she was in love with a young man named Emin. She was caught
bringing news to the Turks the day the barn was raided, and she too was
killed. There were about twenty or twenty five people in the barn. Some
of them were taken to the pilgrimage in Haydarbey after we returned
from exile. Other bodies which started to rot were covered by wicker,
dirt, and herbs by a group of women. Until recently this was a place
where people visited martyrs and prayed. After some time, no one took
responsibility for the site, and it fell into disrepair.


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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/muhammet_resit.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

MUHAMMET RESIT GÜLESER

Father's Name: Abdullah
Mother's Name: Habibe
Place of Birth: Van
Date of Birth: 1900

I was a young student at the Dar'ül-Muallimin school, around 15 or 16
years old during the Armenian massacres, and remember what happened
quite well. Before the First World War, we had good neighborly
relations with the Armenians (whose population was said to be
approximately 17,000).

With the declaration of the constitutional monarchy in 1908, they
started to exploit the principles of independence, equality, and
justice to their benefit. Their leader in Van, Aram Pasha, was in the
delegation that notified Sultan Hamit that he would have to leave his
throne. The Armenians set up an underground organization in Van, and
dug tunnels which extended from near the Great Mosque (Büyük Cami)
all the way to the old section of town. It was even possible to go
through these tunnels on horseback. One day the tunnels were
inadvertently discovered when a section caved near a guard. Even though
Aram Pasha was detained near the Great Mosque based on the intelligence
provided by an Armenian after the discovery, he was released without
punishment due to the political sensitivities of the time.

In short, the Armenians were very well organized. Already well
established in commerce, they were doing very well financially. After
the Armenians and Jews were permitted to join the military, groups of
Armenians joined the military during the retreat of the Van division.
The Armenians entered the military prepared -- with their own weapons.
Our soldiers were carrying German-made primitive weapons that after
firing four shots, would drop the fifth bullet. According to what we
had heard from Mr. Hacž Latif and others who later returned to Van,
the Armenians in the Van division were shooting our soldiers in the
back. There were also several cases of Armenian doctors and nurses
poisoning our wounded soldiers who were hospitalized in Van after
returning from the eastern front.

Regarding the situation in Van, the Russians were approaching from
three fronts, Muradiye, Özalp, and Baskale. The Armenians in the city
were rebelling and continued an aggressive campaign against the Muslim
population for 29 days. We had three barracks, Hacž Bekir, Aziziye,
and Toprakkale. Ten soldiers would guard each one. They raided these
barracks and slaughtered the soldiers like sheep by slicing their
throats. Ali Çavus was also martyred there. While our weak militia
were digging trenches to try to fight, the Armenians made holes in the
walls and were firing shots with machine guns, pouring cans of
kerosene, lighting fires, and escaping through the deep tunnels. This
brutal attack lasted 29 days. The decision to flee was finally made so
that the Muslim population would not suffer any more deaths. Those with
carts used them; those without were under desperate conditions, but we
all joined the exodus. People left their children on the road, others
died from hunger and disease.

It should be remembered that the Armenians not only committed large
massacres in Van, but in the villages as well. The homes in the
villages of Tžmar, Baskale, and Özalp were stuffed with hay and set
on fire. Those that tried to escape were killed with bullets and
bayonets. The inhabitants of a few villages in Zeve organized and
fought the Armenians, but almost all of them -- from seven different
villages -- were killed. Mass graves are still being uncovered in these
villages and a memorial was built.

Of the twelve ships that carried the Muslim refugees from Van, four of
them carried government employees and their families. All of the
sailors aboard the vessels were Armenians. The Armenian bandits, aided
by these sailors, forced the four government employee boats to dock at
the Adžr island, and killed all of the passengers. As for those in the
other eight boats, they were taken to another island near Tatvan where
Armenian bandits were waiting, but were able to escape with few
casualties because they were armed.

When we left Van, we first went to Bitlis, and later to Diyarbakžr. We
witnessed the Armenian savagery along the way. Finally, I will tell you
about what we saw and heard upon returning to Van. The Armenians
applied all types of torture to the inhabitants, God bless their souls.
They paraded Isa Hodja, who was over 100 years old, on a donkey through
the village, raided and looted homes, and gathered women and girls into
Mr. Ziya's home where they repeatedly raped them. They threw the bodies
of the dead into wells, and even filled the well of our mosque with
their victims' bodies.

When General Cevdet entered Van for the first time, he asked the
gendarmes to escort 130 women whose husbands were at the front to
Diyarbakžr. They had been stranded in Van because they did not have
any transportation. About 30 of them stayed in our house. They spun
wool to survive. They were also given military rations. They told us
that there was no end to the torture and cruelties they suffered at the
hands of the Armenian bandits. The Armenians skinned the men, castrated
them, and raped and impaled the women.

We returned to Van four years later. We stayed two years initially, but
were forced to flee again when the Russians arrived. This time we went
as far as Siirt. When we returned 200-250 Armenian families were
seeking refuge on the Çarpanak island. They were hoping that the Turks
would leave, and that they would resettle in Van. Most of them were
artisans. A short time later, a new decree was issued, and they were
sent to Revan under the protection of the government. However, Van,
raided seven times by the enemy, was completely destroyed except for
the Armenian quarters. We had to rebuild the city.


+++++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/mehmetsaar.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

MEHMET SAAR
Father's Name: Tevfik
Mother's Name: Rukiye
Place of Birth: Van-Göllü
Date of Birth: 1901

I am from the Göllü village. The Armenians revolted when the army in
Van retreated toward Erzurum. Our mothers and fathers were all slain by
Armenians. My father, a gendarme sergeant, was among those killed. The
villagers in Mollakasžm, Amik, sžhayne, Göllü, Hždžr, Kurtsatan,
and Köprüköy were also murdered. Part of our village hid in Zeve and
were later killed, but we were able to escape. Armenians tortured and
inflicted all types of cruelties on the people they kidnapped. They cut
up pregnant women and removed the unborn children with bayonets. They
raided and burned all of the Muslim villages, murdering men, women,
young and old. The Muslim population which fled the villages I named
tried to escape by crossing the bridge on the Ablengez River. The
Armenians demolished the bridge, and threw the bodies of their
prisoners into the river. In the spring when the snow melted, the
bodies were emptied into the lake. During the day, my mother, my two
sisters, and I would lie low and advance slowly by the crops on the
river, and at night we would stay in the hills. We knew if the
Armenians found us they would kill us. My mother died before we reached
Diyarbakžr. I later lost my two sisters, and was left all alone. I
stayed in Diyarbakžr for three years, and returned to my village the
fourth year. Since Van and the Muslim villages were all burned and
destroyed, we settled down in an Armenian village since they remained
intact. We later returned to our villages which we rebuilt with our own
hands.

Words cannot express the torture we suffered at the hands of the
Armenians. We lost our homes, families, and possessions. After losing
my mother, father, and two sisters, I also lost my cousin and other
relatives who were trying to escape to Tatvan by ship with thousands of
other people. All of the passengers on the ship were brutally
slaughtered and dismembered by the Armenians near the Parkat village
near Adilcevaz.


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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/mehmettas.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

MEHMET TAS
Place of Birth: Kars-Esenbogaz
Date of Birth: 1902

(Mehmet Tas pointed out the scars on his face). When the Armenians
raided our village, we all sought refuge in the nearby forest. They
fooled us into coming back to the village, stuffed us into a barn, cut
us up, and burned us. An Armenian saw me, swung the sword to my face,
and threw me into the fire. I immediately stood up and fell again among
the dead. The soldiers came that night. I don't remember anything else
because I was very young, but my foot was burned.



+++++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/oructurkeli.html


Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

ORUÇ TÜRKELI
Place of Birth: Kars-Hakmehmet
Date of Birth: 1899

There were no Armenian homes in our village at the time. Then
Armenians and Muslims became enemies, and the Armenians arrived in
Kars. They didn't have any possessions or homes then, but they came and
stayed in our village. The Armenians had a wise man named Dikran who
also stayed in our village. The oldest was their leader.

My mother would make bread, and I stayed near her. One day, I went
outside to play with the children and have a good time. I heard that
the Armenians surrounded the village. I asked myself why this was so,
since Armenians lived among us as well. They told us to gather our
belongings so that we could make peace. I went home to tell my mother.
She had baked bread, and two armed Armenians came and told us to gather
the bread and go inside. We did as they said. It was either the first
or second day of our religious holiday. We had meat too, but they left
nothing. They took us away.

There is a home in the village where they put all the women, men and
children from the village. They put the older boys and men in one room,
and the younger ones with the women. I was with my mother. We had a few
gold coins which my mother placed at the baseboards of the walls,
because they would come and search the homes and confiscate any money.
We had nothing else. Nightfall came and it became dark. They treated us
like a heard of sheep. We were women and children. They put two
Armenians on each side of us who led us by poking us with bayonets.
They took us out of the village, and would stop and check us from time
to time for money. My mother threw the coins on the ground which was
made of dirt and stepped on them. They took us to the fields in the
middle of the village, and told us to divide into two and march toward
the next village. Armenians on horses arrived, and they told us they
would take us back because the other Armenians would kill us. We
continued to march, while they returned. They stood and waited for a
while, and then left. There were many small children with their
mothers. Those unable to carry the children left them behind. Mothers
were carrying one child in their arms, one on their backs, and holding
the others by the hand. A few children were left by rocks or ditches.

We went to Iranian villages, and later learned that they massacred
those that stayed behind, including my father, and threw the bodies
into wells. Some were killed by bullets, some by sword, and some were
thrown into the wells alive. Those wells were old and deep, but they
threw them all in there. We stayed in Iran for eight to ten years. Our
villagers later returned, but of course my father was killed by the
Armenians.


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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/saitaldanmaz.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses


SAIT ALDANMAZ
Father's Name: Bahri
Mother's Name: Nigar
Place of Birth: Bitlis
Date of Birth: 1900

I was fourteen years old during the mobilization. Armenians insulted us
in every way. With my own eyes, I saw an Armenian poke a dagger into a
woman's stomach and pull out her child. They killed 15-20 people with
bayonets in my neighborhood of Ersan. When the Russians arrived, the
Armenians helped them. The Armenians who arrived with the Russians
attacked our soldiers under the Hormuz police station. We saw the
bodies which were left on the snow. These incidents took place during
the second migration of September,1916. We fled one other time in July
1915, and stayed in Gorlar for a month. When the Russians were unable
to penetrate Bitlis, we returned. Only 45 families fled. We left
everything behind -- our home, our animals, our barn &endash; and they
were all destroyed. Among the ruins of every home, in the fields, and
in the farms were the bodies of people killed with the Armenians'
bayonets. We applied for permission to bury them. The soldiers dug
ditches and the bodies were buried there. There were thousands, not
hundreds of bodies, because five-ten people were killed in each home
with bayonets.



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http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/seyhcemal.html



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses


SEYH CEMAL TALAY
Father's Name: Cimsid
Mother's Name: Fatma
Place of Birth: Van
Date of Birth: 1901

The Russians were providing weapons to the Armenians. With military
assistance from the Russians and encouragement from England, France,
and the United States, all of which had consulates in Van, Armenians
increased their hostilities in the beginning of 1915. The Russians were
secretly providing them with sophisticated arms hidden in food supplies
sent from Russia to the port of Trabzon, and from there sent by caravan
to Van. The goods on the caravans were distributed in the center of the
old city, and the hidden ammunition was secretly distributed to the
Armenian militants. The leader of the Armenian rebellion in Van was
Aram Pasha, but I don't remember the name of the leader of the
Dashnaks. They all had land claims, especially in Van. The 11th
squadron was assigned to Van, but went to Erzurum to mobilize. The
Armenian bandits were emboldened by this and started their campaign of
terror against the Muslim inhabitants.

The militants were launching raids on the Muslim villages and
neighborhoods. The only thing we had to fight them with was a militia
led by IImam Osman, composed of those either too old or too young to
join the army.

Let me tell you a story which I will never forget. I went to a school
located near the government mansion. Armenians studied at the same
school. Some of the students in the Armenian underground went to get a
Muslim student named Rüstü from his home on the pretext of studying.
They took him to the Isžtma bridge near the industrial park. After
insulting him, they raped and killed him, leaving his body for his
family to find the next day. The family later composed a ballad to
honor his memory.

I can remember the beginning of the skirmishes between the Muslims and
Armenians. Our militia, which would meet in the Mahmut Aga barracks
across the street from the Van State Hospital, was on duty a day before
the war with the Armenians started. The Armenians prepared the night
before and positioned themselves well. They had dug holes in the State
mansion, and when our militia was preparing for morning prayer at a
fountain nearby, the Armenians showered them with bullets. Many of our
soldiers were killed. The fighting between local Muslims and Armenians
had begun. Everyone took to the streets, and mass confusion ensued.
Despite this, we got up and went to school. We had two teachers, one
from Selanik, one from Edirne. They said "Come on kids, let's all
forgive each other, we might not see each other again," and suggested
we use the side streets to avoid Armenian bullets. I left school with
some friends, but decided to take our regular route. We saw that
weapons and munitions were being distributed in front of a munitions
storage area for protection against the Armenians. We then noticed a
few Armenians creeping up from behind, and notified the man
distributing the weapons. He threw down the munitions in his hand and
fired on them, and they ran away.

The wars started on April 2-3, 1915. In 1914, the Russians had not been
able to penetrate the front line, but they surrounded our soldiers from
behind by passing Çaldžran-Bahçesaray, and established a
headquarters in the Molla Hasan village.

It was difficult to provide our soldiers with military supplies since
the young students and elderly people carrying the equipment could not
go further because of the cold weather. Many of them died.

We couldn't go anywhere either. But in the spring the Armenians went
completely crazy. On May 10, 1915, the Russians were moving toward Van.
On Governor Cevdet's orders we evacuated Van, taking with us what we
could carry. During the war, Armenian brutality had reached a stage
that no one, including the old, sick, captive, women, or children,
could escape. The atrocities reached the degree that even the
Armenians' main supporters, the Russians, were trying to prohibit their
actions.

My grandmother Mihri couldn't flee with us because one of my uncles was
paralyzed from the waist down. Unable to speak because of the shock of
what happened in our absence, she later used sign language to explain
what had transpired. They shaved my uncle's mustache along with his
flesh, and then took them to a house which they used as a detention
center and tortured him and the other captives until the Russians
arrived.

When we became refugees there were 23 members of our family. We lost
most of our family on the road to Bitlis and Urfa. Only two of us
returned to Van. Our first stop on the road was Bitlis where we arrived
in 11 days, and then went to Siirt, where we had relatives with whom we
stayed for a few months. When we heard about the Russian advance, we
again fled to Diyarbakžr. Our convoy consisted of 250 people. We
suffered from hunger and thirst on the way. We went through Kurtalan
and Diyarbakžr and the village of Kebir, where we didn't stay long,
and again took the road to return to Van. When we reached Kurtalan, we
learned that the Russians had entered Van again and went to Siirt. In
the spring of 1916 we went to Baghdad, but fled to Mardin when the
English advanced. In 1917 we arrived in Urfa. The French who entered
Urfa started tormenting the Muslims by bringing the Aleppo Armenians to
the city. This time we fought for 22 days.

We had left Van in 1915. When we were finally able to return, only two
people remained from the 23-member family. Van was totally destroyed.
The Armenians burned and demolished everything except for the
Armenian-owned homes. In fact, when the Turkish army entered Van,
around 2,000 Armenian artisans, expecting retaliation for their
repression of the Turkish population, sought refuge on the island of
Adžr. The Turkish government instead ensured their safe passage to
Revan.


+++++++++++++++




http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/testimonies/yamintosun.html




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

YAMIN TOSUN
Father's Name: Osman
Mother's Name: Hanžm
Place of Birth: Van-Ercis -Haydarbey

I am from the Haydarbey village. We became refugees when the Armenians
revolted and the Russians came. We moved to Urfa, where my mother,
father, and sibling died because of the famine that year. When the
Russians retreated, Armenians took their place, but the Turkish army
pushed them back to Revan. We returned to our homes, and found Ercis,
the Muslim village and our village completely burned down and
demolished.
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-16 04:09:15 UTC
Permalink
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ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Muhammet Resit Guleser

Father's Name : Abdullah
Mother's Name : Habibe
Place of Birth : Van
Date of Birth: 1900


I was a young student at the (Teachers' training college) school,
around 15 or 16 years old during the Armenian massacres, and remember
what happened quite well. Before the First World War, we had good
neighbourly relations with the Armenians (whose population was said to
be approximately 17,000).

With the declaration of the constitutional monarchy in 1908, they
started to exploit the principles of independence, equality, and
justice to their benefit. Their leader in Van, Aram Pasha, was in the
delegation that notified Sultan Hamit that he would have to leave his
throne. The Armenians set up an underground organization in Van, and
dug tunnels which extended from near the Great Mosque (Büyük Camii)
all the way to the old section of town. It was even possible to go
through these tunnels on horseback. One day some parts of the tunnel
collapsed so was discovered by a guard incidentally. Aram Pasha was
caught near the Great Mosque upon the intelligence of an Armenian but
was released without punishment due to the political sensitivities of
the time.

In short, the Armenians organized themselves very well and became rich
financially in commerce. After the Armenians and Jews were permitted to
join the military, some groups of Armenians, joined the military with
their weapons during the retreat of the Van division. Our soldiers were
carrying German-made primitive weapons which could only fire four shots
and the fifth one would drop to the gound. According to what we had
heard from Mr. Haci Latif and the others who later returned to Van, the
Armenians in the Van division were shooting our soldiers in the back.
There were also several cases of Armenian doctors and nurses poisoning
our wounded soldiers who were treated in the hospitals in Van after
returning from the eastern front.

As to the situation in Van, the Russians were approaching from three
fronts, Muradiye, Özalp, and Baskale. The Armenians in the city were
rebelling and continued an aggressive campaign against the Muslim
population for 29 days. We had three barracks, Haci Bekir, Aziziye, and
Toprakkale. Ten soldiers would guard each one. They attacked to these
barracks and slaughtered the soldiers like sheep by cutting their
throats off. Ali Cavus, our neighbour, was also slained there. While
our weak militia were digging trenches to trying to fight, the
Armenians made holes in the walls and were firing shots with machine
guns, pouring cans of kerosene, lighting fires, and escaping through
the deep tunnels. This brutal attack lasted 29 days. The decision of
retreat was finally made so that the Muslim population would not suffer
any more deaths. Those with carts used them; those without them were
under desperate conditions, but we all joined the exodus. People left
their children on the roads, others died from hunger and disease.

It should be remembered that the Armenians not only committed large
massacres in Van, but in the villages as well. The homes in the
villages of Timar, Bakale, and Özalp were stuffed with hay and set on
fire. Those that tried to escape were killed with bullets and bayonets.
The inhabitants of a few villages in Zeve got organized and fought
against the Armenians, but almost all of them -from seven different
villages- were killed. Mass graves are still being uncovered in these
villages and a memorial was built.

Eight of the twelve ships carried the Muslim refugees from Van, four
ships carried government employees and their families. All the sailors
aboard the vessels were Armenians. The Armenian bandits by the help of
these sailors, forced the four government employee boats to dock at the
Adir Island, and killed all the passengers. As to the remaining other
eight boats they were taken to another island near Tatvan where
Armenian bandits were waiting, but they managed to escape with few
casualties because they were armed.

When we left Van, we first went to Bitlis, and later to Diyarbakir. We
witnessed the Armenian savagery along the way. Finally, I will tell you
about what we saw and heard upon returning to Van. The Armenians
applied all types of torture to the inhabitants, God bless their souls.
They paraded Isa Hodja, who was over 100 years old, on a donkey through
the village, raided and looted homes, and gathered women and girls into
Mr. Ziya's home where they repeatedly raped them. They threw the bodies
of the dead into wells, and even filled the well of our mosque with the
bodies of victims.

When General Cevdet entered Van for the first time, he asked the
gendarmes to escort 130 women, whose husbands were at the front, to
Diyarbakir. They were in bad situation in Van because they did not have
any transportation. About 30 of them stayed in our house. They spun
wool to survive. They were also given military rations. They told us
that there was no end to the torture and cruelties they suffered at the
hands of the Armenian bandits. The Armenians skinned the men, castrated
them, and raped the women.

We returned to Van four years later. In the beginning we stayed two
years, but were forced to flee again when the Russians arrived. This
time we went as far as we could go. Finally we arrived to Siirt. When
we returned, 200-250 Armenian families were seeking refuge on the
Carpanak Island. They were hoping that the Turks would leave, and that
they would resettle in Van. Most of them were artisans. A short time
later, a new decree was issued, and they were sent to Revan under the
protection of the government. However, Van was raided seven times by
the enemy, was completely destroyed except for the Armenian quarters.
We rebuilt the city afterwards.


+++++++++++++++++++




http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=3351


ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Seyh Cemal Talay

Father's Name: Cimsid
Mother's Name : Fatma
Place of Birth : Van
Date of Birth: 1901

The Russians were providing weapons for the Armenian bandits. With
military assistance of Russia and encouragement of England, France and
the United States -all had consulates in Van- Armenians increased their
hostilities in the beginning of 1915. The Russians were secretly
providing them weapons hidden in food supplies, which they sent to
Russia through the port of Trabzon. Those supplies were transported by
caravans to Van. The goods on the caravans were distributed in the
centre of the old city, and the hidden ammunition was secretly
distributed to the Armenian militants. The leader of the Armenian
revolt in Van was Aram Pasha. But I don't remember the name of the
Dashnaks' leader. They all had land claims, especially in Van. The 11th
squadron was assigned to Van, but went to Erzurum to be mobilised. The
Armenian bandits increased their activities and started their terrorist
campaigns against the Muslim inhabitants.

The militants were raiding the Muslim villages and neighbourhoods. The
only thing we had to fight them with was a militia led by Imam Osman,
composed of those either too old or too young to join the army.

Let me tell you a story which I will never forget. I went to a school
located near the government mansion. Armenian children also studied at
the same school. Some of the students in the Armenian underground went
to get a Muslim student named Rustu from his home with an excuse of
studying. They took him to the Isitma bridge near the industrial park.
After insulting him, they raped and killed him, leaving his body for
his family to find the next day. The family later composed a ballad to
honour his memory.

I can remember the beginning of the skirmishes between the Muslims and
Armenians. Our militia, which would meet in the Mahmut Aga barracks
across the street from the Van State Hospital, was on duty, a day
before the war with the Armenians started. The Armenians prepared the
night before and positioned themselves. They dug holes in the State
Mansion, and when our militia was preparing for morning prayer at a
fountain nearby, the Armenians showered them with bullets. Many of our
soldiers were killed. The fighting between local Muslims and Armenians
began. There was a big confusion in the streets from both sides.
Despite this, we got up and went to school. We had two teachers, one
from Salonica, one from Edirne. They said "Come on kids, let's all
forgive each other, we might not see each other again" and suggested we
use the side streets to avoid Armenian bullets. I left school with some
friends, but decided to take our regular route. We saw that weapons and
ammunition were being distributed in front of a storage area for
protection against the Armenians. We then noticed a few Armenians
creeping up from behind, and notified the man distributing the weapons.
He threw them down in his hand and fired on them, and they ran away.

The war started on April 2 and 3 in 1915. In 1914, the Russians were
not able to penetrate the front line, but they surrounded our soldiers
from behind by passing Caldiran-Bahcesaray, and established
headquarters in the Molla Hasan village.
It was difficult to provide our soldiers with military supplies since
the young students and elderly people carrying the equipment could not
go further because of the cold weather. Many of them died.

We couldn't go anywhere. But in the spring the Armenians went
completely crazy. On May 10, 1915, the Russians were moving towards
Van. With Governor Cevdet's orders we evacuated Van, taking with us
what we could carry. During the war, Armenian brutality reached a stage
that no one, including the old, sick, captive, women or children could
escape. The atrocities reached the degree that even the Armenians' main
supporters, the Russians, were trying to prohibit their actions.

My grandmother Mihri couldn't flee with us because one of my uncles was
paralysed from the waist down. Unable to speak because of the shock of
what happened in our absence, she later learned to speak by sign in
order to explain what happened. They shaved my uncle's moustache along
with his flesh, and then took them to a house which they used as a
detention centre and tortured him and the other captives until the
Russians arrived.

When we became refugees there were 23 members of our family. We lost
most of our family on the road to Bitlis and Urfa. Only two of us
returned to Van. Our first stop on the road was Bitlis where we arrived
in eleven days, and then went to Siirt, where we had relatives with
whom we stayed for a few months. When we heard about the Russian
advance, we again fled to Diyarbakir. Our convoy consisted of 250
people. We suffered from hunger and thirst on the way. We went through
Kurtalan and Diyarbakir and the village of Kebir, where we did not stay
long, and again took the road to return to Van. When we reached
Kurtalan, we learned that the Russians had entered Van again and went
to Siirt. In the spring of 1916, we went to Baghdad, but fled to Mardin
when the English Army advanced. In 1917, we arrived to Urfa. The French
who entered Urfa started tormenting the Muslims by bringing the
Armenian of Aleppo to the city. This time we fought for twenty-two
days.

We left Van in 1915. When we were finally able to return, only two
people remained from the 23-membered family. Van was totally destroyed.
The Armenians burned and demolished everything except for the Armenian
houses. In fact, when the Turkish army entered Van, around 2.000
Armenian artisans, expecting retaliation for their repression of the
Turkish population, sought refuge on the island of Adir. The Turkish
government instead ensured their safe passage to Revan.


+++++++++++++++++++



http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=3352


ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Salih Tasci

Father's Name: Mirza
Mother's Name: Hane
Place of Birth: Van
Date of Birth: 1883

The Armenians who revolted by the Russian assistance began to fight
against the Muslims though they had lived together for many years.
Their intention was to steal our lands and to establish an Armenian
state. They had dugouts underground and they were easily hiding in them
after they killed the Turks.

They tortured people especially in central Van and in the castle. Their
leader was a man called Aram Pasha. We were defeated by them as they
had rich ammunitions. Then we decided to migrate to safer places as we
did not want to suffer more casualties.

Some people went to Bitlis by way of land and some went by sea. The
ones who stayed were all killed. The refugees of Van were spread
everywhere in country. From Bitlis to Diyarbakir, Elazig, Nazilli,
Burdur... However, the Armenians undertook massacres in the villages of
Van.

In those villages the Armenians and the Russians closed the roads. They
killed all the men and raped all the women there. Later, Armenian
bandits gathered in Van and carried massacres out there too. In short,
it was like the doomsday. In Lake Van there were sailing boats. They
really tortured so much that they got bored from killing people. They
put the people into the boats and threw them in to the lake.

Those Armenians nailed our elders to the walls from their hands and
foreheads. We resisted them as much as we could do and fought. We did
everything necessary. But, we never touched any Armenian child or
women; we just fought against men. Armenians were so cruel. After I
returned from the Iranian Front in 1921, I found Van in a ruin. All the
Turkish districts were burnt by the Armenians and the Russians; all the
Muslim properties were plundered. But, the Armenian houses were still
standing out. Van was empty. Later, the Muslims returned one by one.
Everybody began to rebuild his house; we have rebuilt the city.



++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=3353

ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Bekir Yoruk

Father's Name : Yusuf
Mother's Name : Gülnaz
Place of Birth : Van
Date of Birth: 1900

Q: Can you tell us what you can remember and what the Armenians did in
Van and Gevas?

A: We lived in the same neighbourhoods with the Armenians. We were
living in Norsin neighbourhood and got along well until the Russians
intervention. In those days, the Armenian youth established committees
by Russian encouragement, and started causing trouble. They killed the
police superintendent and threw him in the park. They killed the
postman in Hasbagi. They bombed a building, which is a bath now, and
twenty people died in the explosion. When the constitutional monarchy
was declared, the mufti and the priest shook hands and declared the
brotherhood of Muslims and Christians. The Mufti cried as he shook
hands, but events developed against us. The committee members became
increasingly out of control and the rebellion began. We fought the
Armenians for 29 days in Hasbagi. We had no weapons. When the division
went to Erzurum we remained completely defenceless.

The Armenians who joined the army after the establishment of the
constitutional monarchy used our weapons to shoot at us, and those who
remained in the army shot our soldiers from behind. They also bombed
the barracks. The young people and the elderly left in the Muslim
neighbourhoods took turns guarding against the Armenians. Meanwhile,
the Russians sent gold to Armenians to finance their effort.

This struggle lasted 29 days until the arrival of the Russians. The
elderly Armenians didn't approve this fight because they were the
wealthiest inhabitants of the area, and feared losing their standard of
living. Armenians owned up to 1,000 stores and sold European cloth in
the old part of the city of Van. When these events broke out,
inhabitants of nearby villages and towns all fled to Van, and those
stores disappeared within two days.

Later on, fifty vessels full of people left Van, carried wounded
soldiers. Cevdet Pasha saw the passengers off at the pier. We went to
Adir Island, where the Armenians were training underground. We stayed
on the island for nine days. The waves destroyed some of the ships with
wooden sails. The island had wells and two bakeries. No one brought any
supplies from Van. We were hungry and perplexed. My elder brother was
an officer and came back wounded from Erzurum. My brother realised that
the Armenians would cut us off. He convinced his captain, and ten ships
left the place but we couldn't go very far. Thank God that we stayed
close to the shore. The next day, we reached Tatvan under difficult
circumstances. The day we left Van the Armenians set everything ablaze.
There were wounded soldiers from all parts of Turkey in Van, and the
Armenians set the apartment buildings on fire used as a hospital where
they were teken care of. That is why Van is a sacred place with martyrs
from 67 provinces (in Turkey).

My uncle, Terren Aga, was very old, and we couldn't take him with us
when we left Van. His wife, daughter, and two grandchildren remained
with him. Armenian hoodlums beat my uncle and the children with an ax
and killed them. His daughter was hiding in an abandoned American
school. When the Armenians found her, they killed her by throwing her
from the second floor.
We went to Bitlis from Tatvan where we stayed for nearly two months.
When the Russians arrived, we set off on the roads again. We then went
to Hizan and Diyarbakir. After we left, the Gendarme commander who was
crying like a baby- brought my uncle (who was Deputy Governor Omer Bey)
a report. A soldier named Mansur was also present in the room. When we
asked him to explain what happened, he said that three days after Van
was evacuated they went to pick up the bodies. Hundreds of elderly
women were impaled on stakes. They still had their scarves on and
looked as if they were sitting. When they got closer they saw that they
were killed before being impaled. They saw a woman who was split into
two parts and her unborn child was placed on her chest.

Muslims who witnessed these thousand of examples of inconceivable
brutality tearfully reported the incidents to Omer Bey, who then told
Mustafa Kemal. When the Russians finally arrived, they were displeased
with the savageness which resulted in the destruction of four-fifths of
Van. In addition to those massacred by the Armenians, many people also
died as they were fleeing. Many collapsed on the road from hunger and
disease. No one was able to take anything with them when they left Van.

When we returned to Van from exile three years later, we found the
Muslim neighbourhoods destructed, but the areas owned by Armenians,
were left undamaged. When we returned there were about 2,000 Armenians
living in Van who fled to the islands when the Turks started returning.
Two years later, the government sent them to Revan.

Q: Did you ever participate in the fighting or use a weapon?

A: No. I have never used a weapon. I didn't have a gum, plus they
didn't give me one because I was too young and didn't know how to use
it. Instead. I would bring food and water to the combatants.

Q: What kind of equipment were the Armenians using?

A: They had the latest equipment which was provided by Russia and
England. They gave them weapons and had them fight against us. The
Armenians couldn't do anything to us, but when the were armed, the
balance was upset.

Q: Did many people die in these and other clashes?

A: Of course, thousands of people died. After fighting for 29 days, the
then Governor Cevdet Pasha commanded us to leave Van when he heard that
the Russian forces were approaching. Cevdet Pasha was actually a very
courageous man, but we had neither guns nor ammunition. while the
Russians were armed with top of the line weapons.

Q: Didn't the Ottoman State take any precautions against the Armenians
arming themselves to this extent? Didn't a word get around?

A: People knew, and the government knew. Yet the military was on the
fighting front, and only a few gendarmes were left in Van. They
couldn't do anything about it.. The Armenians first shot Police
Lieutenant Nuri Efendi, and blew up the Hamitaga barracks. Many
soldiers were killed. Then they placed bombs in the Norsin Mosque and
Haci Naci Hodja Mosque. They blew up Hafiz Hodja with his son using
granedes. Our women were raped, and our children shot.


Q: How was the evacuation carried out?

A: We left this place on 50 ships. That day the weather was stormy and
rainy, as if hell broke loose. The ships ran into each other. They were
unable to approach the pier for a long time. The weather was not warm
enough-I think it was April. We left before the Russians arrived. There
were about 250 people in our group, and 60 died. Some died at the hands
of the Armenians bandits, other from cholera, diseases, and hunger.

My uncle, his family and children, were all cut into pieces with a
hatchet under a mulberry tree in our neighbourhood. They (Armenians)
massacred all those who stayed behind when we left. We lived in Norsin
neighbourhood at the time. They burned Van entirely. All was planned by
the Armenian committees that treacherously manipulated the Armenian
population.

Q: Do, you remember the names of those committees?

A: Dashnak was the most prominent one. There were others as well, but I
don't remember their names now. They received money and gold from
Russia and Britain.

Q: Did the Armenians kill a lot of women and children?

A: The elderly didn't bother much, but all the young people were armed.
They killed whoever they could catch. They killed them and threw them
into the lake or onto the fire. For example, a woman was baking bread
in a nearby village, and had her young child was at her side. The
Armenians went into her backyard and asked her what she was doing. When
she answered that she was baking bread, they insisted she needed a
kebab as well, and pierced her child and threw him into the fire and
burned him alive.

What else can I tell you? God knows the extent of what went on. During
our escape, we took off on the ships, and stayed around the islands for
four days. We couldn't sleep at nights because of the wails and screams
we heard all night. These were the cries we heard from the surrounding
villages: Zeve, Bardakci, Kalac, and Molla Kasim. I hope God ensures
that we don't have to get back to those days again, ever.

Q: Where did you go after the islands?

A: From the islands we went to the Dervis village. It took us all day
to get there. Ten ships were tied together at the edge of the lake. We
were very frightened. In the morning we left toward Tatvan, and finally
reached our destination. We were able to rest there, and later left
toward Biths.

Q: Do you remember how many people were with you in your convoy?

A: There were between 10 and 20 thousand people in our convoy.

Q: Did many people from your convoy die in the exodus?

A: Of course.

Q: Could you tell us how they died?

A: The women could not take care of their children. Some would leave
them in far areas. Hunger and disease were at its peak. For example,
Omer Efendi wrapped his child in rags and left him alive under a tree
as we approached the Bitlis creek. There were many other children like
this thrown into the Bitlis creek or buried, then they died. But, Omer
Efendi regretted what he did, and a few days later went to save the
child and brought him back alive.

Q: How long were you a refugee?

A: Three years.

Q: What did you find when you returned to Van? How was Van, was there
much damage?

A: I saw Van; it was completely destroyed and burned. When we were in
Bitlis, the Deputy Governor Ömer Bey was there. He would regularly
receive reports on the situation in Van. We would learn about the
situation of the Russians there. One day a soldier, Mansur, came to
Bitlis. He was from Aleppo and used to live near the Norsin Mosque. He
was in tears as he told us the story of how they entered Van, and saw
that the women were lined up in a row with their head scarves still on.
As they approached, they saw that they were impaled and killed. They
removed them and buried them. The soldiers left all their work and
buried them. Later, they went to another location where the women had
been raped and then killed. There was blood everywhere.

A similar incident occurred in the Amik village which is close here.
The inhabitants took refuge in the castle and pulled up the ladder when
the Armenians arrived. The Armenians approached and convinced them to
let down the ladder because they were now friendly and there was no
reason to be afraid of. As soon as they ascended the stairs, they
separated the children and men and threw them down the hill. Some of
the women threw themselves from the castle, while the others were taken
to an unknown location.

Q: Did you hear about similar incidents at the time?

A: Of course I did, but what else can I tell you? Dignity, chastity,
and integrity all was gone. We suffered so much, some people even ate
flesh like cannibals. But we were so merciful that, when we found
Armenians hiding on the island, we didn't do anything to them.

Q: Were they the Armenians who stayed when you fled?

A: No, they were Armenians remaining on the island. During the exodus
they brought, many Turks to this island and killed them. The ship
captains were Armenians. Many of our, people were maliciously killed in
this way on the ships. As I told you earlier, we couldn't sleep because
of the wads in those days. When we left, Van was burning, and it was
still burning when the soldier Mansur came.

Q: Will you tell us about your situation in Bitlis?

A: When we arrived in Bitlis as refugees, they were angry with us
because we abandoned Van. Initially the people of Bitlis were not very
kind to us, asking us why we ran away and did not fight against the
enemy. We answered that we had no other choice because we did not have
guns or ammunition. Not long after, the population of Bitlis had to
flee as well, and they understood our position. The heat was extreme.
There was no food or water. Cholera and diseases were spreading out.
Many people died. One day we saw some vehicles coming from Elazig. The
army corps came with Armenian drivers to bring salt to Harput.

Q: Were the drivers Armenian?

A: Yes. Armenian soldiers who were carrying salt. There was a captain
leading them and my brother approached him and asked him to stay and
send a telegraph to arrange for a truck to carry us. We obtained
permission from Mustafa Kemal Pasha and they started to transport us to
Divarbakir. There was neither food nor water on the way. Many people
died from diseases. At that time, there was a landowner named Mehmet.
He later died, but he was a unique person. He gave food to the army and
fed their horses as well. He also handed the keys of his stables over
to the army. A year later Mustafa Kemal Pasha came, talked to him, and
asked how much the government owed him. When he said "for what?",
Mustafa Kemal explained that the army had depended on him for a year.
He answered that "they are welcomed for the remaining food, as well".
Anyway, when he saw us, he gave the order to set up a feast table right
away. Wheat, rice, lentil, and meat were prepared. Everyone ate.

Let me tell you another story. I saw many of the men who had been
tortured by the Armenians with my own eyes. In some places they had no
meat on their bones. From hunger they ate human flesh. There was a
milkman called Faik whose father was carrying a child when we saw him.
When I asked him what he was doing, he said if he didn't carry the
child away, they would eat him too.

I hope God doesn't make us live through those days again. Hunger and
disease left us with nothing. No dignity, chastity, no nothing.




++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=3354

ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Ibrahim Sargin

Father's Name : Halil
Place of Birth: Van-Zeve
Date of Birth: 1903

I am from the well-known Zeve village, site of the most rampant
Armenian massacres.

Q: How old were you when the Armenians rebelled?

A: I had just turned 11 at the time.

Q: Were your parents alive at the time?

A: Yes, they were.

Q: Were they subjected to Armenian atrocities?

A: I will tell you all about that later. I first want to try to explain
the situation of the Armenians. We know how untrustworthy the Armenians
and Russians were, and about their efforts to stab the Ottoman State
from behind by forming bands of rebels. At that time, Russians were
paying Armenians wages. However, the Armenians were paying the Ottoman
State only one gold coin in taxes while those unable to pay that much,
were paying five silver coins. There were certain changes during the
rule of Sultan Hamid and Sultan Resad. They extended equal rights to
the Armenians, declaring that they would be equal to Muslims, like
brothers. They passed a law abolishing the tax imposed on them, and
made them equal to us. There was jubilation in the streets. Armenian
priests and our religious leaders hugged each other and kissed. At this
time, it was also decided that Armenians would serve in the army with
us and study in our schools. The Armenians were thrilled with these
changes. As soon as they had the opportunity, they established
committees and asked for money from France and England and arms from
Russia. They figured they could co-operate with the Russians, receive
military supplies from them, and attack the Ottomans while the Russians
could advance from the outside.

What did the Russians do? They constructed storage bins out of the
stove pipes and stove metal. These bins were three feet long and one
and a half feet wide, and filled with arms and munitions. Some of our
supplies including kerosene came from Russia at the time. The Russians
delivered these military supplies to the Armenians by hiding them in
the bins and covering them with kerosene containers. Having armed the
Armenians in this way, the Russians sent a member of the secret
revolutionary society from Russia. His name was Aram, and he was blind
in one eye. A Russian Armenian, they named him Aram Pasha. Then they
brought someone named Antranik to Mus, and called him Antranik Pasha.
Plus, there was an Armenian revolutionary committee leader nicknamed
Sahin (Falcon) in the Karagunduz village of the Ercek region. They
would set up committee organisations and head for the Turkish borders.
They crossed into the Turkish villages where they would attack and kill
Turks, and then retreat. They carried weapons and bandits to Karagunduz
on horseback.

Q: Do you remember the revolutionary committees in the region and the
names of their leaders?


I named some of them a little earlier. I don't remember any other
names. They armed themselves with the help of the Russians, and came on
horses. They created storage areas in the Sisanus village, and moved to
a lake village which was completely inhabited by Armenians who had
moved into the village earlier. On the lake there were enormous ships
which could carry 500-600 people. These ships would carry arms and
ammunition to Adilcevaz, Ahlat, Ercis, and Gevas. Some would later be
sent to Tatvan, Mus and Bitlis. The Armenians armed themselves well
with these supplies, and started to form guerrilla groups. More
specifically, they organised fighters and hid them on the Islands of
Akdamar, Carpanak, and Kadin Tbese fighters later scattered throughout
the area, insulting and provoking the public. After a while, they
decided to get along with the Russians. After the Russians declared war
to the Ottoman Empire, all of our soldiers left the area. Some went to
the Caucasian front line, while others went to the Iranian front line.
The Armenian soldiers accompanied our soldiers. After the two sides
started fighting, our soldiers noticed that they were being shot from
behind. The doctors could not understand why soldiers who should be hit
from the front were hit from behind. Then they realised that Armenian
soldiers would kill ours whenever the opportunity arose. We lost
perhaps thousands of our soldiers in this way, but it was too late when
it was discovered. Some of the traitors were found, while some joined
the Russian fighters. This war lasted two and a half years. Our
soldiers were in terrible shape, and were forced to retreat. The
Russian military started to advance. When they arrived at the Caldiran
plains, they came across the Hamidiye regiment which was formed during
the reign of Sultan Hamit and was composed of tribes. The Russians used
the Hamidiye organisation for their own means, telling them to provide
soldiers to defend the area, while they would provide munitions and
arms.

A soldier who heard that the Russians arrived in Caldiran ran to his
village (Derebey) and told the village headman that it was futile to
work in the fields since the Russians had already arrived in Caldiran,
which meant they would be in the village either that day or the next.
He told the villagers they would all be killed if they didn't flee.
Hearing this, the villagers gathered together, took some food and
whatever they could carry, and left toward Van. They first reached the
Zorava village, which is Circassian. When the inhabitants asked them
what was going on, they told them that they were headed to Van because
the Russians had entered Caldrran and were advancing toward Muradiye.

Hearing this, the villagers in Zorava joined the refugees. Later there
were eight villages which joined this caravan to Van; Hakis, Zorava,
Derebey, Sih Omer, Sihkara, Sihayne, Hidir and Göllü. They had no
idea that Van was emptied and that its inhabitants had migrated. When
they arrived at the Everek plains, they saw some Armenians who asked
them in Armenian: "Where are you mindless people going?" to which they
answered, "We're going to Van. We will go wherever the inhabitants of
Van go." To this the Armenians showered them with insults and added
"Turks left Van over six or seven days ago, and are refugees. The
administration of Cevdet Pasha was over long time ago. Aram Pasha's
Administration was formed. All of the wounded, hospitalised, women and
children in Van were killed. Mosques were torched, barracks burned. We
cut up all of the Muslims in Van. There were only 20-30 women
remaining, and we gave them to Aram Pasha." To this, Circissian Ibo
said that they would become prisoners, and proposed that they go to
Zeve, which was very close to the lake. He suggested they could find a
ship there and save the women and children.

By the time this group of refugees reached our village (Zeve), we saw
that there were over 2,000 of them. When we asked them what happened,
they responded, "We were fleeing to Van, but Armenians stopped us and
told as that the inhabitants of Van had already migrated, so we came
here to acquire a ship in the hope of saving our women and children."

It was spring and it was not easy to settle the refugees in our small
village, but we did our best. We settled them in homes, tents, and
barns. There were more than 2,000 of them, and they stayed with our
villagers who numbered about 500. In addition, soldiers disbanded from
the army came home to our village. You should have seen them. They had
long beards, their uniforms were torn, they were full of lice. We
settled them, too. One was my brother Necip, my cousin Mustafa, my
brother-in-law Mehmet, my cousin Ilyas, Recep, son of Saban, Mustafa's
son Seyyat, and Emrah's son Sukru. They were emaciated -just skin and
bones. They took of their clothes and burned them and pulled of the
lice. My uncle Yusuf was a good barber. After scrubbing their heads
with hot water, he shaved them with a razor. Believe me, because of the
lice, blood was dripping from their faces and eyes. They were somewhat
more comfortable after that.

Two days had passed. On the third day, the village Hodja began his
morning call to prayer. Those who wanted to pray and the others went to
work, There was a river in the middle of our village. If flows all the
way from the Iranian border, and becomes a lake in the spring when the
snow melts. But we were never sure exactly where this water came from.
One day we heard a woman's voice from the other side of the river
calling for someone to carry her to our side. On hearing this, my uncle
grabbed his purse, followed the sounds, and was suprised to see, Esma,
the daughter of Ahmet, who married someone in the Molla Kasim village.

She promised to tell her story after my uncle helped her cross the
river. He helped her onto the saddle and brought her to this side of
the river. At this time the villagers had already finished their
morning prayer and gathered around them. She told them to defend
themselves that Hamit, Molla Kasim, and Ayanos had been killed, and
that the perpetrators would be in our village any day now. The Hodja
addressed the crowd with "Friends, we are Muslims. It doesn't fit our
religion for us to die needlessly. We have about 60 weapons, 2 chests
full of ammunition, and eight or nine soldiers with guns and bullets.
Let's defend our village. My father's cousin, Hodya Osman who served
with Cevdet Pasha had sent 60 guns and the ammunition."

There were hills near our village, below the bridge. There were plains
on the top, and grasslands below. The villagers took their positions on
the top part of the hills, and waited for the Armenians to advance.
When the Armenians surrounded the village on three fronts and attacked,
our villagers were prepared. They fought the Armenians until noon. When
our side charged them, the Armenians were startled. Some of them fled
to Mermit village, while other went to Vadar village. Afterwards they
started to re-grouping. There were other Armenian villages such as the
enormous Alay village comprised of 400 homes. They gathered together,
all of the Armenians, and again started a battle which continued until
the end of the mid-afternoon prayer. After the mid-afternoon prayer,
there were up to one hundred horses speeding down Erzurum Street which
originated in Van. The villagers thought that they were Ottoman
soldiers who came to their assistance after hearing gunfire, but soon
saw that they were Russian Armenians who heard the gunfire and came to
the village. The fighting started again, and our villagers started to
run out of bullets. The Armenians saw this as an opportunity and
entered the village by killing the Turks who were guarding it. The
village was burning, and herds of people numbering two or three
thousand started to flee. The Armenians were throwing small children in
the air and piercing them with bayonets or sticking them in the stomach
with bayonets. The children let out shrill cries and foil to the ground
like baby birds. In desperation, some of the women and young girls
threw themselves into the river, while others lit fire to bails of
grass and threw themselves into the bonfire.

They captured Corporal Seyat alive, laid him one the ground, undressed
him, and skinned him alive. They also carved out his shoulders and
carved into his sides, taunting him by saying that Sultan Resat
promoted him and gave him a medal. The Armenians also set fire to the
grass and threw some of our women and children into the fire and burned
them alive. They sliced the throats of the rest of the survivors as if
they were sacrificial lambs. Not one child survived. After massacring
the entire village, they killed the five most attractive women; my
cousin Sober, Esma, the headman's wife, a distant relative Hayriye, my
aunt Aye, and Güllü. Then they left. I'll explain to you how I
survived even though the Armenians vowed to continue the massacres
until we were all dead. My father was very well known, and he had
extended much kindness to the Bardakci village. My father had once
saved the life of Kirbe, and his son Asvador was among the Armenians.
Although at the time my father was in Iran as a reserve officer,
Asvador came to us during the massacre. Asvador told the Armenians not
to touch me, my mother, and one of my sisters and saved our lives.
After the Armenians left, Asvador took us out of hiding. The wounded
were moaning from pain, begging for someone to wrap their wounds or
give them some water.

Asvador brought us to the Bardaci village where we stayed for some
time. My cousin Sema in Bardakci would swear to us that in the evening
the Armenians would come and pick out ten or eleven women out of the
150, and rape them until the morning. The women were covered with
blood, and after they dropped them off they were unable to sit.

Meanwhile a Russian government was established in Van and Aram Pasha
became its leader. Aram Pasha's government proclaimed that any refugee
who is in need of food or water is welcome to Van. My father at this
time was in the Hacik village where he and my uncles were on Halil
Pasha's boat. From there they went to a village in the Hosap region.
When my uncles heard the proclamation they went to Van. They were
shocked to see that the city was burned and completely destroyed. The
city used to be at the foothill of the castle. Everything was
completely destroyed: the buildings, barracks, mosques, bathhouses, and
government buildings.

My father was from the Hacbahan neighbourhood where there were Armenian
homes and stores. Coincidentally, Asvador ran into him on the street.
After the customary greeting, my father asked him if he had any news
about our village. Asvador responded that they had slaughtered all of
Zeve, but that his younger wife, child and daughter were safe with him.
He volunteered to hand us over to my father. My father acknowledged the
favour by Asvador, but feared that the Armenians would kill him if he
went to the village, so he suggested that Asvador bring us to him
instead so that he could take us away. When Asvador came to see us that
night, he told us that he ran into my father, and that we should
prepare ourselves so that he could take us to him. In the morning he
loaded us onto an ox cart, took us to Van, and delivered Lis to my
father. We didn't stay long because the Armenians were raiding a
village; many people were fleeing either towards Iran, Mardin or
Diyarbakir to save their lives.

Q: Mr. Ibrahim, can you tell us about what happened in Van. Apparently
the first revolt took place, where the castle was toppled by cannon
fire, the city was completely destroyed, and an Armenian government was
set up. Since you were in Zeve you may have seen the troubles in Van.
Do you have any knowledge of the incidents in Van?
A: They used cannon fire to burn the castle. At that time we were in
the village of Bardakci, and could see the fire in Van from there.
Mosques, buildings and barracks were burned. After capturing the
castle, they aimed some of the cannon fire downhill. The mosque near
the castle also was burned and destroyed, as well as the Hamitaga
barracks. They butchered almost all of the Muslims there -only a few
women survived. After the Russian government was established, these
women complained Armenians to the Russian authorities, and asked for
protection because they trusted the Russians more. The Russians had the
women guarded and did not violate their virtue, but the Armenians raped
our women and massacred the children and the elderly.

Q: Mr. Ibrahim, is it possible that one of the reasons that the Russian
soldiers did not touch your women was the possible presence of Turks in
the Russian army?

A: Yes. There were Crimean and Caucasian soldiers and officers. They
protected our women because they too were Muslims. In fact, they even
sent them back to their villages including the Molla Kasim village.
During the massacres they could only send 30 of the 150 women. They
planned to stay in the Molla Kasim village until the Ottoman military
arrived. However, they were subject to even further hardships. When the
Russians retreated, the Armenians stayed behind. The Armenians
suggested that the Russians leave their weapons, ammunition, cannons,
and supplies, so they could fight the Ottoman government. When the
Russians left all of their equipment to them, the Armenians became even
more ruthless and continued the massacres. When our army starting
arriving from Bitlis to Gevas and clashing with these Armenians, the
Armenians headed to Van toward Muradiye and Kars. They ultimately went
to Russia and Iran. Only a handful of Armenians remained behind. They
stayed on small islands in Lake Van such as Carpanak.

Q: Were there any Armenians in yourk Zeve village?

A: No, none.

Q: Where were you at the time that the Armenians established an
Armenian government with the Russians?

A: We were in Zeve at the time.

Q: How many people from Zeve survived?

A: Including to myself, six women were saved from Zeve, and that was
only because of a good deed my father had done earlier. Everyone else
was murdered, including many women and children.

Q: They say that a mosque near the Van castle was burned. Was this
mosque in Van or Zeve?

A: It was in Van, but mosques in Zeve were burned down as well. In Van
they burned other mosques such as the Kayacelebi, Ulu, and Hüsrev
Pasha, as well as many smaller mosques. You can still see all of their
traces.

Q: Were there any people inside the mosques in Van when they were
burned down?

A: Without a doubt.

Q: How about in Zeve?

A: Many had gone into the mosque for protection. Among them were uncle
Hamza, Dervis, and Derebeyli. I don't remember the names of the others
except for a great personality in Zeve whose name you may have heard;
Sultan Haci Hamza. He built the first dervish lodge in the area.

Q: Isn't it true that during the massacres the Turks sought refuge in
the lodge thinking that they would not be killed?

A: They sought shelter in the tomb, not the lodge.

Q: They say that the Armenians burned down the tomb, is that right?

A: It is true. They set fire to the tomb too, and threw everyone inside
killed, but three people survived. Unfortunately, mosques, tombs made
no difference to them. They burned them down with everyone inside. I
hope God will protect us from similar events in the future.




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http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=3355

ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Ayse Sevimli

Father's Name : Dervis
Mother's Name : Hayriye
Place of Birth : Van-Zeve
Date of Birth : 1897

When the villagers heard that the Armenians were coming, they took as
many precautions as possible. They dug positions in the hills. The
inhabitants of seven villages filled up our village. There was little
room in the village to manoeuvre around the people and carts. on the
day that we heard the Armenians had almost reached the village, the men
ran to take their positions and began fighting.

We had no ammunition or weapons assistance. When the Armenians entered
our village, some of our men died fighting; others were burned in their
homes. I hid with my mother and some others in a barn further away from
the fighting grounds I got under a large basket. The Armenians killed
everyone they found and also fired at the barns. A bullet hit my
mother's scarf, but she was not hurt. I know of only two other women
who survived.

The Armenians went to Bardakci before they came to our village. My God,
when we went out at night, blood, gunfire, mourning, and wailing filled
the air. I saw them torturing people by cutting "pockets" out of skin
while mockingly telling them they were decorating them with medals.
When we approached the Bardakci village, I saw that on the other side
of the brook, in the field near Mehmet's house they had tied the arms
of five men together and were shooting at them. When they fell to the
ground, they stabbed them with bayonets. My mother handed them all of
her money and valuables so that we would not be hurt. They then brought
us to Van, and tortured the prisoners in unmentionable ways. We stayed
in the military barracks for four months. We later became refugees and
remained as such until April 1918.



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ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Haci Zekeriya Koc

Father's Name : Yakup
Mother's Name : Nadide
Place of Birth : Van


When the Armenian incidents broke out we were in our village. Ayanis..
Zeve. Mollakasim and Ayanis were the villages in the region inhabited
entirely by Muslim. There were five or ten Armenian homes in the other
villages. Before these problems broke at, we had excellent relations
with the Armenians. We got along particularly well with
Armenian-inhabited Alaköy. We would invite each other to banquets, and
there were no hostilities between us.

Then when everything started and the residents of Van fled, we decided
to migrate as well. We got together, filled four carts as much as
possible, and got on the road. As we were leaving the village, a man
came from Van, and asked us where we were going. When we told him, he
urged us to stay, saying he, had cannons, guns, and military supplies.
on his encouragement, everyone returned home. Three days passed. On the
fourth day, we were at my grandmother's. I was standing and eating a
piece of buttered bread my grandmother prepared for me. Three villagers
were there helping us out. We heard one gunshot, and the men said "This
noise is from Armenian guns, it buzzes like tin. Our weapons clatter.
Something is going on."

Meanwhile someone came from Mollakasim, stood on tire hilltop of our
village, and yelled Why are you still around? Kurds raided and
plundered Alakoy, and the Armenians are attacking villages." Right
after this my cousing Dursun showed up. An elderly woman asked him why
he came. He had a bullet on his thumb and said, "They destroyed the
village and I ran away. Before the villagers had a chance to organize,
the Armenians surrounded the village. The Armenians captured our
livestock near the cemetery and took them to Alaköy. The Armenians
went into the villages and separated the men and stuffed them into a
room. Their leader was Hamados Pasha, who had paid Iranian Kurds to
fight with him. He told his fighters to separate all males over the age
of seven, and add them to the men to he burned.

They spoke Turkish almost as well as we did. At that time I was seven
years old. My mother immediately wrapped a scarf around my head, put a
loose dress on me, and pulled me by her side. I survived, but they
picked out four or five people from among us and took them away near
the men. As soon as they added them to the men they poured gasoline on
the crowd and lit a fire. The screams emanating from there reached the
skies. They rounded up the women and took them outside. They would mock
them saying "ladies why don't you sit here and rest. Look how nicely
the dogs are at each other's throats. "The "dogs" they referred to were
someone's son, husband, father or uncle. They were crying "oh my God"
in agonizing pain. They made us sit there for up to an hour. When we
walked by the cemetery, one of the Armenians began singing a ballad
mocking us.

At that moment we saw that the Armenians shot my mother's cousin with
her child still nursing on her breast, then an Armenian came and killed
the child with a bayonet. They killed a lot of people in that area.
Those that could run away escaped, those that couldn't had gas poured
over them and were burned. We were forced to sit there for quite a
while.

Hamza, Haci Ummet's uncle lived in our village. He always carried a
dagger. The Armenians were going to carry him away and kill him, but he
ran toward them. He was either going to kill them or be killed.
Unfortunately he was not able to overcome them. Before they killed him
they carved out "pockets" in his thighs and placed his hands inside.
Excuse my language, but they cut his organ and placed it in his mounth,
and cut his nose and placed it in his behind.

They then took us to a hilltop in Alakoy before taking us into the
village. There they packed us into a barn. The children in the group
were starving and began to wail from hunger. The Armenians cut off the
hands, feet and other organs of the dead men, cooked and brought them
as food. The children could not differentiate, but the women said that
it was preferable to starve, and explained the truth to the children.
When nightfall came, they flooded the barn with water. The women had
placed the children on their shoulders and were shouting. After some
time they emptied the water out of the barn by opening a trench. The
next day the women were escorted out, and dried their clothes on rocks
outside the village. The women of Molakasim lived a little further down
our place. The Armenians had killed the men in the village there and
imprisoned the women.

In other words they were raiding Muslim villages, killing the men, and
imprisoning the women in Alakoy then led us onto the road towards Van.
When we arrived at the Mermit stream, some of the women threw
themselves into the water to kill themselves rather than die in the
hands of their captors. The infidels shot them from behind and killed
some of them. They broke the arms and mashed the heads of some that
wanted to jump into the water. I was with my mother, aunt, and
grandmother. My mother was still nursing my sister. When my mother
wanted to throw herself into the water and kill herself, my grandmother
held onto her and would not let her go. The Armenians put blockades by
the stream to prevent people from jumping. The next thing we knew, an
Armenian came to us and asked my grandmother who we were, and from
which village we came from. My grandmother was rude at first, but told
him when he insisted. When she responded that we were from the village
of Ayanis, and that my grandfather's name was Muhittin, her sons Yakup
and Niyazi. He grabbed the sides of her skirt and said he would never
want or permit harm to come to us. We were stunned. He then told us a
story that when they were coming from Bahcesaray to Van in eight
wagons, my father prevented some men who wanted to kill the Armenians
from doing so, instead, he escorted them all the way to Van then went
back to the village.

That man gave us some bread, old cheese, and yogurt. In the morning
they took us from there and brought us to Bardakci. At night we slept
in the plains of the village with armed guards at our sides. What harm
could women do anyway? There were about 700-800 of us. Then in the
morning they woke us up, and took us to the foot of the castle in Van.
There the governor of Van, Cevdet Pasha, had a three-storey detention
center. They brought a lot of people there before us. One of the women
who was there gave birth to a baby. The Armenians threw the child off
the roof of the building; and the child was lost. We stayed there for
five days. In the afternoon they let us go out in the fields, and
people gathered whatever they could find to eat.

After five days, they brought two more groups of people. In the
afternoon they moved us to Haci Bekir's detention center near the old
Governor's home. They also brought the inhabitants of the Muslim
village Pürüt there. Before they passed out bread, they added sulphir
and other things to it. Up to 70 people a day died as a result. The
Armenians dug ditches along the wall across from the barracks and
brought in the dead on stretchers and threw them there. Here too, we
ran across one of the Armenians which my father had saved. That
Armenian fed us for a few days. People were attacking upon the food.

A week went by, and they told us the Russians arrived. One day a major,
a captain, and two soldiers came into the barracks and counted and
recorded the prisoners. The next day we were fed with rice and meat,
and taken outside where there were Russian guards. The Russians asked
about our villages, and told us they would take us there. When we all
wanted to go to Mollakasim, they accepted. In the morning they loaded
us onto 70-80 wagons and took us to Mollakasim. After our arrival, we
stuck together out of fear of the Armenians. We chose a leader from
among us and lived that way until the Turkish army came to Van. After
some time, we rehabilitated the villages which the Armenians had burned
and plundered.



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http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=3357

ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Hikmet Saylik

Father's Name: Ziver
Mother's Name: Söhret
Place of Birth: Van Gülsünler
Date of Birth: 1901

I am from the village of Gulsunler, which used to be called Sihkara. We
left the village when the Armenians raided the villages and started
massacring the Muslim population. We were going toward Van, but the
Armenians stopped us before we arrived. We had no choice but to return.
About 300 people from the village gathered in Zeve, while an equal
number returned to the village. We fled toward Hosap as a group.
Turkish soldiers were in Hosap, and they told us to leave as soon as
possible and get out of the line of fire.

In spite of the difficulties we faced, we went as far as Siirt. Many of
the refugees suffered and died due to widespread hunger and disease.
From there, we arrived in Diyarbakir, Mardin, and finally in Adana. We
then went to Konya, because the French had occupied Adana. The
government then sent us to Mersin, but when the Turkish military took
back Van, we returned. But Van and its villages were completely ruined,
burned, and destroyed. There, hundred people were martyred in our
village. They gathered the people in houses and burned them alive. The
inhabitants of Van fled, and those that remained were cut up by the
Armenians. When we returned, not all of the Armenians had left. Some of
the villages, such as Alaköy remained as they were, and the Muslims
did not hurt anyone there. The government later sent the Armenians to
Russia.

Many members of my family were martyred in this village including my
mother, father, brother Mustafa and other relatives. Around 30-40
families fled with us, but only ten families returned. Those that
stayed and those that went to Zeve were all massacred. I found the
skeletons of nearly 200 Muslims killed by Armenians. I buried them
here, but could not afford to provide headstones to be put in the
graveyard. This includes the graves of my mother and father, as the
Armenians had burned them alive.



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ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Mehmet Saar

Father's Name: Tevfik
Mother's Name: Rukiye
Place of Birth: Van-Göllü
Date of Birth: 1901

I am from the Gollu village. The Armenians revolted when the army in
Van retreated towards Erzurum. The Armenians killed all our parents. My
father was a gendarme sergeant and he was among those who were killed.
The villagers in Mollakasim, Amik, Sihayne, Gollu, Hidir, Kurtsatan,
and Koprukoy were also murdered. Some of our villagers were hidden in
Zeve and were later killed, but we were able to escape.

Armenians tortured and practiced all types of cruelties on the people
they kidnapped. They cut up pregnant women and removed the unborn
children with their bayonets. They raided and burned all of the Muslim
villages, murdering men, women, children and the old. The Muslim
population, which fled from the villages, I mentioned, tried to escape
by crossing the bridge on the Ablengez River. The Armenians demolished
the bridge, and threw the bodies of their prisoners into the river. In
the spring when the snow melted, the bodies were carried away into the
lake. During the day time, my mother, my two sisters, and I stayed in
the hills. We knew that if the Armenians found us they would kill us.
My mother died before we reached Diyarbakir. I later lost my two
sisters, and was left all alone. I stayed in Diyarbakir for three
years, and returned to my village the fourth year. Van and the Muslim
villages were all burned and destroyed, we settled down in an Armenian
village since they remained intact. We later returned to our villages
which we rebuilt with our own hands.

Words cannot express the torture we suffered at the hands of the
Armenians. We lost our homes, families, and possessions. After losing
my mother, father, and two sisters, I also lost my cousin and other
relatives who were trying to escape to Tatvan by ship with thousands of
other people. All of the passengers on the ship were brutally
slaughtered by the Armenians near the Parket village near Adilcevaz.


+++++++++++++++++





http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=3359

ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Kadriye Duran

Father's Name : Hamid
Mother's Name : Nigar
Place of Birth : Van-Kavunlu
Date of Birth: 1904

I was ten years old when we became refugees. Before we fled, Degirmen
was an Armenian village which included 80 Armenian families and three
Muslim Turkish families. One day the Armenians gathered the three
families, cut them up, and tossed them into a well. They tortured and
killed the young men by cutting "pockets" into their thighs and
crucified them by nailing them to the walls by their foreheads. Roughly
30 young people died this way.

A woman whose father-in-law lived in the Degirmen village came to tell
a cleric in our village what was going on in Degirmen. After this,
conflicts arose with the Armenians living in our village, and a few
Armenians were killed. After what happened in the Degirmen village, a
weapon was distributed to every home in our village as a precaution. My
father was the headman of our village. Since the surrounding villages
were Armenian, the Muslim population feared that our village would be
attacked, and gathered in the mosque. We filled sacks with sand and
used them as barriers.

During this time, two young Armenians were locked into a home because
our villagers could not stand to kill them. But they dug a tunnel under
the house, and fled to Degirmen village carrying news. Then the
inhabitants of three villages, Degirmen, Farih and another Armenian
village raided our village. The fighting lasted for more than an hour.
The Armenians controlled the bridge above the stream, and invaded
Ziyaret as well. The stream overflowed with melted snow, and it was
pure chaos when we tried to cross the stream. When my mother entered
the water, it reached her chest. Naturally, people broke their arms,
legs, or heads, while children were carried away by the water. It was
hell, pure hell. The Armenians were throwing the dead bodies onto heaps
of wheat. The bodies had piled up like hills. My father jumped on his
horse and went to Van from Akkoprü. Since Sihke was an Armenian
village, they didn't give him permission to pass through. My father
explained the situation to the governor of Van, Cevdet Pasha and asked
for his help. One hundred soldiers came to our rescue, and the
Armenians fled. We hid in the village of Dirandaz which was Muslim.
After spending the night there, my father went to Van in the morning
and asked those entering the city if we should return to our village.
They said that we shouldn't, so we were forced to become refugees. My
sisters and I wore men's clothing and hit the road.

We were going towards Edremit when the Armenians raided Van. The city
was burning, and the houses were in flames, which reached to the sky.
We reached Edremit, but they raided that too. We went from there to
Bitlis, from Bitlis to Siirt, to Diyarbakir, and then to Siverek. We
stayed there three years. There were eight people in our family who
became refugees. On the way, my brother Ali was captured. The rest died
on the road. Only my mother and I were able to return to Van. We were
not the only ones affected. The inhabitants of Van, Edremit, and Van's
Muslim villages all became refugees. Those that didn't run were killed
at the hands of the enemy, while most of those that got away died on
the road.

A few years later, my mother and I returned to Van, and could not
believe our eyes! There were ruins everywhere, a few people, but they
were all hungry, thirsty, and miserable. Neighbourhoods and houses were
empty. There was no bread, wheat, or anything. We were compelled to
return to the village of Coravanis. The wheat there was starting to
mature. We cracked the bitter seeds, boiled them, and drank the water.
The Armenians took furniture, goods, animals and everything they have
found. They destroyed our houses as well. A man on a horse who saw us
alone in the village told us that there was a grain storage area near
the pier. My mother and I went to get 60 kilos of flour there, but it
was later stolen. The Armenians had not yet withdrawn completely. There
were bandits everywhere. One time my mother and I went to the Erek
mountain to gather pieces of metal which we wanted to trade for bread
with the soldiers. We ran into six Armenians who were going to kill us,
but when it suddenly started to rain and hail, we ran away and hid in a
cave. We barely saved our lives.

We suffered considerably. Three years later my brother died in
captivity. We were told that the Armenians were going to kill him, but
the Russians objected. They had made him build roads in Armenian
villages by hand. We rebuilt our homes, planted our fields, and started
a new life.



+++++++++++




http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=3360

ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Abdülbari Barlas

Father's Name: Mehmet Emin
Mother's Name: Ayse
Place of Birth: Van-Saglamtas
Date of Birth: 1919

As I have heard from my father, the Russians invaded our country, but
there were no phones, no radio so the villagers could not understand
where abouts the enemy come from. My father had a cousin named
Abdulkadir and my father had told to him "I am so sick and my son (my
brother) is a soldier on the Iranian front, he fights against the
Russians. Go and get information". So Abdulkadir goes. There is a
meadow behind those hills, when he climbs up the hill, he sees that the
people of Ercis are running away. Abdulkadir comes to my father and
says "All the people of Talat Aga are running away". Then my father
decides to leave the village. They immediately begin preparations.

The season is spring, they leave the village with ox carts, but the
animals are not ready for such a journey and they quickly get tired.
They go as far as the hill standing on the southeast border of the
village. But most of the villagers give up. The imam of the village
asks my father "where are the Russians, where are the Armenians? Who
are you running away from?" My father answers "this is not a clan war!
This is the Russian war. We do not have cannons, rifles. We have to run
away." In the morning my father's family and the Sheikh family set up
again. However, people of the other thirty-eight houses stay.

The day after my father leaves the village; the villagers see that the
Russians guided by the Armenians are coming. All the villagers begin to
run through the stream, but the horsemen circle them and they
immediately kill most of them. Later they gather the others in to a
house on the hill. Two armed Armenians watch the door, and two
Armenians kill all people with bayonets. Only a woman and a little girl
are alive by remaining in silent among the dead bodies. As she told my
father later that her name was Azime and the girls was Rusen.

As Ms. Azime told, she waited until the night in silence. She
straightened out she called out if there was anybody who was alive.
Only that little girl answered her. So she takes that girl and goes to
Siirt passing through the mountains, which is a long and painful
story.. Everyone knows the place of those martyrs. But, I don't know
under which ruin they are in. But, there are many other places as such.
As I told you before, the Armenians passed through the hill by killing
everybody they saw on the way.

My father's family and the Sheikh family went to Diyarbakir, Farikin.
When they arrived, they harvested the crops. Later on the government
sent them to Konya because of epidemy where they stayed for three
years. Later, they returned to our village.

* Cousin of Abdulbari Barlas, Abdulhamit Barlas showed the place where
the Turkish villagers were killed by the Armenian bandits. He said that
the villagers who migrated found countless human bones here. As those
bones could not be collected under the circumstances of that time, they
all disappeared. In this village, the Armenians killed 150-200 people.



+++++++++++++



http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=3361

ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Sait Kaya

Father's Name: Ahmed
Mother's name : Emine
Birth Place: Van Province Ercis District
Birth Date: 1898

I am living in Ercis since I was born. The Armenians revolted a Friday
and planned to kill the Moslems in masses. When this was heard our man
got together and killed the Armenian leaders by swords. I mean the only
leader males, because our religion prohibits the killing of children,
women and innocent and armless people.

Later when the Armenian priest was together with the Armenian Nishan
Subgovernor, he said "It is a pity that you did not allow us, we should
have killed them one week earlier." Then became spring, we migrated
from the Armenian tyranny. We escaped but the majority stayed. The
Armenians captivated them and put them inside the barns and killed
them. Just because we migrated early, no one from my family was killed
by Armenians. However several Moslems were slaughtered and burned by
the Armenians. We first moved to Diyarbakir and then to Urfa.

We stayed there for three years. From there, we moved to Antalya. As we
were not in peace with Italy, the governor did not allow us to the
city, so went to Denizli and stayed there for eight years. Finally we
returned back to our hometown Ercis. They had already burned and
destroyed most of the houses. We worked for years and rebuilt them.



+++++++++++++++++++++




http://www.kultur.gov.tr/portal/default_en.asp?belgeno=3362

ARMENIAN ISSUE
ALLEGATIONS-FACTS

ARMENIAN REBELLIONS AND MASSACRES

Veteran and Eyewitness Accounts

Yamin Tosun

Father's Name : Osman
Mother's Name : Hanim
Place of Birth: Van-Ercis-Haydarbey

I am from Haydarbey village. We became refugees when the Armenians
revolted and the Russians came. We moved to Urfa, where my mother,
father, and brothers died of the famine occurred that year. When the
Russians retreated, Armenians took over the place, but the Turkish army
pushed them back to Revan. We returned to our homes, and found Ercis,
the Muslim village and our village completely burned down and
demolished.
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-16 04:09:50 UTC
Permalink
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_soldier_resul.html

Testimony of soldier Resul, cousin of Celal Efendi who was the clerk of
Mus Gendarme Regiment

In February 1916, I was wounded and taken as a slave by Russian. At Til
(Korkut) village, where I was treated, Attorney-at-law from Mus,
Armenian Hrant, whom I knew previously, took me to a house where 10
Armenian gangs were drinking. As I refused the drink given, the chief
of the gangs got angry and branded my body with an iron stick, heated
in the fire. The doctor, who was ready in time, upon my screams, saved
me from death. After I was rescued, I walked three days and arrived at
Huyut (Kavakbasi). I found that the Armenians had gone to Russia in
small groups the Ottoman soldiers were in their hands.


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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_seyyid_han.html

Testimony of Seyyid Han, son of Yusuf Seydo who as the Chief of Seydan
tribe.

In February 1916, the villagers who took shelter on Tifnik Karaköy
mountains, were trying to reach Huyut. But they were attacked by a
Russian squadron. Hundreds of women and children were massacred by the
Russian swords. The group, after fighting many times with Armenian
gangs, could reach the place they wanted to go.


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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_iso_osman_ferhad_and_halid.html

Testimonies of Iso, from Til (Korkut) village, Osman from Bitlis,
Ferhad from Kotni and Halid from Ozkavak

The Armenian gangs, supported by Kazakhs were acting as advance guards
during the Russian attack. These gangs were assigned to attack quiet
villages and to create turmoil there. The residents of the villages
were hiding in the pathways in order to get free from the follow-up of
the gangs. However, they were found by the Russian soldiers and they
were taken awayHealthy men, were set off to the inside of Russia as war
slaves. Those who were taken under the command of Russian soldiers,
have gone to the places they wanted to be. However, the Moslems who
were taken away by Armenians and Kazakhs, were massacred absolutely.

The remaining began to walk in April 1916, under the direction of 30
guards. The sergeant and some guards were Armenians from Caucasia The
first day the walk continued, on the second day when they come to the
path-way, the sergeant said to one of his men slowly in Armenian,
"Let's kill these also".

Derbo, son of Haydar, who spoke Armenian, told to his friend the
massacre directive that he had heard and said that instead of being
killed like a mild person, it would be better to attack the guards.

When they came to Sorkiyan stream, the smell of the dead bodies began
to come. The bodies, cut into pieces, were laying among the rocks.
Everybody felt that the death was coming. In spite of this, they
attacked on the guards. Six slaves died, but the guards were killed
also.


++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_abdullah_son_of_sebab.html

Testimony of Abdullah, son of Sebab, from Bardik village of Azakpur
subdistrict

On February 18, 1916, it was learned from the nomads who came to Bardik
village, that the Russian were approaching. They prepared to escape,
and just before the villagers left the village, Russian were seen
Russian put the houses in the village on fire, without taking into
account the screams of the villagers. They killed the residents of the
village, including disabled and sick people. Abdullah and his two
friends, took the advantage or the darkness of the night and saved
their souls. They were hidden among the bushes in the vicinity of the
village.



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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_nuh_bey_commander_of_light_cavalry_regiment.html

Testimony of Nuh Bey, Commander of Light cavalry regiment

In February 1916, during the attacks of Russian, the following villages
located in Mus valley, Dirhas, Kolosik, Zigak, Varshah, Üçtav,
Zirket, Tog, Marnik, Gurd , Hiyoyan , Avzut , Kotni, Pav, Çapkis,
Agdad, Sipannan, Suspert, Til (Korkut), Yekmal, Norgah were completely
burned.

The same commander, stated that the Russian had gone to Kara Kilise.
They were assigned to protect nomadic group during the withdrawal of
Turkish units. At Hamzikan village located in the vicinity of Kara
Kilise (Karaköse), Kazakhs caught this group. While a great majority
of Kazakhs were attacking the protecting unit, another squadron
attacked on nomads, in order to create panic. Upon this attack, the
nomads who were shocked, left their carriages and animals, and tried to
save their souls. More than 3.000 women and children were killed with
swords. In order to be rescued from the sudden attack of Kazakhs,
Ottoman soldiers continued to walk at night also. Hundreds of old
people and children, could not follow cavalrymen. These nomadic groups
were attacked by Russian Kazakhs at Kilinç Gedigi. On the other hand,
Russian have sent a powerful cavalryman squadron to occupy this
mountain pass. However this mountain pass was seized by Turkish units.
The attack of the Russian was stopped. However, the end of the nomads
who remained on the Russian side, was unknown.


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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_abdullah_son_of_resul.html

Testimony of Abdullah, son of Resul from Aleman village

When the villagers who left the village, returned, upon the withdrawal
of the Russians, they found that all the houses were burned. The burned
corpses of Semo , son of Osman, Mustafa, son of Tahir and two women,
who could not leave the village, as they were wounded, were taken out
under the ruins.

The corpses of other 10 patients could not be found.


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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_devaz_omer_and_tayyib.html

Testimonies under oath of Devaz, son of Seyho, Ömer, son of Mustafa
and Tayyib, son of Abdülhamid from Kotum

On July 12, 1915, the squadron commander located at Kotum (Küçüksu)
, informed the notables that Russian and Armenians were approaching to
the village. Upon this, preparations were made and a walk towards
Bitlis direction had started. When the group came to Armenian village
Tog which was half an hour away from Kotum (Küçüksu), a few hundred
Armenians and Kazakhs attacked. Nomads were obliged to become slaves.
In spite of this, women, men and children were massacred in pains and
pitilessly. Only 30 people could be rescued from these poor people.


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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_cerkes_aga.html

Testimony of Çerkes Aga from Halaç tribal Chieftains at Engesor
village

A gang consisting of Armenians and Kazakhs, occupied Engesor (Dalda) on
June 15, 1915, Russian and Armenians who did not take into account the
screams of the people, plundered the houses. To the objection of a few
villagers, they responded with massacre. The first victims of the
massacre are as follows:

Cuma, son of ibrahim; Yakub, son of Ali; Murad, son of Haci; Asim, son
of Hami; Halil, son of Haydar, and from notables, Abdulhamid , son of
Sheikh.

Those who were massacred from children and women. a twelve years old
child, and his eight years old sister, Hatice, wife, son and daughter
of Mahmud, son of Ali, During this first occupation, if the villagers
who took advantage of the darkness of the night and did not climb up
the mountain, victims would be much more, The second occupation of
Engesor (Dalda) by Russian and Armenians, happened in February, 1916. A
few people were rescued from the massacre during this occupation.
Orphan Mecid, son of Tabir, whose whole family was killed by the enemy,
was accommodated at Siirt Orphans Dormitory by the commission.


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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_tahsin_sadullah_and_bekir.html

Testimonies with oath of Tahsin, Sadullah and Bekir Efendi from
notables of Hirit (Çökekyazi) village (3.7.1916)

One morning, at four o'clock Ottoman time; our village Hirit
(Çökekyazi) was attacked by the enemy consisting of 10 Kazakhs,
Russian infantry and the Armenians of the neighboring villages, who
came from Simek subdistrict direction. The enemy, that entered into our
village, burned all of the houses. The Armenians and Russian killed all
the men they caught, and imprisoned women and children in a place.
Towards evening the enemy withdraw in the direction of Simek
(Bölükyazi) subdistrict. Russian infantries and Armenians, burned the
imprisoned women and children. Only one child was rescued from this
massacre in a miraculous way, and the others were completely
annihilated. They took away all the jewelry and furniture of the
villagers after this horrible massacre.

On April 25, 1915, Akçan (Mercimekkale) Subdistrict Director Ahmed
Nureddin Efendi, together with a squadron consisting of local forces
and gendarme went to look for to Kumus village of Mus, where the
deserted Armenian people of Sironik (Kirköy) village took shelter. At
night, the deserted people, with the help of villages, under the
command of Ruben and Esro, who were the effective members of Dashnak
Committee, surrounded the house where the soldiers were staying and
fired at them. Among the gendarme, Mirza from Kaplica and Mehmed Emin
died. The others were suffocated at the same place.


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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_ali_and_fethullah_sons_of_hamid.html

Testimonies with oath of Ali and Fethullah, sons of Hamid Bey from the
notables of Hanianik village and Selim, Mahmud and Yakub, sons Haci
Bey(14.4.1916)

In the middle of June, 1915, at dawn, the Armenians and Russian
surrounded our village and told us to submit ourselves and nobody
should have the village When we rejected their offer and upon our first
bullet, that we tired to defend ourselves, they attacked our village
like wild animals. The screams of help were coming from everywhere. Our
village turned out to be a slaughterhouse within one minute. We
recognized Nisan, Murad, Oseb, Dikran, Zaho, Beyko, Sergis, Tangasal,
Gazar, Mosis who were residing at the villages in the vicinity, among
Armenians. The Armenians were killing the Moslems, while screaming
"Long live Aram Pasha". We witnessed a horrible scenery A woman,
carrying her child on her breast was running for being saved. One of
the gangs stopped her. Took her child and in front of the eyes of the
woman, which were opened wide with wilderness, pushed his bayonet into
the body of the child and killed him. That gang, after this execution,
killed his mother also. While we were escaping, the above mentioned
Armenians were shouting, and saying "Don't escape, we will follow you
everywhere, even till Damascus!".



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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_abdurrahman_son_of_mehmed.html

The testimonies with oath of Abdurrahman, son of Mehmed and Yusuf, son
of Mehmed (1.7.1916)

We are originally from the people of Uçum, a subdistrict o Hizan town
and Nurs, Vavink, End and Mezraa-i End villages, where the summer
grasslands are. After the occupation of Satak (Çatak) town by the
enemy, the Armenians of Kevar, Kutis-i Ulya , Kutis-i Sufla,Çaçvan,
Seyfkar and Adir-i Ulya villages which are located in the vicinity of
our village, Sergis and under the command of Lato (alternately called
Mihran), Gazar, Dilo who came Russia, came to Kutis-i Ulya. Here they
made three written offers to the notables of the village. Among the
notables of the village, there was the mullah known as Bedi-üz-zaman
Said-i Kürdi.

They would choose one of the following three offers.

1. To surrender to the enemy,
2. To leave the towns,
3. To fight.

Nine hours after the arrival of the enemy, they attacked to our village
with 600 people. They had hats and uniforms. We could not identify
whether there were Russian soldiers among them. Only, the number of
those who had poor appearance in the enemy army was quite a lot. Those
could be Russian or Armenians who come from Russia. The enemy took the
people of our village to Mezraa-i End. There were Abdurrahman, son of
Hursid Bey among notables, his son Musa and his wife, with us. Their
money and jewelry were seized.

The woman and the girls were seduced. The next day about 33 men and
boys and about 80 women, girls and children were taken to Müküs
(Bahçesaray) in two groups. The group of women was left at Çaçvan.
All of the men were put to the sword that night. As they assigned me a
task, I resqued from the massacre. When they assigned me a task, they
said like this "We propose you money, Go to Mullah Said Tell him to
deliver us the Armenians who live there explain them that there is no
advantage to fight for nothing The country has already been occupied
completely. Russian went till Aleppo. The Armenian country is
established, tell them to come and submit themselves to us. Bring us
information about the number and power of the soldiers there. These
words were told to me by Dilo. I immediately set off, When I arrived at
Çaçvan, I saw that together with our subdistrict director and Mullah
Said, our military forces consisting of gendarmes and Kurdish people
had arrived. After an intensive tight that lasted five hours, our
forces succeeded in rescuing the women group. The situation of the
women was very miserable. The cheeks of the young girls were bitten and
they did not have power even to walk. Most of the children were killed
by stepping on them with boots. We were only two left from 33 men. Most
of the women and children who were rescued died with the effect of the
torture that they encountered. No women was left other than the wife of
Abdurrahman, son of Hursid. It is impossible to count the oppression
activities that we witnessed.


++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/annex_of_the_letter_written_by_mia_to_mfa.html

The annex of the letter written by Ministry of Interior Affairs to the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (26.9.1916) and the testimony with oath of
Hulusi Bey, Director of Post-Telegraph Administration of Pervari town
of Siirt Province on July 1 , 1995 (26.6.1916)

Following the declaration of mobilization, on the first days of the
year 1915, an Armenian woman, named Kis from Hiset (Kolludere) village,
who served as a courier to Armenian gangs, found me and told me that,
she had come from Ozim (Gümüsören) village, Ishan, from Armenian
gangs, had sent his regards to me, his sincere friendship about my
personality had not changed and still continued, I had to serve to the
aims of Armenian Committee against a high salary and a great deal of
goodness and in case that secret was disclosed, my family and I would
be killed. When I asked her how I would serve the Committee, she told
me that a decision had been taken for the establishment of an Armenian
State consisting of six Eastern (Anatolian) provinces and I had to
provide information on the following issues and inform them to the
Armenians.

1. The measures taken by the Ottoman Government to prevent the
establishment of this state,
2. Communications among state authorities on this issue,
3. What are the intent and plans of the government about Armenian
Committees,
4. The deployment of the Ottoman Army in the above mentioned provinces,

5. The areas taken under control,
6. All kinds of information related with mobilization.

Being afraid of these threatening offers, I did not say anything to
anybody.
On another day, a person called Lame Markere from the Armenian spies of
Lower Hiset (Ormandali) village, approached to me and conveyed me the
regards of Ishan and Lato residing at Ozim (Gümüsören) village and
told me that one day Lato would come and speak to me.
This time, I thought to have Markere be caught; but he suspected and
escaped. Again I kept silent.

However, after a short time, when the intrigues of Armenians began to
be dangerous, I informed everything happened to the government. After a
while, great amounts of ammunition and stored food that were sent to
Ozim (Gümüsören) village by Armenians, were found. They used to
bring these stored food from Piroz, Dentas, Hertovin-i Ulya, and
Hertovin-i Sufla villages which were called Nezarborum, and Keldani
together with Armenian villages called Lower Hiset (Ormandali), Malik
and Vilas and Hashir, which was the central town of Pervari. Local
administrators, proved the crimes of Armenians at the end of the
interrogations and informed the Siirt governor and the head of the
district of this situation. However, the above mentioned government
authorities did not conclude the interrogations in order not to cause
confusion.

During these events, a gendarme unit that went to Ozim (Gümüsören)
village to catch the deserted soldiers, was insulted by the Armenians.
These Armenians also, escaped together with great amounts of weapons
and ammunition, in compliance with the deserted, towards Müküs
subdistrict and Satak. The Armenians of Hizan, Pervari, Satak (Çatak),
Karçikan, gathered at Ozim (Gümüsören) village. The date of these
events coincided with the dates of Armenian revolution in Van. The
Armenians at Ozim (Gümüsören) did not let any Moslem, gendarme and
policemen in their villages and set up barriers. Meanwhile, they used
to fire at the gendarmes and the authorities of the government who
wanted to give advice to them. After a fight that lasted for three
days, they obliged them to withdraw.

The Armenian woman, that I mentioned at the beginning of my statement,
called Kis, repeated everywhere that the Armenians of Ozim
(Gümüsören) would obtain the autonomy of Pervari one day. The
Armenians of Pervari, under the command of Armenian Major Mecin, from
Hashir village, fired at Pervari gendarmes who were going to be
trained, and surrounded the above mentioned village. During the
exchange of fire, a gendarme was wounded. The minutes related with this
event, are in the possession of the authorities of Pervari. Armenian
Mihran, who was also named Lato, was a Colonel. Keldani (Asuri) Nirson
from Borem village, and Mecin from Hashir village were majors, Mehr
from Vilils village had the rank of a Lieutenant. The Christians of
Siirt and Pervari had the some evil targets. The spies used to go to
and come from the above mentioned villages. During the general
mobilization, all Armenians, began to kill Moslems. Sheikh Mehmed
Siddik Efendi, Mufti of Van, was massacred near the bridge of Engil
village, while he was performing ablution. His servants also met with
the same end. Five gendarme soldiers who were going to Sason from Mus,
were murdered. Sheikh Mehmed Efendi, son of Sheikh Abdullah Efendi from
Çel Çemkan village of Pervari, was killed without any reason by
Keldilni executioners residing at Hertovin (Ekindüzü) village of
Pervari on the hills of Herakolu mountain. With these executions, it
was very clear that the purpose of Armenians, was to arise confusion in
the country, by inciting the religious feelings of Moslems.

After the riot of Armenians of Van and the combat they made with
Ottoman forces, the Christians of Pervari and all of the Armenians,
escaped to the boundaries of Van Province by taking this opportunity;
they established a regular regiment there and attacked at Pervari and
Hiset (Kolludere) direction At the end of this attack, which lasted for
one day, a Moslem woman, two men and a child were martyred. While the
Armenians were withdrawing, they left two cases of knives, hand
grenades and machine guns at the village.
The gendarmes and civilian authorities, who were sent to the villages
of Gevas town to provide stored food, were massacred by the Armenians.
Almost half of the Moslems of Satak (Çatak) town, including women and
children, were put to the sword.


+++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/third_testimony_of_ahmed_nureddin_efendi.html

The third testimony under oath of Ahmed Nureddin Efendi, old town
Director of Akçan (Mercimekkale) (27.6.1916) (Massacre of Arak
Monastery)

At the end of 1914, the Armenians were deserting from Ottoman army
together with their weapons in groups. In Mus valley, especially at
locations called Çankli Monastery , Kizil Monastery and Arak
(Kepenek), murders were executed. The Armenian bishop and Dashnaks,
encouraged the murderers, to commit murders and banditry. Thus, riot
movements were expanding. As the government had urgent works on those
days, the Armenians took the advantage of the government being busy,
and they were bringing weapons and ammunition to the above mentioned
places. This situation did not escape from the eyes of governor Servet
Bey. Servet Bey, warned Armenian notables and bishop and that in case
riot movement is not given up, the government will lay hands upon the
situation. As a result the continuation of Armenian movements, not
complying with the call of the government, and shelving of the events
of Kumus and Sironik villages by Dashnaks and Armenian leaders, leaving
the guilty unpunished, the government deemed it necessary to end the
turmoil and formed a gendarme unit consisting of 30 people. The
commander of this unit, who was a young and honest lieutenant, Ahmed
Bey, son of Galib Efendi, was assigned to arrange public order, to
catch the gangs and to take the weapons. The Gendarme unit started
towards Arak (Kepenek). 30 hours later, I learned that Ahmed Bey and 10
gendarme soldiers had been killed in front of Arak Monastery. How this
murdering is executed is as here below.

Gendarme unit came to Arak (Kepenek) village in the evening. The
commander wanted one or two guides from the villagers, to show the way
to Monastery. The Armenians of the village gave two guides, and showed
the way to the unit. The two Armenian guides, who were going for some
time in front of the soldiers said, "This is your way, you can
continue" and they returned to their village. Ahmed Bey did not insist
on the accompany of the guides and when he saw nobody around the
Monastery, he walked towards the monastery with his men, without
hesitating. When they came to a distance of 200 m. The Armenians who
were hidden behind the loopholes of the Monastery fired. Ahmed Bey who
was walking in front of the unit and ten gendarmes were shot and
martyred. The others, who were surprised trom this unexpected fire,
protected themselves by taking shelter behind a small barrack belonging
to the monastery. The Armenians who fired them, were shouting like "You
dishonest, mean! These territories do not belong to you! From now on
there is no bread for you in these territories, will you still stay
here? Russian people came, know that these territories belong to
Armenians! These territories are included in Armenia! Get out of here
otherwise we will kill you all !".

The funerals of the gendarmes who were killed, were taken to Mus by
carriages. The Armenians, who were encouraged with this event, extended
their attacks till Mus and in order to arise bloody turmoil, they began
to attack to the city at nights. Old Van parliamentarian Papazian and
Armenian bishop were working insidiously to facilitate these riot
movements. A lot of Armenian school teachers and intellectuals also
participated in these massacres. It is absolute that the above
mentioned honest, helptul Ahmed Bey, was killed as a result of ambush,
that was secretly prepared by Armenians.


+++++++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/second_testimony_of_ahmed_nureddin_efendi.html

The second testimony under oath of Ahmed Nureddin Efendi, old town
Director of Akçan (Mercimekkale)(25.6.1916) (Poisoning of Servet Bey,
Mus Governor)

It was December and january of 1914-1915 Due to a feast celebrated by
Armenians, Mus governor Servet Bey, had a courtesy visit to Armenian
bishop. The Armenians who did not hesitate to execute every kind of
murder, this time decided to kill Servet Bey, by offering him poisonous
coffee Servet Bey did not doubt and drank the cotfee given to him and
this caused his death.

This last event together with other events, show that the Armenians,
wanted to kill also the educated, intellectual and active people among
Moslems. When they find opportunity, they poisoned some of them, burned
them alive or carved their eyes The horrible misbehavior of the
Armenians did not only consist of these murders executed against
Moslems. At the same time, they made espionage in favor of Russians and
gave information on military and administrative subjects and guided
them in every kind of attack.


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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_davut_efendi_and_huseyin_efendi.html

Testimonies with oath of Davut Efendi and Hüseyin Efendi, notables of
central Karasu of Hizan (7.7.1916)

About the end of February , a crowd of Ar menians and Russians of 400
people, attacked Karasu at seven o'clock in the morning We were on the
hills, half an hour away from the village We were informed by the
nomads while the enemy was going to surround us. Russians and Armenians
followed us and they killed all the people at Gayda. Later on the enemy
entered into Karasu and they burned the government building and the
house of Ömer Hasim. They massacred Safi'i, son of Mehmed, two old
women called Zeliha and Leyla who could not leave the village due to
their ages, in a horrible manner. These gangs also killed a lot of
women and children from the nomads of Hakif (Aksar)



+++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_sheikh_haydar_efendi_and_abdulmecid_efendi.html

The testimonies under oath of Sheikh Haydar Efendi, from the notables
of Hizan together with Abdülmecid Efendi, Mufti of Hizal (5.7.1916)

Gayda Dervish Lodge, constructed on a small hill, located in Hizan, and
where thousands of passengers are stayed for a night. consisted about
100 rooms together with its annexes Russians and Armenians, proceeded
to Gayda Dervish Lodge after burning Cem Ham Dervish Lodge which was
protected by six gendarmes The enemy that was attacking was a unit of
800 people A force of 60 people consisting of Russian and Armenians
under the command of Aram Pasha 43 suddenly attacked the dervish lodge.
Against this force, gendarmes had to withdrew. All of the people
blocked in the dervish lodge, were burned alive We were on a hill,
located an hour distance to the dervish lodge.

While the fire was destroying people and buildings, Armenians and
Russians, who were not satisfied with this savagery, attacked the
villages in the vicinity and massacred all the people they caught.


+++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_headman_mustafa_son_of_osman.html

The testimony under oath of Headman Mustafa, son of Osman from notables
of Horus village (8.7.1916)

An enemy force about 400 people consisting of infantry and cavalry
units. coming from Bitlis and Kesan directions. attacked suddenly to
our village at four o'clock in the morning. In front of them there were
the Armenians from Hirit (Çökekyazi), Sim Haç, Vastin and Prons
villages. There were about 200 armed men in our village. Although we
defended our village till the sunset, the Armenians who knew the ways
to our village, began to enter into the village. The Russians followed
them. When we withdrew, our village was on fire. The women and children
who stayed at Bekran district, were screaming. The cavalrymen ran after
us and kept us under volley. The women and children suffered the
greatest loss At last we succeeded to rescue. From the well-known
people of our village, Ömer son of Safi'i, together with his family
consisting of 15 women and children were taken as slaves by the
Russians. They took these slaves to an unknown direction. After a few
hours walk, in the investigation we carried out, it was found out that
hundreds of people were missing. We were afraid of their being
massacred. After 10 days, the enemy left our village and we returned
back to the village. There was a horrible scenery in front of our eyes.
It could be said that the village was constructed with human bodies.
The women whose skins were stripped, were hung on the trees. The men,
whose eyes were carved by Armenians and Russians were tied on the trees
as a dartboard, the children were cut into pieces, the furniture and
jewelry also were destroyed.


+++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_fevzi_efendi_hakif_town_director.html

The testimony. under oath of Fevzi Efendi, Hakif Town Director
(5.7.1916) (The oppression executed at Korsuh and Sekur villages of
Hakif town)

I had gone to Ahkis village in October 1914 together with about 20
gendarmes to recruit and to be submitted to newly established
fortification (worker) battalions. Village elderly council stated that
there had been nobody in the village and majority of the villagers were
in the army and they were in Erivan. This explanation was wrong.
Therefore. after preparing a list for 50-60 people, I was obliged to
send two gendarmes to Sekur village and four gendarmes to Korsuh
(Karbastl) village to ensure these recruits participate in the army.
When the gendarmes arrived at Sekur village where the resident of the
village were Armenians, had met them with swears, called them saying,
"Get away from here, the authority of your director does not illfluence
us, let your head officer of the district come here with two
battalions". Upon this by taking a force about six-seven persons, they
went again to the village. However, these gendarmes met with intense
fire of rifles. These gendarme soldiers named ismail and Nezir from
Bitlis, were martyred there. The others returned to Hakif (Ak~ar) after
a struggle that lasted for a couple hours.

To the four gendarmes who were sent to Korsuh (Karbasti) village,
Armenians, first of all, behaved politely and invited them to a house
for dinner. They were massacred by the eight Armenians at the house,
their bodies were brought in a situation that could not be recognized
and their weapons were seized. When I learned this situation, with the
force I had with me, we set off to the above mentioned villages to make
investigation. When we saw the Armenian rioting, we gave up this idea
of ours and went to a Moslem neighboring village called Hiset. After
awhile a woman, called Sultan from Beygiri village came and said that
she had brought the messages of Armenian chief of gangs, namely Lato,
from Ozim village and Kalosar from Sekur village. Sultan said to us,
"If you do not give back the Armenian recruits that you have taken as
fortification soldiers, the Armenians will decide to put all of you to
the sword and bomb the villages". Of course, we did not accept this
offer. Upon this, the Armenians attacked us. The struggle continued
about two days. As a result of the help of other gendarmes and Kurdish
people, we could drive away the attackers During these events, a lot of
Moslem women and children were killed without any cause.
The above mentioned events prove that Armenians arise turmoil in the
country and limped the course of military and civilian works.


+++++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_mahmud_son_of_mevlud.html


The testimony with oath of 37 years old Mahmud, son of Mevlüd, who was
Gendarme in Mus (6.6.1916) (He is from Kale district of Mus and from
those who took shelter in Ilani. His testimony is received by Hani
Director)

I have been in the hands of the Russians as a slave of war for two
and a half months. 10 days ago I deserted and learned that the office
of my battalion was in Hani, and came here. On February 10, 1916, I set
off from Mus to go as a courier to the Commander of the squadron which
was in Liz area. When I arrived on the hills of Molla Davud village, I
was surrounded by Russian soldiers and Armenian gangs. Upon this, I
immediately destroyed all the documents. I was captured as a slave. The
Armenians and Russians took my rifle, watch and money. Among enemy
soldiers there were about a dozen Armenians. From these, I recognized
Kinyaz, son of Monk from Bulamk, Gazar from Abri village, Bedo from
Jebolan village and Vano, son Melkon from Mus. They wanted to kill me,
but the Russians, saw that I was a soldier and prevented them.

Afterwards, these Armenians had beaten me, they took me to Molla
Davud village and showed me to their officers. Later on they imprisoned
me in a house, protected by six Russian soldiers. Only one of them was
on guard at nights. The other five used to go to the village and
gathered Moslem married women and young girls and brought them near
their friends. They forced those women and girls to dance and drink
wine. After they forced them to submit their animal-like desires,
saying to me, "Look, the same disaster will come to all of the Moslems"
and they swore Islamic religion. We had that night in this way. The
Armenians and Russians left the village in the morning, by taking me
with them, and they killed all of the remaining villagers after various
tortures.

Later we came to Kazanan village The enemies imprisoned all of the
men in a house and women in a separate house They imprisoned me in a
third house. What I saw through the window was like this Russians and
Armenians calling the men one by one, took their money and killed them
with tortures such as carving their eyes, opening wounds in their
bodies or after tying their cut arms to their abdomens forcing them to
dance. After these hateful executions they went to the side where there
were women. They chose newly married ones and beautiful young girls.
They burned young girls while they were alive, they took out the
clothes of newly married women and raped them These Armenians and
Russians during their murders saw that two of their victims were
pregnant, and gathered around them and made bets on the sex of their
children on four rubles, and cut the abdomens of these poor women. They
looked whether they are boys or girls Later they hanged six women on
the trees and cut them into pieces with cleavers. They said to me,
"That is what you deserve". We set off from here to go to Molla Yahya
village. Here I was again imprisoned in a house Here also they executed
the same massacres. At night, by pulling a stone from the wall of the
room where I was staying, I could escape from the prison and
encountering with thousands of difficulties, I could come here. The
citizens I met on the way, said that they witnessed the similar
horrifying executions performed against Moslems.

All of the residences of Kara Huseyin and Ku~anll villages, were
killed with the swords in the same way by Armenians and Russian.


++++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/second_testimony_of_ali_son_of_suleyman.html

The second testimony of Ali, son of Siileyman, residing at Hersan
district of Bitlis (6.6.1916)

My brother Ismail and Halid were killed on the threshold of their
houses by Armenians. The wife of Halid, who was the daughter of Yakub,
was taken away
by force My brother-in-law Yusuf, son of Hacl Ali, was also killed His
aunt, Mercan, daughter of ~akir, was taken away meanly by the gang.

My neighbor Sheikh Ahmed from Kazanan who was sick and his wife Semo
and one of his servants were killed in their beds. The fate of Receb,
son of Mustafa, who had come to visit the Sheikh, has been the same.
Hasan, son of Kilinç zade Ismail, was killed near the house Süleyman,
son of Yusuf, although they had taken ransom in great amounts from him.
They also killed his son Izzet and brother of Haci Nasrullah, with the
strokes of bayonet 80 years old Nigar Hamm from Ahlat, the sick wife of
Tero, Halil, son of Celo zade ismail, Ahmed, son of Mehmed, his brother
Mikdad, were massacred in the house of Suleyman, son of Hacl Yusuf.
Said Efendi, son of ex-Mufti of Bitlis and like his 60 years old uncle
Sheikh Hafi Efendi, inspite of heavy snow and cold, were forced to work
with bare feet and head and to carry heavy loads to long distances Upon
these, I did not dare to go to Bitlis and returned my village Yako
(Ünaldi).


++++++++++++++






http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_haydar_son_of_isa.html

The testimony under oath of 40 years old Haydar, son of Isa (6.6.1916)
(He is from Bitlis, now he lives in Savur town)

In February 1915, my family and I were in Yako, one of the villages
of Bitlis. One day, I set off to go to my brother, who was in Bitlis.
On the way, when I saw a group of people from Bitlis. I asked the
reason of their leaving Bitlis. They told me that the province had been
raided suddenly by Russian and Armenian units, those units were mainly
consisted of Armenians, they had killed the Moslems they met, without
making any difference among women, men and children, with the strokes
of bayonet.

Ali, son of Suleyman from Hersan district Bitlis told me that,
among those who were killed, there was my brother, who was in Bitlis,
and the son of my other brother Halid; the wife of Halid; Minnet,
daughter of Yakub, had been taken away; my brother-in-law Yusuf, son of
Hacl Ali had been killed and his aunt, Mercan; daughter of Sakir had
been taken away; my neighbor Sheikh of Kazanan, Sheikh Ahmed, who was
sick, one of his servants, Hasan, son of Mustafa, from Hersan district
who had co me to visit Sheikh, had been murdered after they had taken
his money in great amounts as ransom They killed Hasan, near the house
of Suleyman, son of Hacl Yusuf: together with his son Izzet, and Ali,
brother of Haci Nasrullah with the strokes of bayonet, they had killed
80 years old Nigar Hanim from Ahlat, and the sick family of a soldiers
called Tero, and made 60 years old Sheikh Hafi Efendi, to carry
furniture with naked feet, upon this as I did not dare to go to Bitlis,
I returned to Yako (Ünaldi).


+++++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_muhiddin_efendi_son_of_huseyin.html

The testimony under oath of 45 years old Grocer Muhiddin Efendi, son of
Hüseyin (6.6.1916) (He is from Tas district of Bitlis, now resides at
Savur town)

It was the end of February of 1915. While I was staying at house,
continuous firing and noise began to come from various places of the
city. This was the indication of the coming of Russian and Armenian
units.

When I went out to the street, I saw that the gangs were executing
a general massacre in the city. I immediately returned to my house to
rescue my family. On the way, when I saw Fazll Efendi, Bitlis
communications lines clerk of Bitlis, from Viran, was cut into pieces,
I began to escape with my family in Province Palace Direction, Here,
the roads were blockaded by the Armenians, They were killing all of the
Moslems without making any difference of age. As I could not find away
of escape in that direction, I wanted to jump into the river passing
through Bitlis, not to be murdered by the enemy. My brother Musa,
prevented this attempt of mine and with the divine grace of God, we
rescued from the General massacre, in spite of many difficulties.

Among the thousands of victims, there were well-known people.

1. Dursun Efendi, son of Haci Semseddin, from the notables,
2. Abdulbaki Efendi, son of Haci Yusuf from Hersan district,
3. Haci Mehmed, son of Haci Hasan,
4. Nadir, son of Mahmud,
5. Abdurrezzak, son of Cemal,
6. Dursun, son of Mahmud,
7. Hamid, son of Receb,
8 Cemil, son of Bilal,
9. Sheikh Abdulhalik Efendi, son of Sheikh Mehmed Kufrevi,
10.Ismail Bey, Bitlis Gendarme battalion commander .

Former Judge of Muradiye, Ahmed Efendi was murdered in his bed. The
sister of Ahmed Efendi, Bedriye Zaman Harum; the daughter of Receb
Efendi, Perihan Harum; the wife and son of corporal Halid, Leyla Harum
and Salih were martyred at their homes with horrible tortures. Musa
Efendi, like his brother Muhiddin, lived the same miserable scenes.



+++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_yasin_efendi.html

The testimony under oath of Yasin Efendi, son of Haci Mehmed (1 June
1916) (A police of Bitlis in charge in Mardin)

I was on duty at the station, when Bitlis province was occupied at
about 10 o'clock at night. My horrified sister came and said that the
province was raided by the enemy When we went out to the street with
our friends, we saw the escaping people. The shots of thousands of
rifles and machineguns was heard.

I was obliged to go to a place called Arap bridge, which was half
an hour away from Bitlis, in order to rescue my family from the
agression of the enemy. Behind of us, Russian units and Armenian gangs,
were trying to stop all of the Moslems who were escaping from them
under strong fire and were killing them. On the other hand, Russian
Kazakhs were treading them under the feet of their horses, Screams of
Hopelessness mixed with the yelling of Russian Kazakhs, and the cries
of the children were rising in every corner. A small group like us,
rescued in a miraculous way. During our escape, deputy Police Officer
Mehmed Vehbi Efendi, was shot on his foot.

All the others became the victims of the rowdiness of Russians and
Armenians There were the following people whom I know, among these were
the poor persons: Vefik Bey, deputy chief of Police Director of Van;
Ali Efendi, Police Officer; Süleyman Efendi, deputy Police Officer
Remzi Efendi and Said Efendi from Van, who were in charge in Bitlis,
Hamdi Efendi and Resul Efendi, Police officers of Bitlis; Saban Vehbi
Efendi, chief clerk of Bitlis justice Department; Mullah Said-i Kürdi,
a famous savant, with his 20 students; and tradesman Abdürrezzak, son
of Haci Ishak.



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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_mehmed_resul_son_of_abdurrahman.html

The testimony under oath of Mehmed Resul son of Abdurrahman from
emigrants of Mus (5-6 June 1916) (The testimony is received by Hani
Director)

I was wounded towards the middle of January, 1915 in a combat made
near Betlevo 19 village. Together with my three sick friends, we could
not follow the army that was withdrawing and we were taken as slaves by
the enemy. First they carved the eyes of soldier Hüseyin and said "Get
up and look around!, Are there any Ottoman soldiers? Are they coming?"
Later on, they took him to a small river and martyred him there.
After this murder, they attacked to my other friend whose name I cannot
remember. They killed him also when the frightful torture was over.

It was the turn of our third friend. They cut his genitial organ
and put it in his mouth and later on, they martyred him by suffocating.
I recognized three Armenians among executioners. One of them was Aram,
son of Monk, from Çakar district of Mus; the second one was Aleksan,
son of Bagdasar Gürüb; the third one was Hrant, son of lawyer Hrant
from Bas district ofMus, and the other five persons were Russian
soldiers. These executioners approached me and told that the end of all
Moslems were like this and they branded 24 parts of my body by red-hot
heating of the bayonets of their rifles in the fire that they set up.
When a Russian soldier came close to me, who wanted to rescue me, I was
uttering painful screams. This soldier took me to aside and told me
that his name was Abdulmelik and he came from a Moslem family from
Kazan and he would be able to rescue me.

Eight executioners, I and Russians soldiers set out. Another group,
consisting of about 100 Armenians and Kazakhs, joined us We were going
in the direction of Til village On the way, we met a Moslem Community
of about 800 people. Kazakhs and Armenian martyred almost all of them.
Towards the evening, we reached Til (Korkut) village Armenians brought
two pregnant Moslem women with them whom they had kidnapped during
Karamese village pillage They brought the women in the middle of
Russians and Armenians. Two Armenian soldiers, had betted about the sex
of the children that the women were carrying for forty pilasters. Upon
this they cut the abdomen of the one of the women with a knife and took
out a boy. The fetus of the other women, led various suggestions. Five
minutes later, four Russians and six Armenians, brought six Moslem
girls I recognized one of them among the Armenians who was from Ziyaret
village of Mus. The girls were put in row. A Russian officer came,
chose a girl among them and took her away. Meanwhile Russian soldiers
ordered the girls to perform the namaz and do their prayers. While the
poor girls were performing their religious obligations, they seduced
them. They were both doing this mean behaviour and saying "From now on,
we will conduct the namaz of Moslems in this way" I had three nights at
Til (Korkut) village. Although I had too much pain in my wounds, I was
able to rescue with the help of Moslem Russian soldiers. About dawn, I
climbed a hill, overlooking the Kazanan village Pitiful screams were
coming from the village. When the Sun rose, I saw the Russian and
Armenian killed the residents of the village and burned them while they
were still alive. I was horrified and turned to be a stone, and I could
not leave the place where I was until the night I set off in the dark
and meeting with every kind of danger and difficulty, I came to Hani.



+++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/first_testimony_of_ahmed_nureddin_efendi.html

The first testimony under oath of Ahmed Nureddin Efendi, Deputy head
official of Pervari Town (22.6.1916) (Former Town Director of Akçan)

Servet Bey, governor of subdivision of Mus Province, was honest and
protective towards all of the people of his subdivision without making
any discrimination of any face and religion difference. But the
Armenians of Mus were bringing out difficulties to the government in
recruiting military service and in taxation when they found
opportunity. We were clearly seeing the provocative behaviors of the
Dashnak people and Armenian priests and sensed the damages of the traps
set up. With the inspiration of intrugues, most of the Armenian
villages did not delay in making terrorist events. Armenians used to
invite the voluntary soldiers and territorial forces passing by the
area under the pretext of bread and water, there they suffocated them,
hollowed their eyes out and cut their heads Especially, they did not
hesitate to do any thing in order to have the rifles of the soldiers.
The Armenian oppression was especially made at Evran village,
consisting of 300 houses. At this village, as a result of the
investigation we made on July 15, 1915, the following information came
out.
We found a well in the vicinity of the house which belonged to an
Armenian who was a member of Dashnak Committee; and its mouth was
closed skillfully and narrowly. When we opened its lid, a disgusting
and filthy odor covered the environment. A man, whom I told him to go
down, informed me that the well was full of human corpses. We took them
out to find out their identities. The number of victims consisting of
innocent and unlucky soldiers was 19 The situation of these corpses
showed that only three-four days, had past after the frightful
executions that were performed by the Armenians who were honored with
the sincere protection of Ottoman Government for 600 years. We left the
village after we buried the corpses of these soldiers who were
suffocated by the Armenians meanly.


+++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_ebubekir_and_abdulkerim.html

Gülpik Village of Hizan Town (Testimony under oath of Ebubekir and
Abdülkerim from Gülpik Village) (4.7.1916)

I was some where outside of our village. Some of the notables of
our village had gone to Bitlis. Upon their return they informed us
about the occupation of Bitlis. Some of our men went there to stop the
enemy when it was learned that the enemy was proceeding from Tatik
town. The others set out towards Karçikan. In the fight we had with
the enemy, we understood that it was impossible to resist them for a
long time and we immediately ran to rescue our families. At this
critical moment, the enemy army consisting of Russians and a lot of
Armenians who came to our village from two different points by raiding,
began to kill the people and burn the houses. A few of us could rescue
ourselves. But 150 people, consisting of women, men, children and
girls, were killed by sword strokes. While we were escaping, Bided and
Arsak from Oranis village, Sander from Hirit Armenian village and Kisyo
Kiyo from Sube village, were swearing our religion from behing and
insulting our prophet.

Russians and Armenians tortured so much that, upon our return, the
villagers burst into tears. Naked men and women, tied together, were
hung on trees. There were children, cut into two pieces on the laps of
women whose heads were plucked andbreasts were cut. The young and
beautiful girls were taken away and those who were less beautiful were
killed after their genitials were torn. The murderers had taken away
the furniture which would be of use to them, and burned the others.



+++++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_abdurrezzak_son_of_kamil.html

The testimony under oath of Abdürrezzak, son of Kamil from Bitlis
(10.06.1916) (He migrated to Kayalu village of Mardin)

During the occuppation of our province, we were going to Arap
bridge together with the families of my brother and uncle at the early
hours of the morning. The Armenians who cut our way, killed my brother
Çerkez who was in front of me, Abdülkadir, the son of my uncle and
his sister Emine.

We escaped and rescued as five of our eighteen people and could
reach Mardin. The remaining from the group, including my children were
taken as slave or killed.


+++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/first_testimony_of_ali_son_of_suleyman.html

The first testimony under oath of Ali, son of Süleyman from Bitlis
(10.6.1916) (He migrated to Kayalu village of Mardin)

The Armenians of Van and Bitlis, who previously learned that
Russians wanted to occupy Bitlis about the end of February 1915,
attacked Moslem people pitilessly by closing the roads to escape.
Meanwhile my brother-in-law Ali, his mother Rabise, Sheikh Ahmed from
Kazanan, his wife and one of his servants, our neighbors Recep, son of
Ahmed, Hasan who was 80 years old and his son Izzet, two sick soldiers
who were on leave, were the victims of these barbarians who killed them
into pieces.

Only five persons from our family that was totalling to 17 people,
could rescue from the massacre with great difficulty. One of the
children of my cousin was thrown into the air and while he was falling
down, he was cut in two pieces with a stroke of a sword by these
murderer Armenians.

They have raped young girls and later on dragged them along the
roads in blood. As a result, the Armenians performed murders that have
not been heard, against Moslems.





++++++++++++++++++=



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_erzurum_province.html


Testimonies with oath of Mehmed, son of Bulmaz; Hüseyin, son of
Mehmed; Hacý Ýbrahim, son of Ahmed and Hasan, son of Yusuf, from the
immigrants who came to Tadým village from Hýnýs (5.6.1916)

We are from Molla Kulaç village which is an hour away from Hýnýs.
During the invasion of our territory by the Russians,the Armenians
called Vahan and Aleksandr Asoyan, who were from the same village with
us, together with certain amount of cavalrymen attacked suddenly to our
village. These people, had already proved that they were from the
leaders of Dashnak Committee, through their despot-like and pitiless
behaviors. First of all they suffocated more than 20 children, they cut
the abdomens of some pregnant women with knife and put the children
that come out on top of their bayonets and showed them to their
fathers. They called their assistants to swear to the died women. Vahan
and Aleksander, after promising that they would release us at night,
they themselves and their assistants chose a beautiful woman for each
of them, from the notable families. Later on, they imprisoned 12 women
and 28 children in a house. After the midnight observing the
drunkenness of these Armenians was still continuing, with the help of
one of my friends, we were able to rescue the imprisoned women and
children and leaving all our propery at the village, we escaped. Now,
in our village, where there were 250 Moslems, only 35 people were left.
We are all in poverty.
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-16 04:10:34 UTC
Permalink
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_salim_efendi.html

Testimony with oath of Salim Efendi, son of Sadullah (2.6.1916) (A
police officer of Van, later appointed to Mardin)

Upon the approach of Russians towards Van, the Armenians residing
at the provinces and villages in the vicinity, began to riot against
Ottoman Administration and make enemy-like demonstrations. At the same
time, they did not obey the instructions of the administration on tax
payment, and they participated in the approaching Russian army. They
were reaching the villages, attacking on passangers, killing all of the
Moslems they meet with on their way, massacring the wounded soldiers
who were returning to their villages on leave.

After a short time, the Armenians of Van, rioted openly against
Ottoman Government. They began to attack on soldiers, gendarme and
police officers with their weapons on the streets of the province. They
used to kill all of the Moslems they caught, fire at the persons they
see at the windows or in front of the houses of Moslems.

This situation continued for 27 days. Even if after the occupation of
the province, the Armenian continued their barbarism, wickedness and
insolence. They were running after those who escaped and killing them
in the middle of the street. Hundreds of Moslems, men, women, and
children who remained in the province have been subject to torture by
these Armenian gangs and massacred. Some Moslems who escaped towards
Bitlis on board of three sailboats, were martyred at Adilcevaz
subdistrict, around Parkat by the Armenians. Police officers Celal
Efendi, Hasim Efendi and Mustafa Efendi who accompanied these
immigrants, were wounded during struggles and they could come to
Bitlis.

The residents of the villages of Timar subdistrict, such as Zeve,
Molla Kasim, Seyh Kara, Seyh Ayne, Ayanis, Zorova and Pakiz, were
massacred by the Armenian gangs, like residents of other villages.

Before the occupation of Van by the Russians, six gendarmes, Sheikh
Aga Efendi Riza Maho, Hoca Hasan Efendi, deputy president of Accounting
Department of Van, and his family consisting of six people, secondary
school teacher Rasim Efendi and his family and furthermode some other
people had been marytred by the Armenians of Van. Lieutenant Hüseyin
Efendi, was attacked at his house and his daughter Nadide was raped and
wounded. Other young girls and women were raped also and hundreds of
houses were burned together with those who lived inside these.


++++++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/

testimony_of_mehmed_tufan_efendi.html

Testimony with oath of Mehmed Tufan Efendi (4.6.1916) (Son of Major
Esad Efendi, Deputy judge at court)

The Armenians in Turkey, have brought the independence idea, as a
fixed idea for a long time, and have tried take out a part of the
empire with all the possibilities they had.

The Armenians, without concealing their aims and desires, after the
declaration of Generalmobilization, began to put forward their
revolutionist ideas, by transforming these aims into operation. The
Armenia committees, that had been organized previously, began to be
active and have been guides and couriers of Russian units. These
Armenians called the Russians and made them to come on November 22,
1914 to the management center of Sikefti subdistrict at Hakkari region,
which was Dir village.

While the Russian were occupying Dir village, the Armenian gangs
killed all the men at Kurdish villages on their way and put thousands
of children to sword.

Together with young women, more than 400 Kurdish girls were raped
old women were killed.

Before the occuppation of Baskale, that was the administration
center of the region, by the enemy, the Armenians came to this town on
November 30, 1914 and began their wild activities. The Armenians, under
the chairmanship of Oseb, son of Haço, declared so-called a martial
law at church and imprisoned more than 200 Moslems on whom previously
they applied all kinds of torture to take out their money, in the
stable section of the church.

The Armenian Committees, under the command of Garabet Efendi, who
was a judge at court, entered into the houses of Moslem and Jewish
people and plundered all the goods and furniture they found. Like the
house of Sheikh Taha, Sheikh Yusuf, Seyyid Ibrahim and Ali Efendi, all
of the houses of civil servants and public were plundered in the same
way by the Armenian pillagers. The goods and furniture and jewelery,
worth of 300 liras belonging to people were taken away. Furthermore,
they plundered the food warehouse of the official commission who
blocked some of the goods for the mobilization, the goods of Süleyman,
son of Nuril and those at the shops of other Moslem merchants.
Süleyman, son of Nuril was taken to the chuch and subjected him to
torture there, and at the end, they branded his sword with a hot iron
to give 5.000 liras. Stolen goods were distributed among Armenian
Committees.

The enemy remained 13 days in Baskale. During this period, the
Armenians showed all kinds of despising behavior towards Moslem, even
they arranged dissipation festivals at the mosques.

The roads were full with the corpses of women whose breasts were
cut, abdomens were opened up, children who were cut into pieces, young
girls who were raped and men whose eyes were carved.

It is not possible to explain the wilderness made by the Armenians
one by one.


++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/
testimony_with_oath_of_fehim_bey.html

Testimony with oath of Fehim Bey, son of Kahraman Bey from Muradiye
(10.6.1916) (Now, he is residing at Killaf village)

In May 1915, the Russian-Armenian units consisting of Armenians in
majority, occupied Bayezid and 300 villages of Abaga subdistrict of
Muradiye.

They massacred the Moslems they met on the way, even those who
surrendered. As we knew that even if we surrendered, we would have the
same end like our co-religionists, we decided to immigrate to Ercis
together with the residents of the villages around Muradiye.

While we were leaving our village to go to Ercis, 10.000 Moslems from
Abaga subdistrict which was rescued from Armenian oppression, took
shelter in Muradiye. We left the region on the same day. Later on, a
few women, with tears on their eyes and children who rescued and joined
us, told us that the remaining people of Abaga subdistrict who had
taken shelter in Muradiye, had been massacred by the gang of Russian
citizen Aram, who was engaged in commerce at Bayezid.

During our walk, we learned from Salih Bey, who was the head man of
Kömüs village told us that the people of his village and the villages
in the vicinity had been massacred by the Armenian gang of Aram, from
Van, and the children had been burned in the bakeries while they were
still alive On the way, together with Salih Bey we saw Ekice village,
consisting of 80 houses, and Kömüs (Balakli) village, consisting of
100 houses, were completely burned by the Armenian gangs. Everywhere
there were the corpses of women and men who were killed in a horrible
way A few women and children who rescued from Kömüs (Balakli) village
massacre, joined us and told us that, all of the residents of their
village, were pitilessly killed and burned by the Armenians.


+++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_mullah_mehmed.html

In the testimony with oath of Mullah Mehmed, son of Abdurrahman from
Kizil Kilise village of Muradiye town

Those told by Fehim Bey, were confirmed. To those that was told by
Mullah Mehmed, Salih Bey, added that, who was one of the residents of
Kömüs (Balakli) village, had hidden himself in a well in order to be
rescued from the death. The one who organized Kömüs (Balakli) village
massacre was the gang of Aram, from Van.


+++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_basri_bey.html

Testimony with oath of Basri Bey, Commander of Gendarme unit of Siirt
(23.6.1916)

Last year, on the first days of May, I went to Taramak village of
Müküs (Bahçesaray) subdistrict, as the head of my unit due to my
task. The Armenians of this village, did all kinds of oppression and
pressure that could not be told, against the Moslems. We entered into
the village covered with the corpses of men and women and also set on
fire, towards evening. Among the corpses, men whose ears and noses were
cut and eyes were carved, children whose heads were cut and bodies were
cut into pieces, were seen. However, the corporals of a young woman and
a girl impressed us very much. The abdomen of the woman was cut with a
knife, the baby taken out was suffocated and was put again in its
place. The girl who was hung from her feet, was, covered with holes
allover. After the Armenians and Russians had committed these
executions, made canonically unclean the religious buildings and burned
them.


++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_with_oath_of_32_people.html

Testimonies with oath of 32 people from Van, who are at
Ma'murat-ül-Aziz at present (17.6.1916) (The names of these people are
written in the Minutes)

Before the occupation of Van, the people who were killed by Armenian
gangs, are as follows: Gendarme mailman Sayyad (Seyyid) and his two
friends at Atalan village; Hursit Aga, and son of Ata Bey from Vostan,
at his house, Lieutenant Süleyman Efendi, who was the detachment
commander at Ercis, together with gendarme soldiers at Nabat village;
Hamza, son of Alay Bey from Adilcevaz, Said and Abdurrahman, sons of
Haci Ali and their five friends at Seyh Kara (Gülsünler) village,
Gendarme Hamid and his friends at Susanis village; Camuscu zade ismail,
Cebeci zade Haci Yakub and his son Halil, Dervis, son of Besir, Haci
Latif zade Haci Serif, Hertüslü zade Mustafa, Haci Rifat, son of
Topçu, Kaya Çelebi zade Mahmud and Yusuf, from the notables of Van;
Kahraman zade Bekir, Sakir and Sükü from the Notabes of Ercis, Mahmud
Siddik Bey from Bargiri were massacred.

All of the residents of Hidir, Zeve, Seyh Kara (Gülsünler), Amik
(Amuk), Ayanis (Agarti) and other villagers were massacred, women were
raped and youg girls were taken to inside of Russia.

Hüseyin Efendi, son of Kadik (from Norsin district) of Van and his
wife Zeliha Hanim, gave
testimonies which verify the statements of above mentioned Nigar Hanim.


++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_resid_son_of_tradesman_ali.html

Testimony of Resid, son of Tradesman Ali from Topçu Oglu district of
Van

During the first panic, a great majority of the public, went to Hosab
direction where the division Halil Bey was located. But, before
reaching the desired location, a group approximately consisting of
80.000 people, was attacked by Russian and the Armenians at Sahmanis
village. Only about 2.000 of them, were taken to Hosab (Güzelsu).
During the two months in which they were imprisoned as slaves, they
were subjected to every kind of torture and transgression. Meanwhile,
the city of Van was rescued by Turkish army Upon this news, the natives
of Van who took shelter in Diyarbaklr, Bitlis and Karçikan, came to
Edremid village, which was an hour away from Van and to Engil and
Atalan villages located in the north of Van. The number of these people
was about 15.000. As a result of the sudden attack of the Russian and
the Armenians, these people and 2.000 Turkish soldiers were killed with
machine guns and shrapnels. Among them only 1.000 succeeded in escaping
and rescuing.



++++++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_abdi_and_resid_.html

Testimonies of Abdi and Resid Mullah, from immigrants of Gevas (
1.7.1916)

After the evacuation of Van and Gevas, an Armenian and Kazakh unit,
consisting of 500 people, directed by Haço, Monk Sergis, Onnik, Hako
and Parso from Horotis village, surrounded Karkar (Daldere) village of
Gevas. They fired at the significant buildings. They massacred men and
children, raped women. Only a couple hundred of villagers could rescue
with great difficulties.



+++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_tahir_and_mahmud.html

Testimonies of Tahir, son of Halid and Mahmud who migrated to Mezraa-i
Seyhan (20.6.1916)

When it is learned that the center of Sanjak would be evacuated, all of
the people of the village began to walk towards a place where the
Turkish Administration still continued. When they arrived to Kasir
village, it was seen that the bridge was closed by the Armenian gangs
among whom there were. Haço, Mardiros, Bakdo, Berzo, Sergis, Haro,
teacher Garabet and Migirdiç.

In spite of the begging of the crowd, the brigands did not let anybody
pass the bridge. They searched the women till their private parts.
After they plundered everything they had with them, they attacked
girls. They were equipped with Ottoman and Russian rifles, and they
fired at men intensively. Most of them died, the others escaped with
great difficulty and took shelter on Kuru Salan mountains. We observed
that 121 people, most of them were women and children, had been killed
with the bullets of the brigands.



++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_yusuf_kenan_and_abdulhakim.html

Testimonies of Yusuf, Kenan and Abdülhakim, from the immigrants of
Müküs (Bahçesaray) (19.6.1916)

Last year on August 30, the Russian gangs came to Gevas and Satak
(Çatak), the Armenian gangs came to Müküs (Bahçesaray). The women,
old people and children, who could not escape, were massacred
completely. In the Armenian gang, Kirkor, and teacher Garabet, Vahan
from Par village, Artin from Kinekas village, Kevork from Müküs,
Minto Sembat, Hayastan, ironsmith Naro, Haçik Muhik, Dikran and Bedros
were seen. These brigands especially attacked on women and raped them
in a disgusting manner.


++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_abdulmecid_and_osman.htm

Testimonies of Abdülmecid, son of Halid and Resul, son of Osman from a
Layan , Immigrants of Müküs (Bahçesaray) (19.6.1916)

The testimonies of these people are the same with the above mentioned
testimonies. In their testimony, they indicated that among the Armenian
executioners, there were Lato from Ozim (Gümüsören) village of
Pervari, Haço, Oseb, Sirak from Müküs, Sergis, Nisan, Garabet, Vahan
and Artin, from the neighbouring villages.


+++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_abdullah.html

Testimony of Abdullah (19.6.1916)

After the evacuation of Van, Gevas and Havasur (Gürpinar), Armenian
villagers, under the leadership of Vartan, bishop of Ahtamar Church who
came from Van and Tuluncian Simon, attacked on Kurdish villages such as
Verendanis, Horavil, Der, Zikoh, Karkar (Daldere), in hundreds of
groups. Plundering, seducing and execution followed one another. About
200 young girls were taken to Van to satisfy the bestial emotions of
the Armenians and Russian. Only very few of them could endure this
attack. Only about 200 residents of the plundered and burned villages,
could take shelter on Agirof mountain. After a period, these poor
people, thinking that they would find Turkish administrators, went to
Müküs (Bahçesaray). However also the Armenians located there,
attacked again on these miserable people. Only a few people could
rescue also from this massacre in a miraculous way.


+++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_salih_and_ali.html

Testimonies of Salih and Ali, son of Halid from Serir village of Satak
(Çatak) (19.6.1916)

All of the residents of Sortekin, Arçkanis, Mezraa and Pars Armenian
villages, surrounded Serir village at early hours of the morning. From
60 persons of the village, only 15 men, could escape. The others were
killed. Women were kidnapped and the houses were plundered.


+++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_abdulhamid_and_hangir.html

Testimonies of Abdülhamid and Hangir from the Immigrants of Darnis-i
Ula and Darnis-i Sufla (19.6.1916)

The Armenian gang, consisting 5.000 people who came from Erzincan,
Kahnemiran, Sidan, Kagaziz and other places under the leadership of
Committee President Leo, who was originally from Havasur (Gürpinar),
gave orders to Darnis-i Ulya (Yukari Narlica) and Darnis-i Sufla
villages to send 500 liras and 50 girls and added that Russian had
seized Istanbul, there had been no Sultan of the Ottoman Empire any
more and added that there had been no solution for them except being
Armenians. Hopeless Moslem public began to collect the requested 500
liras. These brigands, after massacred 10 Muslems, staying at a house
at Kahnemiran (Uzuntekne), one night they surrounded the above
mentioned two villages. Their leaders, were Mesrob, from Sidan, Simon
from Kagaziz, bartik from Surengen, Bedo from Sokan. They burned the
houses and by screaming "Long live Armenia", and attacked on the
people. Only 50 people, out of 320 could be able to rescue from the
massacre by taking advantage of the darkness.


++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_mahmud_and_behlul.html

Testimonies of Mahmud, son of Kotas and Behlül, son of Said from the
notables of Sokan (Çatakdibi) village of Satak (Çatak) town
(19.6.1916)

Sokan (Çatakdibi) village had a population of 680 people. One night,
the Armenians and the Russian attacked suddenly to the village. Nobody
could prevent them. Because the Moslem people had no weapons.

The executioners burned the houses. When the situation became calm, a
lot of women and children, died under the swords of Kazakhs and short,
curved daggers of Armenian rebels. At dawn, they gathered those, who
could rescue from the night execution in a house. Girls and young women
were taken to an unknown direction.

At lunch time, they burned the house in which they had imprisoned the
villagers. Only 21 of these miserable people could rescue from this
massacre miraculously. We saw Sahak, from Satak (Çatak), Oseb, Artin,
Hovik and Simon and the Armenian villagers, whose names we could not
remember among the executioners. They especially attacked young girls
and did every kind of oppression.


+++++++++++=



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_mustafa_and_esad.html

Testimonies of Mustafa and Esad from the immigrants of Avzini village
of Satak (Çatak) (20.6.1916)

The population of our village was 500. The Armenians and the Russian
attacked to the village and they plundered and massacred. Only 30
people could rescue from the massacre. The end of the others are not
known.



++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_sheikh_enver_and_mullah_resid.html

Testimonies of Sheikh Enver and Mullah Resid from the religious leaders
of Alan village of Karçikan town (7.7.1916)

It was learned that about a Russain 100 cavalrymen and a reinforced
infantry unit were approaching to the village. The villagers set off to
be away from the village. But the residents of the Armenian villages,
called Pelli, Tankas, Azerkuh and Prons (Gökçimen) cut their ways.
They attacked on the women, and the Russian unit entered into the
village. The houses were put on fire. The disabled such as old, sick
and children were killed pitilessly. Kazakhs walked on those who tried
to rescue. Very few of them could succeed in saving their souls.



+++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_yusuf_ziyaeddin.html

Testimony of Yusuf Ziyaeddin (20.6.1916)

In the beginning of March, 1915, the Russian Kazakhs attacked with the
help of Armenians of Gevas town to the villages called Arkanis, Havins,
Varkoz, Norevan, Berho, Tarvis and Bahik, each having a population
between 100-150, gathered the men in a house and burned them. Young
women and girls were kidnapped.



++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_mullah_abdi_and_selim_han.html

Testimonies of Mullah Abdi, from the notables of Kesan (Ergeçiti),
Naksibendi Sheikh of Arvas, Selim Han, son of Haci Bey and Ali, son of
Hamid Bey (14.4.1916)

The Russian and the Armenians invaded Resadiye village of Asnak. They
deflowered the girls in front of everybody, they burned the children
while they were alive, they carved the eyes of men. We recognized among
the gangs, Apre from Norkuh, Bizinik, bishop of Ahtamar church, Mirbek
and Oseb, Bedros from Arpit, and iso from Anzak. These executioners,
closed 15 the most beautiful girls of the village in a room and began
to drink and after they had undressed the girls stark naked, they made
them dance with the screams "Dam Moslems" and "Long live Armenia". They
urged them to pray and while they were performing namaz, the brigands
took the advantage of this situation and they attempted to deflower
them. When the girls rejected and resisted there was a fight. At the
end the Armenians and the Russian killed these poor girls.



++++++++++++++=




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_firdevs_hanim.html


Testimony of Firdevs Hanim, wife of Serif, residing at Abbas Aga
district of Van (? .6.1916)

While the enemy was entering Van city, Firdevs Hanim and her neighbors,
were gathered in the house of retired officer Mehmed Ali Efendi. The
sounds of firing rifles and screams began to be heard After they
plundered the houses, they were burning them. The fire was coming
closer to the house of Ali Efendi. About 15 armed people, rang the door
of this house. They called
Ali Efendi and ordered him to give money to them. Ali Efendi, after
hesitating for a moment, obeyed the order. The brigands, after taking
the money of Ali Efendi, they killed him and his 80 years old sister.
His wife also, after being seduced, had the same end. My husband Serif
Efendi was shot at his head and fell down on the ground. In spite of my
screams full of pain,
my 16 years old son, Ahmed, was massacred. The brigands stabbed a
pregnant woman and after killing all the men in the house, they took
the women to Hatuniye district.There they cut the penis of a 15 years
old boy and put it in his mouth and after this torture, they killed
him. The brigands killed all the people they met without any pity.


They took the women, previously they had taken to Hatuniye district, to
American Institution. On the way, they met a woman walking together
with her 15 years old son and her baby. The boy was suffocated, the
woman after being raped was killed with her baby. From the American
Institute where there were a lot of immigrants, the Armenians and the
Russian chose the most
beautiful women and took them away, not to return them any more. None
of the women could protect their honor. Among the women who were raped
by force, they killed the wives of two sons and daughter of Fevzi Aga
from Molla Kasim village and the daughter of Ibrahim Aga from Ayanis
(Agarti) village. The 15 years old daughter Zeliha of Ismail Aga from
Göllü village,
died, for being raped too much. Lots of Moslem immigrants have been the
victims of the torture applied on them.



+++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_lieutenant_sukru_efendi.html


Testimony of Lieutenant Sükrü Efendi, son of Timur,who was originally
from Van(?.6.1916)

I was at Gevas, while the Russian were withdrawing from Van. Upon this
withdrawal news, I went to Van to help my family. When I saw the
corpses of my family among the corpses who were killed by the Russian
and left behind while they were withdrawing, I was horrified. There
were corpses whose bodies were tied and the heads were separated from
their bodies and men nailed on walls. Retired Lieutenant Mehmed Efendi,
who was originally from Diyarbakir, 80 years old Rüstem Efendi, from
the notables of Van, and his 15 years old son Necib, had been massacred
on Bitlis highway passing from Edremid (Sarmansuyu) village.

The corpses of 15 boys were on the highway. They had no wound traces.
They died because of hunger. Their mothers had also been killed or they
were kidnapped.

The roads were full with the corpses of men and women. The Armenians
had attacked the immigrants between Engil (Dönemeç) and Edremid
villages and they had plundered and killed them.



++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_dervis_aga.html

Testimony of Dervis Aga , one of the members of village council of
Menderis village (26.6.1916)

The houses at Komtis (Balakll) village were burned, the people were
massacred, the women were raped. Yunus, who was on old man, and his
wife were subjected to torture. The wife of the Head official of the
district, Mehmed Bey; Fatma Harum, Lali, daughter of ismail Aga, had
been killed after being subjected to torture. The wife of Suleyman Aga
died, because she was raped too much. The women, whose babies were
taken from their laps, were taken away to an unknownn direction.



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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_latife_hanim.html

Testimony of Latife Hanim, wife of Supply officer Hasan Fahri Efendi,
from 1 st Battalion, 97th Regiment (28.6.1916)

During the first invasion of Van by Russian units and the Armenian
gangs, only a small potion of the people could go away from the city.
As there were no transportation vehicles, the majority of the people
stayed in the city, and they thought that the forces invading the city
belonged to a civilized nation and they would show respect to the
lives, and honor of the unprotected people. The situation was not as
they thought. The Armenians which constituted the advance force of the
enemy, did not prevent the occupation, their evacuation and putting on
fire. The people, who were in panic, gathered at the major houses of
the city.
The men were arrested, the women were taken to the buildings of the
American Institutes. More than 10.000 people were gathered there. The
Armenians and Kazakhs chose a woman every night and took her out. Most
of the women who were taken out, were killed, after being raped.
Reyhan Hanim, wife of Gendarme sergeant Mahmud, and Piruze Hanim., wife
of Nasir Efendi (from Selim Bey district of Van)., have also told these
hateful events that the people were subjected to.


++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_sukru.html

The testimony under oath of 30 years old Sükrü, son of Hüseyin, who
resided at Nevsan district of Van and at the moment he is at Nusaybin,
about the malfunctions made by the Armenian and the Russian gangs to
the prosecutor of the town and examining magistrate (1.7.1916)

The Armenians had a great hate against the Ottoman Government and
Turkish people for a long time. They were trying to cease the existence
of the Ottomans and they were serving for this purpose since many
years. In the context of this goal, they tried to plant the seeds of
enmity among various elements of the empire. They had set up
revolutionary committees in Van, Erzurum, Bitlis and DiyarbakIr
provinces with the incitement of Russian government. In the
revolutionary Armenian organization in Van province, there were three
committees called Dashnak, Hunchak and Armenakan. Their leaders were
Aram Pasha, Ishan and Vremian. These people, began to equip themselves
with rifles, cartridges, bombs, dynamites and other explosives that
they had brought from Russia in order to apply their plans. They had
also organized armed Armenian gangs and attempted to dig underground
tunnels at Moslems districts of Van. One of these gangs, upon the
instruction of a brigand, known as Sirin, went to Timar (Gedikbulak).
The other, under the command of Sergis (the elder), activated at Satak
(Çatak) and the third one, under the command of Sergis (the younger),
went towards Havasur (Gürpinar). Furthermore, a separate group that
showed its activity in Erzurum, Bitlis and Diyarbakir, had been formed.
Following the general mobilization, the number of the gangs in Van, was
increased too much together with the gangs that came from everywhere
and participated them.
The gang of Sirin, seized Hist village and killed all the Moslems
there. Gendarme major Ahmed Bey, and a subordinate officer and the
gendarmes who came to the place of the event were killed also. After
these executions, the gang attacked Göllü village where the Armenians
killed all of the Moslem people without making any difference between
age and sex, with tortures not ever heard till that day. The young
girls at the above mentioned village were raped in disgusting ways. The
abdomens of the pregnant women were opened up and their uterus were cut
into pieces in front of the eyes of their parents. The breasts, noses,
and ears of lots of women were cut. Newly born and a little older
babies were boiled in the boiling water by these barbarians and later
on their mothers were forced to eat them. Territorial forces commander
Edhem Bey who came to Göllü, was also subject to the attack of this
gang and together with his four men, they were martyred.

The residents of Bahanis, Zorova (Yemlice), Köprü Köy and Zeve
villages were killed pitilessly, in a barbarian way and in an
unbelievable manner. All of their property was seized by the gangs. The
gangs of Sergis (the younger) and Sergis (the elder), behaved
pitilessly in an unbelievable way towards the Moslems in their field of
operation. As the Moslem people had no weapon to defend themselves,
they were killed by these brigand gangs who did every kind of cruelty
without making any difference whether they were women or children.
A gendarme in Van, was killed in the middle of the street by Sergis
(the younger). Everyday one or more Moslems were the victims of
Armenian wilderness. Hamid Aga Barracks in Van, was seized by the
Armenians who killed the guards and blew up the building by dynamite,
on April 18, 1915.

The Armenians behaved pitilessly and in an unbelievable manner towards
Moslems for 27 days. Within this period, they fired drumfire against
Moslems districts, bombed and with the help of underground tunnels,
they blew up the houses of Moslems.
Actually, the Armenians reached an agreement with the Russian and
through the assistance of the members of the Committees, by informing
all of the military operation of the Turkish units to the enemy, they
made espionage in favor of them. The head of the gang, Sirin went to
Russia later on and he guided the Russian army that invaded Van.
Russian also got rid of the Moslem public in a systematic manner. Only
five percent of the people could rescue from this massacre.



+++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_resid.html

Testimony with oath of 55 years old, Resid, farmer from Liva village

This person, after making the same statement with the previous witness,
about the establishment of Armenian Committees and gangs, their purpose
and their wild behavior against Moslem public, added the following.

The Armenians of the gang of Aram Pasha, killed in a horrible way,
Captain Halil Efendi, from Ercis, Lieutenant Halid Efendi, corporal
Alican and Ahmed and Mehmed who were accompanying them, and a soldier
who had come to the center of the province on the road.
Semo, from Yazik village, his sons Hüseyin, Kulcan and their friends
were killed by the above mentioned gang on the way going to mill which
was half an hour distance from the province and their corpses were
thrown to the river. Like these, Mullah Ali, from Çobanoglu village
and his friend Hayri, were attacked by the Armenians on the way and
they were killed. A lot of Moslem villages were burned by the Armenians
and the residents were put to sword. Before the arrival of the Russian,
the Armenians killed the residents of Hidir (Hidirköy), Molla Kasim,
Seyh Ayne (Otluca) and Seyh Kara (Gulsunler) villages, the headman of
Pirsolan village, Nuro, were gathered in a house with about 150 men,
women and children and by pouring kerosene on them, they were burned
while they were alive. After the invasion of Van by the Russian, the
Armenians began to destroy the Moslems and the remaining of the people,
escaped from the city.

But the Russian, in cooperation with the Armenians, followed these who
escaped and migrated and killed all the Moslems they met on the way.
The young girls were deflowered and were taken to Russia. The men and
old women were killed or burned.



+++++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_feyzullah_efendi.html

Testimony under oath of immigrant Feyzullah Efendi, son of 52 years old
Hasan Dünbüloglu, residing at Edremid district of Van (21.6.1916)

These testimonies verify the statements of Sukru and Resid, on the
issues such as the wilderness made by the Armenians at various sections
of Van Province and on the establishment of gangs, Feyzullah Efendi,
who gave the testimony, added the following:During the general
mobilization, some of the Armenians, escaped to Russia to fight in the
service of Russian army as volunteers The others, established armed
gangs to attack the Moslem villages, where the adults were called for
military service. These gangs were killing women and children, were
raping young girls, burning houses and villages, doing all kinds of
horrible, unbelievable things. The Armenians of Van, attacked suddenly
the Moslems, who were not anxious of anything and were doing their
business. They killed all the Moslems, they met on the road pitilessly.
They did not make any difference such in this massacre, as whether they
were Moslem women, men and old.

Immigrant Sidki, son of Hasan, 27 years old, whose profession was
grocer, and who was residing at Norsin-i Ulya district of Van and 50
years old Hursid Efendi, son of Hüseyin, an artilleryman lieutenant of
territorrial forces, repeated the previous statement.


++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_yusuf_efendi.html

Testimony with oath of 32 years old Yusuf Efendi, son of Mahmud, who
was chief telegrapher of Province and at the moment he is working
provisionally as Postal and Telegraph Director at Nusaybin town and
residing at Selim Bey district of Van (29.6.1916)

The task of the revolutionary committees that were established in Van
Province and whose major chiefs were Ishan, Aram, Vremian and Papazian,
was to kill all of the Moslem passengers they met on the roads.

In this context, the first two of these, have personally killed Haci
Musa Bey and Haci Yakub Aga from the notables of Resadiye, subdistrict
of Vostan (Gevas) town. These brigands, cut the ears and noses of their
victims and cut the penis of both of the corpses later on and put them
in their mouth. The members of these committees, were always holding
secret meetings at Ahtamar monastery at Vostan (Gevas) area, at the
villages of Erçek subdistrict and Körzut village of Muradiye town
They were meeting at the monasteries and houses of the Armenian
district of Van, suitable for this purpose. When the mobilization was
declared and the soldiers moved to go to various fronts, the insolence
of the Armenians did not recognize any limit. I left Van, when the
Russian passed the border. After Van was invaded, I listened from the
neighbor women who succeeded in coming Bitlis, the following. About 25
men from our district, who took shelter in a house with their families,
have been encountered with the attack of about 100 Armenians, who cut
13-14 years of children into pieces in front the eyes of their parents,
who dragged the men along the ground to the garden and shot them with
gun after lining them up in order.

The women were taken to the house of Ziya Bey at Halil Aga district
where French Consul was residing. Young women were separated in one
side and were taken away by these brigands.


+++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_erzurum_province.html


Testimonies with oath of Mehmed, son of Bulmaz; Hüseyin, son of
Mehmed; Hacý Ýbrahim, son of Ahmed and Hasan, son of Yusuf, from the
immigrants who came to Tadým village from Hýnýs (5.6.1916)

We are from Molla Kulaç village which is an hour away from Hýnýs.
During the invasion of our territory by the Russians,the Armenians
called Vahan and Aleksandr Asoyan, who were from the same village with
us, together with certain amount of cavalrymen attacked suddenly to our
village. These people, had already proved that they were from the
leaders of Dashnak Committee, through their despot-like and pitiless
behaviors. First of all they suffocated more than 20 children, they cut
the abdomens of some pregnant women with knife and put the children
that come out on top of their bayonets and showed them to their
fathers. They called their assistants to swear to the died women. Vahan
and Aleksander, after promising that they would release us at night,
they themselves and their assistants chose a beautiful woman for each
of them, from the notable families. Later on, they imprisoned 12 women
and 28 children in a house. After the midnight observing the
drunkenness of these Armenians was still continuing, with the help of
one of my friends, we were able to rescue the imprisoned women and
children and leaving all our propery at the village, we escaped. Now,
in our village, where there were 250 Moslems, only 35 people were left.
We are all in poverty.
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-16 04:10:16 UTC
Permalink
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_salim_efendi.html

Testimony with oath of Salim Efendi, son of Sadullah (2.6.1916) (A
police officer of Van, later appointed to Mardin)

Upon the approach of Russians towards Van, the Armenians residing
at the provinces and villages in the vicinity, began to riot against
Ottoman Administration and make enemy-like demonstrations. At the same
time, they did not obey the instructions of the administration on tax
payment, and they participated in the approaching Russian army. They
were reaching the villages, attacking on passangers, killing all of the
Moslems they meet with on their way, massacring the wounded soldiers
who were returning to their villages on leave.

After a short time, the Armenians of Van, rioted openly against
Ottoman Government. They began to attack on soldiers, gendarme and
police officers with their weapons on the streets of the province. They
used to kill all of the Moslems they caught, fire at the persons they
see at the windows or in front of the houses of Moslems.

This situation continued for 27 days. Even if after the occupation of
the province, the Armenian continued their barbarism, wickedness and
insolence. They were running after those who escaped and killing them
in the middle of the street. Hundreds of Moslems, men, women, and
children who remained in the province have been subject to torture by
these Armenian gangs and massacred. Some Moslems who escaped towards
Bitlis on board of three sailboats, were martyred at Adilcevaz
subdistrict, around Parkat by the Armenians. Police officers Celal
Efendi, Hasim Efendi and Mustafa Efendi who accompanied these
immigrants, were wounded during struggles and they could come to
Bitlis.

The residents of the villages of Timar subdistrict, such as Zeve,
Molla Kasim, Seyh Kara, Seyh Ayne, Ayanis, Zorova and Pakiz, were
massacred by the Armenian gangs, like residents of other villages.

Before the occupation of Van by the Russians, six gendarmes, Sheikh
Aga Efendi Riza Maho, Hoca Hasan Efendi, deputy president of Accounting
Department of Van, and his family consisting of six people, secondary
school teacher Rasim Efendi and his family and furthermode some other
people had been marytred by the Armenians of Van. Lieutenant Hüseyin
Efendi, was attacked at his house and his daughter Nadide was raped and
wounded. Other young girls and women were raped also and hundreds of
houses were burned together with those who lived inside these.


++++++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/

testimony_of_mehmed_tufan_efendi.html

Testimony with oath of Mehmed Tufan Efendi (4.6.1916) (Son of Major
Esad Efendi, Deputy judge at court)

The Armenians in Turkey, have brought the independence idea, as a
fixed idea for a long time, and have tried take out a part of the
empire with all the possibilities they had.

The Armenians, without concealing their aims and desires, after the
declaration of Generalmobilization, began to put forward their
revolutionist ideas, by transforming these aims into operation. The
Armenia committees, that had been organized previously, began to be
active and have been guides and couriers of Russian units. These
Armenians called the Russians and made them to come on November 22,
1914 to the management center of Sikefti subdistrict at Hakkari region,
which was Dir village.

While the Russian were occupying Dir village, the Armenian gangs
killed all the men at Kurdish villages on their way and put thousands
of children to sword.

Together with young women, more than 400 Kurdish girls were raped
old women were killed.

Before the occuppation of Baskale, that was the administration
center of the region, by the enemy, the Armenians came to this town on
November 30, 1914 and began their wild activities. The Armenians, under
the chairmanship of Oseb, son of Haço, declared so-called a martial
law at church and imprisoned more than 200 Moslems on whom previously
they applied all kinds of torture to take out their money, in the
stable section of the church.

The Armenian Committees, under the command of Garabet Efendi, who
was a judge at court, entered into the houses of Moslem and Jewish
people and plundered all the goods and furniture they found. Like the
house of Sheikh Taha, Sheikh Yusuf, Seyyid Ibrahim and Ali Efendi, all
of the houses of civil servants and public were plundered in the same
way by the Armenian pillagers. The goods and furniture and jewelery,
worth of 300 liras belonging to people were taken away. Furthermore,
they plundered the food warehouse of the official commission who
blocked some of the goods for the mobilization, the goods of Süleyman,
son of Nuril and those at the shops of other Moslem merchants.
Süleyman, son of Nuril was taken to the chuch and subjected him to
torture there, and at the end, they branded his sword with a hot iron
to give 5.000 liras. Stolen goods were distributed among Armenian
Committees.

The enemy remained 13 days in Baskale. During this period, the
Armenians showed all kinds of despising behavior towards Moslem, even
they arranged dissipation festivals at the mosques.

The roads were full with the corpses of women whose breasts were
cut, abdomens were opened up, children who were cut into pieces, young
girls who were raped and men whose eyes were carved.

It is not possible to explain the wilderness made by the Armenians
one by one.


++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/
testimony_with_oath_of_fehim_bey.html

Testimony with oath of Fehim Bey, son of Kahraman Bey from Muradiye
(10.6.1916) (Now, he is residing at Killaf village)

In May 1915, the Russian-Armenian units consisting of Armenians in
majority, occupied Bayezid and 300 villages of Abaga subdistrict of
Muradiye.

They massacred the Moslems they met on the way, even those who
surrendered. As we knew that even if we surrendered, we would have the
same end like our co-religionists, we decided to immigrate to Ercis
together with the residents of the villages around Muradiye.

While we were leaving our village to go to Ercis, 10.000 Moslems from
Abaga subdistrict which was rescued from Armenian oppression, took
shelter in Muradiye. We left the region on the same day. Later on, a
few women, with tears on their eyes and children who rescued and joined
us, told us that the remaining people of Abaga subdistrict who had
taken shelter in Muradiye, had been massacred by the gang of Russian
citizen Aram, who was engaged in commerce at Bayezid.

During our walk, we learned from Salih Bey, who was the head man of
Kömüs village told us that the people of his village and the villages
in the vicinity had been massacred by the Armenian gang of Aram, from
Van, and the children had been burned in the bakeries while they were
still alive On the way, together with Salih Bey we saw Ekice village,
consisting of 80 houses, and Kömüs (Balakli) village, consisting of
100 houses, were completely burned by the Armenian gangs. Everywhere
there were the corpses of women and men who were killed in a horrible
way A few women and children who rescued from Kömüs (Balakli) village
massacre, joined us and told us that, all of the residents of their
village, were pitilessly killed and burned by the Armenians.


+++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_mullah_mehmed.html

In the testimony with oath of Mullah Mehmed, son of Abdurrahman from
Kizil Kilise village of Muradiye town

Those told by Fehim Bey, were confirmed. To those that was told by
Mullah Mehmed, Salih Bey, added that, who was one of the residents of
Kömüs (Balakli) village, had hidden himself in a well in order to be
rescued from the death. The one who organized Kömüs (Balakli) village
massacre was the gang of Aram, from Van.


+++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_basri_bey.html

Testimony with oath of Basri Bey, Commander of Gendarme unit of Siirt
(23.6.1916)

Last year, on the first days of May, I went to Taramak village of
Müküs (Bahçesaray) subdistrict, as the head of my unit due to my
task. The Armenians of this village, did all kinds of oppression and
pressure that could not be told, against the Moslems. We entered into
the village covered with the corpses of men and women and also set on
fire, towards evening. Among the corpses, men whose ears and noses were
cut and eyes were carved, children whose heads were cut and bodies were
cut into pieces, were seen. However, the corporals of a young woman and
a girl impressed us very much. The abdomen of the woman was cut with a
knife, the baby taken out was suffocated and was put again in its
place. The girl who was hung from her feet, was, covered with holes
allover. After the Armenians and Russians had committed these
executions, made canonically unclean the religious buildings and burned
them.


++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_with_oath_of_32_people.html

Testimonies with oath of 32 people from Van, who are at
Ma'murat-ül-Aziz at present (17.6.1916) (The names of these people are
written in the Minutes)

Before the occupation of Van, the people who were killed by Armenian
gangs, are as follows: Gendarme mailman Sayyad (Seyyid) and his two
friends at Atalan village; Hursit Aga, and son of Ata Bey from Vostan,
at his house, Lieutenant Süleyman Efendi, who was the detachment
commander at Ercis, together with gendarme soldiers at Nabat village;
Hamza, son of Alay Bey from Adilcevaz, Said and Abdurrahman, sons of
Haci Ali and their five friends at Seyh Kara (Gülsünler) village,
Gendarme Hamid and his friends at Susanis village; Camuscu zade ismail,
Cebeci zade Haci Yakub and his son Halil, Dervis, son of Besir, Haci
Latif zade Haci Serif, Hertüslü zade Mustafa, Haci Rifat, son of
Topçu, Kaya Çelebi zade Mahmud and Yusuf, from the notables of Van;
Kahraman zade Bekir, Sakir and Sükü from the Notabes of Ercis, Mahmud
Siddik Bey from Bargiri were massacred.

All of the residents of Hidir, Zeve, Seyh Kara (Gülsünler), Amik
(Amuk), Ayanis (Agarti) and other villagers were massacred, women were
raped and youg girls were taken to inside of Russia.

Hüseyin Efendi, son of Kadik (from Norsin district) of Van and his
wife Zeliha Hanim, gave
testimonies which verify the statements of above mentioned Nigar Hanim.


++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_resid_son_of_tradesman_ali.html

Testimony of Resid, son of Tradesman Ali from Topçu Oglu district of
Van

During the first panic, a great majority of the public, went to Hosab
direction where the division Halil Bey was located. But, before
reaching the desired location, a group approximately consisting of
80.000 people, was attacked by Russian and the Armenians at Sahmanis
village. Only about 2.000 of them, were taken to Hosab (Güzelsu).
During the two months in which they were imprisoned as slaves, they
were subjected to every kind of torture and transgression. Meanwhile,
the city of Van was rescued by Turkish army Upon this news, the natives
of Van who took shelter in Diyarbaklr, Bitlis and Karçikan, came to
Edremid village, which was an hour away from Van and to Engil and
Atalan villages located in the north of Van. The number of these people
was about 15.000. As a result of the sudden attack of the Russian and
the Armenians, these people and 2.000 Turkish soldiers were killed with
machine guns and shrapnels. Among them only 1.000 succeeded in escaping
and rescuing.



++++++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_abdi_and_resid_.html

Testimonies of Abdi and Resid Mullah, from immigrants of Gevas (
1.7.1916)

After the evacuation of Van and Gevas, an Armenian and Kazakh unit,
consisting of 500 people, directed by Haço, Monk Sergis, Onnik, Hako
and Parso from Horotis village, surrounded Karkar (Daldere) village of
Gevas. They fired at the significant buildings. They massacred men and
children, raped women. Only a couple hundred of villagers could rescue
with great difficulties.



+++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_tahir_and_mahmud.html

Testimonies of Tahir, son of Halid and Mahmud who migrated to Mezraa-i
Seyhan (20.6.1916)

When it is learned that the center of Sanjak would be evacuated, all of
the people of the village began to walk towards a place where the
Turkish Administration still continued. When they arrived to Kasir
village, it was seen that the bridge was closed by the Armenian gangs
among whom there were. Haço, Mardiros, Bakdo, Berzo, Sergis, Haro,
teacher Garabet and Migirdiç.

In spite of the begging of the crowd, the brigands did not let anybody
pass the bridge. They searched the women till their private parts.
After they plundered everything they had with them, they attacked
girls. They were equipped with Ottoman and Russian rifles, and they
fired at men intensively. Most of them died, the others escaped with
great difficulty and took shelter on Kuru Salan mountains. We observed
that 121 people, most of them were women and children, had been killed
with the bullets of the brigands.



++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_yusuf_kenan_and_abdulhakim.html

Testimonies of Yusuf, Kenan and Abdülhakim, from the immigrants of
Müküs (Bahçesaray) (19.6.1916)

Last year on August 30, the Russian gangs came to Gevas and Satak
(Çatak), the Armenian gangs came to Müküs (Bahçesaray). The women,
old people and children, who could not escape, were massacred
completely. In the Armenian gang, Kirkor, and teacher Garabet, Vahan
from Par village, Artin from Kinekas village, Kevork from Müküs,
Minto Sembat, Hayastan, ironsmith Naro, Haçik Muhik, Dikran and Bedros
were seen. These brigands especially attacked on women and raped them
in a disgusting manner.


++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_abdulmecid_and_osman.htm

Testimonies of Abdülmecid, son of Halid and Resul, son of Osman from a
Layan , Immigrants of Müküs (Bahçesaray) (19.6.1916)

The testimonies of these people are the same with the above mentioned
testimonies. In their testimony, they indicated that among the Armenian
executioners, there were Lato from Ozim (Gümüsören) village of
Pervari, Haço, Oseb, Sirak from Müküs, Sergis, Nisan, Garabet, Vahan
and Artin, from the neighbouring villages.


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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_abdullah.html

Testimony of Abdullah (19.6.1916)

After the evacuation of Van, Gevas and Havasur (Gürpinar), Armenian
villagers, under the leadership of Vartan, bishop of Ahtamar Church who
came from Van and Tuluncian Simon, attacked on Kurdish villages such as
Verendanis, Horavil, Der, Zikoh, Karkar (Daldere), in hundreds of
groups. Plundering, seducing and execution followed one another. About
200 young girls were taken to Van to satisfy the bestial emotions of
the Armenians and Russian. Only very few of them could endure this
attack. Only about 200 residents of the plundered and burned villages,
could take shelter on Agirof mountain. After a period, these poor
people, thinking that they would find Turkish administrators, went to
Müküs (Bahçesaray). However also the Armenians located there,
attacked again on these miserable people. Only a few people could
rescue also from this massacre in a miraculous way.


+++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_salih_and_ali.html

Testimonies of Salih and Ali, son of Halid from Serir village of Satak
(Çatak) (19.6.1916)

All of the residents of Sortekin, Arçkanis, Mezraa and Pars Armenian
villages, surrounded Serir village at early hours of the morning. From
60 persons of the village, only 15 men, could escape. The others were
killed. Women were kidnapped and the houses were plundered.


+++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_abdulhamid_and_hangir.html

Testimonies of Abdülhamid and Hangir from the Immigrants of Darnis-i
Ula and Darnis-i Sufla (19.6.1916)

The Armenian gang, consisting 5.000 people who came from Erzincan,
Kahnemiran, Sidan, Kagaziz and other places under the leadership of
Committee President Leo, who was originally from Havasur (Gürpinar),
gave orders to Darnis-i Ulya (Yukari Narlica) and Darnis-i Sufla
villages to send 500 liras and 50 girls and added that Russian had
seized Istanbul, there had been no Sultan of the Ottoman Empire any
more and added that there had been no solution for them except being
Armenians. Hopeless Moslem public began to collect the requested 500
liras. These brigands, after massacred 10 Muslems, staying at a house
at Kahnemiran (Uzuntekne), one night they surrounded the above
mentioned two villages. Their leaders, were Mesrob, from Sidan, Simon
from Kagaziz, bartik from Surengen, Bedo from Sokan. They burned the
houses and by screaming "Long live Armenia", and attacked on the
people. Only 50 people, out of 320 could be able to rescue from the
massacre by taking advantage of the darkness.


++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_mahmud_and_behlul.html

Testimonies of Mahmud, son of Kotas and Behlül, son of Said from the
notables of Sokan (Çatakdibi) village of Satak (Çatak) town
(19.6.1916)

Sokan (Çatakdibi) village had a population of 680 people. One night,
the Armenians and the Russian attacked suddenly to the village. Nobody
could prevent them. Because the Moslem people had no weapons.

The executioners burned the houses. When the situation became calm, a
lot of women and children, died under the swords of Kazakhs and short,
curved daggers of Armenian rebels. At dawn, they gathered those, who
could rescue from the night execution in a house. Girls and young women
were taken to an unknown direction.

At lunch time, they burned the house in which they had imprisoned the
villagers. Only 21 of these miserable people could rescue from this
massacre miraculously. We saw Sahak, from Satak (Çatak), Oseb, Artin,
Hovik and Simon and the Armenian villagers, whose names we could not
remember among the executioners. They especially attacked young girls
and did every kind of oppression.


+++++++++++=



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_mustafa_and_esad.html

Testimonies of Mustafa and Esad from the immigrants of Avzini village
of Satak (Çatak) (20.6.1916)

The population of our village was 500. The Armenians and the Russian
attacked to the village and they plundered and massacred. Only 30
people could rescue from the massacre. The end of the others are not
known.



++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_sheikh_enver_and_mullah_resid.html

Testimonies of Sheikh Enver and Mullah Resid from the religious leaders
of Alan village of Karçikan town (7.7.1916)

It was learned that about a Russain 100 cavalrymen and a reinforced
infantry unit were approaching to the village. The villagers set off to
be away from the village. But the residents of the Armenian villages,
called Pelli, Tankas, Azerkuh and Prons (Gökçimen) cut their ways.
They attacked on the women, and the Russian unit entered into the
village. The houses were put on fire. The disabled such as old, sick
and children were killed pitilessly. Kazakhs walked on those who tried
to rescue. Very few of them could succeed in saving their souls.



+++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_yusuf_ziyaeddin.html

Testimony of Yusuf Ziyaeddin (20.6.1916)

In the beginning of March, 1915, the Russian Kazakhs attacked with the
help of Armenians of Gevas town to the villages called Arkanis, Havins,
Varkoz, Norevan, Berho, Tarvis and Bahik, each having a population
between 100-150, gathered the men in a house and burned them. Young
women and girls were kidnapped.



++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_mullah_abdi_and_selim_han.html

Testimonies of Mullah Abdi, from the notables of Kesan (Ergeçiti),
Naksibendi Sheikh of Arvas, Selim Han, son of Haci Bey and Ali, son of
Hamid Bey (14.4.1916)

The Russian and the Armenians invaded Resadiye village of Asnak. They
deflowered the girls in front of everybody, they burned the children
while they were alive, they carved the eyes of men. We recognized among
the gangs, Apre from Norkuh, Bizinik, bishop of Ahtamar church, Mirbek
and Oseb, Bedros from Arpit, and iso from Anzak. These executioners,
closed 15 the most beautiful girls of the village in a room and began
to drink and after they had undressed the girls stark naked, they made
them dance with the screams "Dam Moslems" and "Long live Armenia". They
urged them to pray and while they were performing namaz, the brigands
took the advantage of this situation and they attempted to deflower
them. When the girls rejected and resisted there was a fight. At the
end the Armenians and the Russian killed these poor girls.



++++++++++++++=




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_firdevs_hanim.html


Testimony of Firdevs Hanim, wife of Serif, residing at Abbas Aga
district of Van (? .6.1916)

While the enemy was entering Van city, Firdevs Hanim and her neighbors,
were gathered in the house of retired officer Mehmed Ali Efendi. The
sounds of firing rifles and screams began to be heard After they
plundered the houses, they were burning them. The fire was coming
closer to the house of Ali Efendi. About 15 armed people, rang the door
of this house. They called
Ali Efendi and ordered him to give money to them. Ali Efendi, after
hesitating for a moment, obeyed the order. The brigands, after taking
the money of Ali Efendi, they killed him and his 80 years old sister.
His wife also, after being seduced, had the same end. My husband Serif
Efendi was shot at his head and fell down on the ground. In spite of my
screams full of pain,
my 16 years old son, Ahmed, was massacred. The brigands stabbed a
pregnant woman and after killing all the men in the house, they took
the women to Hatuniye district.There they cut the penis of a 15 years
old boy and put it in his mouth and after this torture, they killed
him. The brigands killed all the people they met without any pity.


They took the women, previously they had taken to Hatuniye district, to
American Institution. On the way, they met a woman walking together
with her 15 years old son and her baby. The boy was suffocated, the
woman after being raped was killed with her baby. From the American
Institute where there were a lot of immigrants, the Armenians and the
Russian chose the most
beautiful women and took them away, not to return them any more. None
of the women could protect their honor. Among the women who were raped
by force, they killed the wives of two sons and daughter of Fevzi Aga
from Molla Kasim village and the daughter of Ibrahim Aga from Ayanis
(Agarti) village. The 15 years old daughter Zeliha of Ismail Aga from
Göllü village,
died, for being raped too much. Lots of Moslem immigrants have been the
victims of the torture applied on them.



+++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_lieutenant_sukru_efendi.html


Testimony of Lieutenant Sükrü Efendi, son of Timur,who was originally
from Van(?.6.1916)

I was at Gevas, while the Russian were withdrawing from Van. Upon this
withdrawal news, I went to Van to help my family. When I saw the
corpses of my family among the corpses who were killed by the Russian
and left behind while they were withdrawing, I was horrified. There
were corpses whose bodies were tied and the heads were separated from
their bodies and men nailed on walls. Retired Lieutenant Mehmed Efendi,
who was originally from Diyarbakir, 80 years old Rüstem Efendi, from
the notables of Van, and his 15 years old son Necib, had been massacred
on Bitlis highway passing from Edremid (Sarmansuyu) village.

The corpses of 15 boys were on the highway. They had no wound traces.
They died because of hunger. Their mothers had also been killed or they
were kidnapped.

The roads were full with the corpses of men and women. The Armenians
had attacked the immigrants between Engil (Dönemeç) and Edremid
villages and they had plundered and killed them.



++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_dervis_aga.html

Testimony of Dervis Aga , one of the members of village council of
Menderis village (26.6.1916)

The houses at Komtis (Balakll) village were burned, the people were
massacred, the women were raped. Yunus, who was on old man, and his
wife were subjected to torture. The wife of the Head official of the
district, Mehmed Bey; Fatma Harum, Lali, daughter of ismail Aga, had
been killed after being subjected to torture. The wife of Suleyman Aga
died, because she was raped too much. The women, whose babies were
taken from their laps, were taken away to an unknownn direction.



+++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_latife_hanim.html

Testimony of Latife Hanim, wife of Supply officer Hasan Fahri Efendi,
from 1 st Battalion, 97th Regiment (28.6.1916)

During the first invasion of Van by Russian units and the Armenian
gangs, only a small potion of the people could go away from the city.
As there were no transportation vehicles, the majority of the people
stayed in the city, and they thought that the forces invading the city
belonged to a civilized nation and they would show respect to the
lives, and honor of the unprotected people. The situation was not as
they thought. The Armenians which constituted the advance force of the
enemy, did not prevent the occupation, their evacuation and putting on
fire. The people, who were in panic, gathered at the major houses of
the city.
The men were arrested, the women were taken to the buildings of the
American Institutes. More than 10.000 people were gathered there. The
Armenians and Kazakhs chose a woman every night and took her out. Most
of the women who were taken out, were killed, after being raped.
Reyhan Hanim, wife of Gendarme sergeant Mahmud, and Piruze Hanim., wife
of Nasir Efendi (from Selim Bey district of Van)., have also told these
hateful events that the people were subjected to.


++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_sukru.html

The testimony under oath of 30 years old Sükrü, son of Hüseyin, who
resided at Nevsan district of Van and at the moment he is at Nusaybin,
about the malfunctions made by the Armenian and the Russian gangs to
the prosecutor of the town and examining magistrate (1.7.1916)

The Armenians had a great hate against the Ottoman Government and
Turkish people for a long time. They were trying to cease the existence
of the Ottomans and they were serving for this purpose since many
years. In the context of this goal, they tried to plant the seeds of
enmity among various elements of the empire. They had set up
revolutionary committees in Van, Erzurum, Bitlis and DiyarbakIr
provinces with the incitement of Russian government. In the
revolutionary Armenian organization in Van province, there were three
committees called Dashnak, Hunchak and Armenakan. Their leaders were
Aram Pasha, Ishan and Vremian. These people, began to equip themselves
with rifles, cartridges, bombs, dynamites and other explosives that
they had brought from Russia in order to apply their plans. They had
also organized armed Armenian gangs and attempted to dig underground
tunnels at Moslems districts of Van. One of these gangs, upon the
instruction of a brigand, known as Sirin, went to Timar (Gedikbulak).
The other, under the command of Sergis (the elder), activated at Satak
(Çatak) and the third one, under the command of Sergis (the younger),
went towards Havasur (Gürpinar). Furthermore, a separate group that
showed its activity in Erzurum, Bitlis and Diyarbakir, had been formed.
Following the general mobilization, the number of the gangs in Van, was
increased too much together with the gangs that came from everywhere
and participated them.
The gang of Sirin, seized Hist village and killed all the Moslems
there. Gendarme major Ahmed Bey, and a subordinate officer and the
gendarmes who came to the place of the event were killed also. After
these executions, the gang attacked Göllü village where the Armenians
killed all of the Moslem people without making any difference between
age and sex, with tortures not ever heard till that day. The young
girls at the above mentioned village were raped in disgusting ways. The
abdomens of the pregnant women were opened up and their uterus were cut
into pieces in front of the eyes of their parents. The breasts, noses,
and ears of lots of women were cut. Newly born and a little older
babies were boiled in the boiling water by these barbarians and later
on their mothers were forced to eat them. Territorial forces commander
Edhem Bey who came to Göllü, was also subject to the attack of this
gang and together with his four men, they were martyred.

The residents of Bahanis, Zorova (Yemlice), Köprü Köy and Zeve
villages were killed pitilessly, in a barbarian way and in an
unbelievable manner. All of their property was seized by the gangs. The
gangs of Sergis (the younger) and Sergis (the elder), behaved
pitilessly in an unbelievable way towards the Moslems in their field of
operation. As the Moslem people had no weapon to defend themselves,
they were killed by these brigand gangs who did every kind of cruelty
without making any difference whether they were women or children.
A gendarme in Van, was killed in the middle of the street by Sergis
(the younger). Everyday one or more Moslems were the victims of
Armenian wilderness. Hamid Aga Barracks in Van, was seized by the
Armenians who killed the guards and blew up the building by dynamite,
on April 18, 1915.

The Armenians behaved pitilessly and in an unbelievable manner towards
Moslems for 27 days. Within this period, they fired drumfire against
Moslems districts, bombed and with the help of underground tunnels,
they blew up the houses of Moslems.
Actually, the Armenians reached an agreement with the Russian and
through the assistance of the members of the Committees, by informing
all of the military operation of the Turkish units to the enemy, they
made espionage in favor of them. The head of the gang, Sirin went to
Russia later on and he guided the Russian army that invaded Van.
Russian also got rid of the Moslem public in a systematic manner. Only
five percent of the people could rescue from this massacre.



+++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_resid.html

Testimony with oath of 55 years old, Resid, farmer from Liva village

This person, after making the same statement with the previous witness,
about the establishment of Armenian Committees and gangs, their purpose
and their wild behavior against Moslem public, added the following.

The Armenians of the gang of Aram Pasha, killed in a horrible way,
Captain Halil Efendi, from Ercis, Lieutenant Halid Efendi, corporal
Alican and Ahmed and Mehmed who were accompanying them, and a soldier
who had come to the center of the province on the road.
Semo, from Yazik village, his sons Hüseyin, Kulcan and their friends
were killed by the above mentioned gang on the way going to mill which
was half an hour distance from the province and their corpses were
thrown to the river. Like these, Mullah Ali, from Çobanoglu village
and his friend Hayri, were attacked by the Armenians on the way and
they were killed. A lot of Moslem villages were burned by the Armenians
and the residents were put to sword. Before the arrival of the Russian,
the Armenians killed the residents of Hidir (Hidirköy), Molla Kasim,
Seyh Ayne (Otluca) and Seyh Kara (Gulsunler) villages, the headman of
Pirsolan village, Nuro, were gathered in a house with about 150 men,
women and children and by pouring kerosene on them, they were burned
while they were alive. After the invasion of Van by the Russian, the
Armenians began to destroy the Moslems and the remaining of the people,
escaped from the city.

But the Russian, in cooperation with the Armenians, followed these who
escaped and migrated and killed all the Moslems they met on the way.
The young girls were deflowered and were taken to Russia. The men and
old women were killed or burned.



+++++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_feyzullah_efendi.html

Testimony under oath of immigrant Feyzullah Efendi, son of 52 years old
Hasan Dünbüloglu, residing at Edremid district of Van (21.6.1916)

These testimonies verify the statements of Sukru and Resid, on the
issues such as the wilderness made by the Armenians at various sections
of Van Province and on the establishment of gangs, Feyzullah Efendi,
who gave the testimony, added the following:During the general
mobilization, some of the Armenians, escaped to Russia to fight in the
service of Russian army as volunteers The others, established armed
gangs to attack the Moslem villages, where the adults were called for
military service. These gangs were killing women and children, were
raping young girls, burning houses and villages, doing all kinds of
horrible, unbelievable things. The Armenians of Van, attacked suddenly
the Moslems, who were not anxious of anything and were doing their
business. They killed all the Moslems, they met on the road pitilessly.
They did not make any difference such in this massacre, as whether they
were Moslem women, men and old.

Immigrant Sidki, son of Hasan, 27 years old, whose profession was
grocer, and who was residing at Norsin-i Ulya district of Van and 50
years old Hursid Efendi, son of Hüseyin, an artilleryman lieutenant of
territorrial forces, repeated the previous statement.


++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimony_of_yusuf_efendi.html

Testimony with oath of 32 years old Yusuf Efendi, son of Mahmud, who
was chief telegrapher of Province and at the moment he is working
provisionally as Postal and Telegraph Director at Nusaybin town and
residing at Selim Bey district of Van (29.6.1916)

The task of the revolutionary committees that were established in Van
Province and whose major chiefs were Ishan, Aram, Vremian and Papazian,
was to kill all of the Moslem passengers they met on the roads.

In this context, the first two of these, have personally killed Haci
Musa Bey and Haci Yakub Aga from the notables of Resadiye, subdistrict
of Vostan (Gevas) town. These brigands, cut the ears and noses of their
victims and cut the penis of both of the corpses later on and put them
in their mouth. The members of these committees, were always holding
secret meetings at Ahtamar monastery at Vostan (Gevas) area, at the
villages of Erçek subdistrict and Körzut village of Muradiye town
They were meeting at the monasteries and houses of the Armenian
district of Van, suitable for this purpose. When the mobilization was
declared and the soldiers moved to go to various fronts, the insolence
of the Armenians did not recognize any limit. I left Van, when the
Russian passed the border. After Van was invaded, I listened from the
neighbor women who succeeded in coming Bitlis, the following. About 25
men from our district, who took shelter in a house with their families,
have been encountered with the attack of about 100 Armenians, who cut
13-14 years of children into pieces in front the eyes of their parents,
who dragged the men along the ground to the garden and shot them with
gun after lining them up in order.

The women were taken to the house of Ziya Bey at Halil Aga district
where French Consul was residing. Young women were separated in one
side and were taken away by these brigands.


+++++++++++++



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/testimonies/testimonies_of_erzurum_province.html


Testimonies with oath of Mehmed, son of Bulmaz; Hüseyin, son of
Mehmed; Hacý Ýbrahim, son of Ahmed and Hasan, son of Yusuf, from the
immigrants who came to Tadým village from Hýnýs (5.6.1916)

We are from Molla Kulaç village which is an hour away from Hýnýs.
During the invasion of our territory by the Russians,the Armenians
called Vahan and Aleksandr Asoyan, who were from the same village with
us, together with certain amount of cavalrymen attacked suddenly to our
village. These people, had already proved that they were from the
leaders of Dashnak Committee, through their despot-like and pitiless
behaviors. First of all they suffocated more than 20 children, they cut
the abdomens of some pregnant women with knife and put the children
that come out on top of their bayonets and showed them to their
fathers. They called their assistants to swear to the died women. Vahan
and Aleksander, after promising that they would release us at night,
they themselves and their assistants chose a beautiful woman for each
of them, from the notable families. Later on, they imprisoned 12 women
and 28 children in a house. After the midnight observing the
drunkenness of these Armenians was still continuing, with the help of
one of my friends, we were able to rescue the imprisoned women and
children and leaving all our propery at the village, we escaped. Now,
in our village, where there were 250 Moslems, only 35 people were left.
We are all in poverty.
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-16 04:10:54 UTC
Permalink
Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

CEVAHIR KOKUM

Father's Name: Ibrahim
Place of Birth: Bitlis-Hizan-Çökekyazž
Date of Birth: 1899

When the Russian forces entered Bitlis in the beginning of March, we
were
forced to become refugees. We abandoned our homes and marched toward
Hizan. We
came across hundreds of people who fled like us on the road. They were
so
frightened that they crawled under or into any structure they could
find on the
road. Meanwhile, we were being followed by Armenian bandits. When seyh
Selahattin heard of this, he came to us and asked that all men able to
fight
follow him. On the way, he asked us to light a fire under a bush so
that those
who saw it would think that we were a large group. We later learned
that in a
subsequent fight the Armenians lost and that seyh Selahattin lost an
eye to an
enemy's bullet.

Meanwhile, hunger had reached a peak level. We sent a convoy of 12 men
and 4
women to Hirit (Cökekyazž) village to get food. They were cut off by
Armenians
in the Müskünüs (Düzköy) village. Although the women were
successful in
escaping, the men were caught by the Russians. These 12 men were tied
to each
other, a "pocket" was cut out of their skin on their legs, and their
hands were
placed in these pockets. Their organs were cut off and placed in their
mouths.
Unsatisfied by this brutality, they built a fire in the middle of the
rest of
them, and killed them all with a thousand and one torture methods.

My cousin Hüsniye was unable to escape and got stuck in the city. They
killed
her six children, and when they were taking her away on horseback, she
jumped
from the horse and ran toward the fields. Unfortunately, she was caught
by the
Armenians, who raped and killed her.

Were all the Armenians so barbaric? Weren't there any good ones? I am
sure
there were. My deceased grandmother would always talk about an Armenian
named
Manik. When talking about him, she would also pray in thanks for all
that he
had done.

Manik worked as a servant for Hacž Yusufzade. This Armenian saved my
grandmother and her other relatives from the Armenian massacre. Let's
hear the
story from Hanife Boran.

"I, my father Hase, my uncle Süleyman, and my aunt Felek were left
among the
enemy, but our Armenian servant Manik saved us from the Russians and
Armenians.


"One day an Armenian general came to our home and asked us for some
milk. Since
it was winter, we were feeding our animals a bitter plant, a taste
which
naturally was reflected in the milk. When the Armenian general drank
the bitter
milk, he ordered to have my uncle Solomon murdered as punishment. They
tied my
uncle to two side by side steel doors, and fiercely tortured him by
opening and
shutting the door. Unsatisfied with this, they took him away. Manik
went and
got my father.

"A few days later they picked out and took away all of the pregnant
women among
us. We later learned that they tied them all to poles, bet on whether
they were
carrying boys or girls, and killed them by cutting them open. Manik was
unable
to do anything about this, he simply was not powerful enough.

"They later took us from the Avih neighborhood to the convent of Emin
Efendi in
the city. They taped red crosses to our arms. Manik immediately took
them off
our arms. When we later asked him the meaning of that, he said the
crosses
marked those that would be taken to Russia. One day, Manik came running
to us.
He said the home we were in was going to be hit by Russian cannon fire.
When he
brought us to another house, he kept us hidden by following the sewers.
Manik
would leave in the day, and return at nightfall with all of the bread,
sugar,
and other food supplies he could find. When we asked why he was doing
this, he
replied that he could not betray us after eating our bread for so many
years.

"One day, Manik came to us excitedly and said that the Russians had
emptied the
city, and that it was not right for him to stay after everything that
the
Armenians had done, and that he would emigrate to Russia with the rest
of the
Armenians. We sat and cried, since Manik was the only adult left with
us. His
leaving would mean that we were left all alone. Manik left, but we did
not
forget him or what he did.

"We can only thank Manik and those like him. We have nothing else to
say."



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

ABBAS GÜNES

Place of Birth: Kars-Hakmehmet
Date of Birth: 1897

The Armenians came to our village of Hakmehmet. They called out to the
leaders
of the village, promising peace. They gathered us in a mosque, inviting
all
men, women, and children. After searching us, they took the jewelry
from the
women. At night they led us like a pack of animals out of the village.
They
again searched us, saying that they would kill anyone who hid money.
Some
villagers turned in their money, others did not. They ordered us to
split into
two groups and advance toward the villages ahead. We started walking
when an
Armenian approached on horseback, and recommended that we hurry,
because the
other Armenians would kill us. We continued on the road. Women unable
to carry
their small children left them at the foot of trees or rocks, or in
ditches.
The children were crying. We reached the Iranian villages on foot. We
later
heard that the remaining villagers were murdered. Some of them were
shot,
others killed with swords, and then all thrown into a well.




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

MEHMET TAS
Place of Birth: Kars-Esenbogaz
Date of Birth: 1902

(Mehmet Tas pointed out the scars on his face). When the Armenians
raided our
village, we all sought refuge in the nearby forest. They fooled us into
coming
back to the village, stuffed us into a barn, cut us up, and burned us.
An
Armenian saw me, swung the sword to my face, and threw me into the
fire. I
immediately stood up and fell again among the dead. The soldiers came
that
night. I don't remember anything else because I was very young, but my
foot was
burned.




Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses

ORUÇ TÜRKELI
Place of Birth: Kars-Hakmehmet
Date of Birth: 1899

There were no Armenian homes in our village at the time. Then
Armenians and
Muslims became enemies, and the Armenians arrived in Kars. They didn't
have any
possessions or homes then, but they came and stayed in our village. The
Armenians had a wise man named Dikran who also stayed in our village.
The
oldest was their leader.

My mother would make bread, and I stayed near her. One day, I went
outside to
play with the children and have a good time. I heard that the Armenians
surrounded the village. I asked myself why this was so, since Armenians
lived
among us as well. They told us to gather our belongings so that we
could make
peace. I went home to tell my mother. She had baked bread, and two
armed
Armenians came and told us to gather the bread and go inside. We did as
they
said. It was either the first or second day of our religious holiday.
We had
meat too, but they left nothing. They took us away.

There is a home in the village where they put all the women, men and
children
from the village. They put the older boys and men in one room, and the
younger
ones with the women. I was with my mother. We had a few gold coins
which my
mother placed at the baseboards of the walls, because they would come
and
search the homes and confiscate any money. We had nothing else.
Nightfall came
and it became dark. They treated us like a heard of sheep. We were
women and
children. They put two Armenians on each side of us who led us by
poking us
with bayonets. They took us out of the village, and would stop and
check us
from time to time for money. My mother threw the coins on the ground
which was
made of dirt and stepped on them. They took us to the fields in the
middle of
the village, and told us to divide into two and march toward the next
village.
Armenians on horses arrived, and they told us they would take us back
because
the other Armenians would kill us. We continued to march, while they
returned.
They stood and waited for a while, and then left. There were many small
children with their mothers. Those unable to carry the children left
them
behind. Mothers were carrying one child in their arms, one on their
backs, and
holding the others by the hand. A few children were left by rocks or
ditches.

We went to Iranian villages, and later learned that they massacred
those that
stayed behind, including my father, and threw the bodies into wells.
Some were
killed by bullets, some by sword, and some were thrown into the wells
alive.
Those wells were old and deep, but they threw them all in there. We
stayed in
Iran for eight to ten years. Our villagers later returned, but of
course my
father was killed by the Armenians.



Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

III. Testimonies of Witnesses


IMAM ZEYNELABIDIN

Place of Birth: Kars
Date of Birth: 1908

I am 82 years old, and witnessed the Armenian massacres. The Armenians
raided
the refugee tents of Mr. Abdullah, and killed him and many other people
whose
names I do not know. Since Mr. Abdullah's second wife Zeytun was very
attractive, they took her away and killed him. One day, they gathered
the
Muslims from Digor, and placed the men in Laz Hasan's house. The women
were put
in the ditch near Hacž Aziz's home. They fired into the ditch and
killed more
than 400 Muslims that way. As for the men, they would take them out two
by two
and cut their heads off with axes. From Mr. Halil's family, they killed
him,
his sons and the rest of the family. I know their names because we were
relatives. Yusuf, his son, father of Esen, the mayor, was wounded but
able to
save himself. His brothers Asaf, Arslan, and Tahir all died. They stole
a lot
of personal property. All the people sought refuge in the mountains.
The
elderly and sick that were left behind in the village were all killed.
I can't
tell you all of the terrible things the Armenians did. Thank God for
our
soldiers who saved Kars.



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_anatolia/zeve_excavation.htm



Van-Zeve Mass Grave Excavation

In April, 1915, Armenian rebels together with Russian soldiers started
their activities to massacre the children, women, the old and wounded
people of Van whose youth were in the front.

The people from Derebey, Hakis, Zorova (Yemlice), Hidir Gölü,
Seyhayne
(Otluca),seyhkara (Gülsünler) villages gathered in Zeve (Zaviye)
village, and fought against enemy with primitive weapons, and when the
village was surrendered, about 30.000 people were massacred by
Armenians after being tortured .

When Zeve and its surrounding was taken back by the Turkish troops,
bodies in burned and destroyed houses were buried. Zeve village,
deserted for 75 years became a visiting place for people with its
abandoned "Zaviye" village.

Those who try to make historical facts be forgotten in the service of
their political purposes have to take lessons from the Zeve excavatio
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-28 16:36:15 UTC
Permalink
Terrorist Armenians raped, tortured, massacred millions of innocent and
defenceless Turks, Jews, Kurds, Arabs and other non-Armenians in
Ottoman Eastern Anatolia during WWI (with direct and generous support
from their allies, the victors of WWI including Czarist Russia which
also created the mess in the Middle East, including the fake state of
Iraq, millions of people are suffering from now) to ethnically cleanse
the area for an Armenian homeland which never existed.

The rest of the Ottoman Armenian population either very blindly
followed their terrorist leaders (who were ".. craven and mean-spirited
and exel in nothing except drinking ..imperfect Christians" - Marco
Polo), or remained totally complacent.

After WWI ended, the British convened the Malta Tribunals to try
Ottoman officials for alleged crimes against Armenians. All of the
accused were acquitted.

The Peace Treaty of Sevres, which was imposed upon the defeated Ottoman
Empire, required the Ottoman government to hand over to the Allied
Powers people accused of "massacres." Subsequently, 144 high Ottoman
officials were arrested and deported for trial by the British to the
island of Malta. The principal informants to the British High
Commission in Istanbul leading to the arrests were local Armenians and
the Armenian Patriarchate. While the deportees were interned on Malta,
the British appointed an Armenian scholar, Mr. Haig Khazarian, to
conduct a thorough examination of documentary evidence in the Ottoman,
British, and U.S. Archives to substantiate the charges. Access to
Ottoman records was unfettered as the British and French occupied and
controlled Istanbul at the time. Khazarian's corps of investigators
revealed an utter lack of evidence demonstrating that Ottoman officials
either sanctioned or encouraged killings of Armenians.

At the conclusion of the investigation, the British Procurator General
determined that it was "improbable that the charges would be capable of
proof in a court of law," exonerated and released all 144 detainees --
after two years and four months of detention without trial. No
compensation was ever paid to the detainees.

Despite the verdicts of the Malta Tribunals, Armenian terrorists have
engaged in a vigilante war that continues today.

In 1921, a secret Armenian network based in Boston, named Nemesis, took
the law into its own hands and hunted down and assassinated former
Ottoman Ministers Talaat Pasha and Jemal Pasha as well as other Ottoman
officials. Following in Nemesis' footsteps, during the 1970's and
1980's, the Armenian terrorist groups, Armenian Secret Army for the
Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) and Justice Commandos for the Armenian
Genocide (JCAG), committed over 230 armed attacks, killing 71 innocent
people, including 31 Turkish diplomats, and seriously wounding over 520
people in a campaign of blood revenge.

Most recently, Mourad Topalian, former Chairman of the Armenian
National Committee of America, was tried and convicted in federal court
in Ohio of terrorist crimes associated with bombings in New York and
Los Angles and with the attempted assassination of the Turkish Honorary
Consul General in Philadelphia. The Armenian youths whom Topalian
directed and who conducted these attacks were recruited from the
Armenian Youth Federation and Armenian Revolution Federation in Boston.

The sole purpose of Armenian anti-Turkish hatred Inc. is to cover up
the dire circumstances that precipitated the enactment of a measure as
drastic as mass relocation. Armenians cooperated with Russian invaders
of Eastern Anatolia in wars in 1828, 1854, and 1877. Between 1893 and
1915 Ottoman Armenians in eastern Anatolia rebelled against their
government -- the Ottoman government of which Armenians held many, many
prominent and powerful positions-- and joined Armenian revolutionary
groups, such as the notorious Dashnaks and Hunchaks. They armed
themselves and spearheaded a massive Russian invasion of eastern
Anatolia. On November 5, 1914, the President of the Armenian National
Bureau in Tblisi declared to Czar Nicholas II, "From all countries
Armenians are hurrying to enter the ranks for the glorious Russian
Army, with their blood to serve the victory of Russian arms. ... Let
the Russian flag wave freely over the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus."
Armenian treason is also plainly documented in the November 1914 issue
of the Hunchak Armenian [Revolutionary] Gazette, published in Paris. In
a call to arms it exhorted:

"The entire Armenian Nation will join forces -- moral and material, and
waving the sword of Revolution, will enter this World conflict ... as
comrades in arms of the Triple Entente, and particularly Russia. They
will cooperate with the Allies, making full use of all political and
revolutionary means for the final victory...."

Boghos Nubar addressed a letter to the Times of London on January 30,
1919 confirming that the Armenians were indeed belligerents in World
War I. He stated with pride"

"In the Caucasus, without mentioning the 150,000 Armenians in the
Russian armies, about 50,000 Armenian volunteers under Andranik,
Nazarbekoff, and others not only fought for four years for the cause of
the Entente, but after the breakdown of Russia they were the only
forces in the Caucasus to resist the advance of the Turks...."

One of those who answered the Armenian call to arms was Gourgen
Yanikian who, as a teenager, joined the Russians to fight the Ottoman
government, and who as an elderly man, on January 27, 1973,
assassinated two Turkish diplomats in Santa Barbara, California.

No logic can reconcile the two positions that Armenian Anti-Turkish
Hatred Inc. promotes. Eminent historian Bernard Lewis, speaking to the
Israeli daily Ha'aretz on January 23, 1998, expanded on this notion:

"The Armenians want to benefit from both worlds. On the one hand, they
speak with pride of their struggle against Ottoman despotism, while on
the other hand, they compare their tragedy to the Jewish Holocaust. I
do not accept this. I do not say that the Armenians did not suffer
terribly. But I find enough cause for me to contain their attempts to
use the Armenian massacres to diminish the worth of the Jewish
Holocaust and to relate to it instead as an ethnic dispute."
(translation)

None of the Ottoman orders commanding the relocation of Armenians,
which have been reviewed by historians to date, orders killings. To the
contrary, they order Ottoman officials to protect relocated Armenians.

Where Ottoman control was weakest Armenian relocatees suffered most.
The stories of the time give many examples of columns of hundreds of
Armenians guarded by as few as two Ottoman gendarmes. When local
Muslims attacked the columns, Armenians were robbed and killed. It must
be remembered that these Muslims had themselves suffered greatly at the
hands of Armenians and Russians. In the words of U.S. Ambassador Mark
Bristol, "While the Dashnaks [Armenian revolutionaries] were in power
they did everything in the world to keep the pot boiling by attacking
Kurds, Turks and Tartars; [and] by committing outrages against the
Moslems ...."

Armenian Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc. purports that the wartime propaganda
of the enemies of the Ottoman Empire constitutes objective evidence.
Ambassador Henry Morgenthau, who is frequently quoted by Armenian
Americans, visited the Ottoman Empire with political, not humanitarian
aims. His correspondence with President Wilson reveals his intent was
to uncover or manufacture news that would goad the U.S. into joining
the war. Given that motive, Morgenthau sought to malign the Ottoman
Empire, an enemy of the Triple Entente. Morgenthau's research and
reporting relied in large part on politically motivated Armenians; his
primary aid, translator and confidant was Arshag Schmavonian, his
secretary was Hagop Andonian. Morgenthau openly professed that the
Turks were an inferior race and possessed "inferior blood." Thus, his
accounts can hardly be considered objective.

One ought to compare the wartime writings of Morgenthau and the
oft-cited Gen. J.G. Harbord to the post-war writings of Rear Admiral
Mark L. Bristol, U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Turkey 1920 - 1926.
In a March 28, 1921 letter he writes:

"[R]eports are being freely circulated in the United States that the
Turks massacred thousands of Armenians in the Caucasus. Such reports
are repeated so many times it makes my blood boil. The Near East Relief
have the reports from Yarrow and our own American people which show
absolutely that such Armenian reports are absolutely false. The
circulation of such false reports in the United States, without
refutation, is an outrage and is certainly doing the Armenians more
harm than good. ... Why not tell the truth about the Armenians in every
way?"

Demographic studies prove that prior to World War I, fewer than 1.5
million Armenians lived in the entire Ottoman Empire. Thus, allegations
that more than 1.5 million Armenians from eastern Anatolia died is
false.

Figures reporting the total pre-World War I Armenian population vary
widely, with Armenian sources claiming far more than others. British,
French and Ottoman sources give figures of 1.05-1.50 million. Only
certain Armenian sources claim a pre-war population larger than 1.5
million. Comparing these to post-war figures yields a rough estimate of
losses. Historian and demographer, Dr. Justin McCarthy of the
University of Louisville, calculates the actual losses as slightly less
than 600,000. This figure agrees with those provided by British
historian Arnold Toynbee, by most early editions of the Encyclopedia
Britannica, and approximates the number given by Monseigneur Touchet, a
French missionary, who informed the Oeuvre d'Orient in February 1916
that the number of dead is thought to be 500,000. Boghos Nubar, head of
the Armenian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference in 1920, noted
the large numbers who survived the war. He declared that after the war
280,000 Armenians remained in the Anatolian portion of the occupied
Ottoman Empire while 700,000 Armenians had emigrated to other
countries.

Clearly then, a great portion of the Ottoman Armenians were not killed
as claimed by the Armenian Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc. and the 1.5 million
figure is gross and delibarate exaggeration. Each needless death is a
tragedy. Equally tragic are lies meant to inflame hatred by the
Armenian Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc.

Armenian losses were few in comparison to the over 2.5 million Muslim
dead from the same period. Reliable statistics demonstrate that
slightly less than 600,000 Anatolian Armenians died during the war
period of 1912-22. Armenians indeed suffered a terrible mortality. But
one must likewise consider the number of dead Muslims, Jews, Kurds and
other non-Armenains of Ottoman Eastern Anatolia who were murdered by
Armenian terrorists.

The statistics tell us that more than 2.5 million Anatolian Muslims
alone (Turks, Arabs, Kurds and others) perished in the hands of
Armenian terrorists. Thus, the years 1912-1922 constitute a horrible
period for humanity, not just for Armenians.

The numbers do not tell us the exact manner of death of the citizens of
Anatolia, regardless of ethnicity, who were caught up in both an
international war and an intercommunal struggle. Documents of the time
list intercommunal violence, forced migration of all ethnic groups,
disease, and, starvation as causes of death. Others died as a result of
the same war-induced causes that ravaged all peoples during the period.


The Ottoman Armenians openly agitated for a separate state in lands in
which they were numerically far inferior. The Hunchak and Dashnak
terrorist organizations, which survive to this day, were formed
expressly to agitate against the Ottoman government. The Ottoman
Armenians committed massacres against Ottoman Muslims, Jews and other
non-Armenians. During World War I, Ottoman Armenians openly and with
pride committed mass treason, took up arms, traveled to Russia for
training, and sported Russian uniforms. Others, non-uniformed
irregulars, operated against the Ottoman government from behind the
lines.
m***@yahoo.com
2005-01-29 17:41:45 UTC
Permalink
Terrorist Armenians raped, tortured, massacred millions of innocent and
defenceless Turks, Jews, Kurds, Arabs and other non-Armenians in
Ottoman Eastern Anatolia during WWI (with direct and generous support
from their allies, the victors of WWI including Czarist Russia which
also created the mess in the Middle East, including the fake state of
Iraq, millions of people are suffering from now) to ethnically cleanse
the area for an Armenian homeland which never existed.

The rest of the Ottoman Armenian population either very blindly
followed their terrorist leaders (who were ".. craven and mean-spirited
and exel in nothing except drinking ..imperfect Christians" - Marco
Polo), or remained totally complacent.

After WWI ended, the British convened the Malta Tribunals to try
Ottoman officials for alleged crimes against Armenians. All of the
accused were acquitted.

The Peace Treaty of Sevres, which was imposed upon the defeated Ottoman
Empire, required the Ottoman government to hand over to the Allied
Powers people accused of "massacres." Subsequently, 144 high Ottoman
officials were arrested and deported for trial by the British to the
island of Malta. The principal informants to the British High
Commission in Istanbul leading to the arrests were local Armenians and
the Armenian Patriarchate. While the deportees were interned on Malta,
the British appointed an Armenian scholar, Mr. Haig Khazarian, to
conduct a thorough examination of documentary evidence in the Ottoman,
British, and U.S. Archives to substantiate the charges. Access to
Ottoman records was unfettered as the British and French occupied and
controlled Istanbul at the time. Khazarian's corps of investigators
revealed an utter lack of evidence demonstrating that Ottoman officials
either sanctioned or encouraged killings of Armenians.

At the conclusion of the investigation, the British Procurator General
determined that it was "improbable that the charges would be capable of
proof in a court of law," exonerated and released all 144 detainees --
after two years and four months of detention without trial. No
compensation was ever paid to the detainees.

Despite the verdicts of the Malta Tribunals, Armenian terrorists have
engaged in a vigilante war that continues today.

In 1921, a secret Armenian network based in Boston, named Nemesis, took
the law into its own hands and hunted down and assassinated former
Ottoman Ministers Talaat Pasha and Jemal Pasha as well as other Ottoman
officials. Following in Nemesis' footsteps, during the 1970's and
1980's, the Armenian terrorist groups, Armenian Secret Army for the
Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) and Justice Commandos for the Armenian
Genocide (JCAG), committed over 230 armed attacks, killing 71 innocent
people, including 31 Turkish diplomats, and seriously wounding over 520
people in a campaign of blood revenge.

Most recently, Mourad Topalian, former Chairman of the Armenian
National Committee of America, was tried and convicted in federal court
in Ohio of terrorist crimes associated with bombings in New York and
Los Angles and with the attempted assassination of the Turkish Honorary
Consul General in Philadelphia. The Armenian youths whom Topalian
directed and who conducted these attacks were recruited from the
Armenian Youth Federation and Armenian Revolution Federation in Boston.

The sole purpose of Armenian anti-Turkish hatred Inc. is to cover up
the dire circumstances that precipitated the enactment of a measure as
drastic as mass relocation. Armenians cooperated with Russian invaders
of Eastern Anatolia in wars in 1828, 1854, and 1877. Between 1893 and
1915 Ottoman Armenians in eastern Anatolia rebelled against their
government -- the Ottoman government of which Armenians held many, many
prominent and powerful positions-- and joined Armenian revolutionary
groups, such as the notorious Dashnaks and Hunchaks. They armed
themselves and spearheaded a massive Russian invasion of eastern
Anatolia. On November 5, 1914, the President of the Armenian National
Bureau in Tblisi declared to Czar Nicholas II, "From all countries
Armenians are hurrying to enter the ranks for the glorious Russian
Army, with their blood to serve the victory of Russian arms. ... Let
the Russian flag wave freely over the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus."
Armenian treason is also plainly documented in the November 1914 issue
of the Hunchak Armenian [Revolutionary] Gazette, published in Paris. In
a call to arms it exhorted:

"The entire Armenian Nation will join forces -- moral and material, and
waving the sword of Revolution, will enter this World conflict ... as
comrades in arms of the Triple Entente, and particularly Russia. They
will cooperate with the Allies, making full use of all political and
revolutionary means for the final victory...."

Boghos Nubar addressed a letter to the Times of London on January 30,
1919 confirming that the Armenians were indeed belligerents in World
War I. He stated with pride:

"In the Caucasus, without mentioning the 150,000 Armenians in the
Russian armies, about 50,000 Armenian volunteers under Andranik,
Nazarbekoff, and others not only fought for four years for the cause of
the Entente, but after the breakdown of Russia they were the only
forces in the Caucasus to resist the advance of the Turks...."

One of those who answered the Armenian call to arms was Gourgen
Yanikian who, as a teenager, joined the Russians to fight the Ottoman
government, and who as an elderly man, on January 27, 1973,
assassinated two Turkish diplomats in Santa Barbara, California.

No logic can reconcile the two positions that Armenian Anti-Turkish
Hatred Inc. promotes. Eminent historian Bernard Lewis, speaking to the
Israeli daily Ha'aretz on January 23, 1998, expanded on this notion:

"The Armenians want to benefit from both worlds. On the one hand, they
speak with pride of their struggle against Ottoman despotism, while on
the other hand, they compare their tragedy to the Jewish Holocaust. I
do not accept this. I do not say that the Armenians did not suffer
terribly. But I find enough cause for me to contain their attempts to
use the Armenian massacres to diminish the worth of the Jewish
Holocaust and to relate to it instead as an ethnic dispute."
(translation)

None of the Ottoman orders commanding the relocation of Armenians,
which have been reviewed by historians to date, orders killings. To the
contrary, they order Ottoman officials to protect relocated Armenians.

Where Ottoman control was weakest Armenian relocatees suffered most.
The stories of the time give many examples of columns of hundreds of
Armenians guarded by as few as two Ottoman gendarmes. When local
Muslims attacked the columns, Armenians were robbed and killed. It must
be remembered that these Muslims had themselves suffered greatly at the
hands of Armenians and Russians. In the words of U.S. Ambassador Mark
Bristol, "While the Dashnaks [Armenian revolutionaries] were in power
they did everything in the world to keep the pot boiling by attacking
Kurds, Turks and Tartars; [and] by committing outrages against the
Moslems ...."

Armenian Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc. purports that the wartime propaganda
of the enemies of the Ottoman Empire constitutes objective evidence.
Ambassador Henry Morgenthau, who is frequently quoted by Armenian
Americans, visited the Ottoman Empire with political, not humanitarian
aims. His correspondence with President Wilson reveals his intent was
to uncover or manufacture news that would goad the U.S. into joining
the war. Given that motive, Morgenthau sought to malign the Ottoman
Empire, an enemy of the Triple Entente. Morgenthau's research and
reporting relied in large part on politically motivated Armenians; his
primary aid, translator and confidant was Arshag Schmavonian, his
secretary was Hagop Andonian. Morgenthau openly professed that the
Turks were an inferior race and possessed "inferior blood." Thus, his
accounts can hardly be considered objective.

One ought to compare the wartime writings of Morgenthau and the
oft-cited Gen. J.G. Harbord to the post-war writings of Rear Admiral
Mark L. Bristol, U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Turkey 1920 - 1926.
In a March 28, 1921 letter he writes:

"[R]eports are being freely circulated in the United States that the
Turks massacred thousands of Armenians in the Caucasus. Such reports
are repeated so many times it makes my blood boil. The Near East Relief
have the reports from Yarrow and our own American people which show
absolutely that such Armenian reports are absolutely false. The
circulation of such false reports in the United States, without
refutation, is an outrage and is certainly doing the Armenians more
harm than good. ... Why not tell the truth about the Armenians in every
way?"

Demographic studies prove that prior to World War I, fewer than 1.5
million Armenians lived in the entire Ottoman Empire. Thus, allegations
that more than 1.5 million Armenians from eastern Anatolia died is
false.

Figures reporting the total pre-World War I Armenian population vary
widely, with Armenian sources claiming far more than others. British,
French and Ottoman sources give figures of 1.05-1.50 million. Only
certain Armenian sources claim a pre-war population larger than 1.5
million. Comparing these to post-war figures yields a rough estimate of
losses. Historian and demographer, Dr. Justin McCarthy of the
University of Louisville, calculates the actual losses as slightly less
than 600,000. This figure agrees with those provided by British
historian Arnold Toynbee, by most early editions of the Encyclopedia
Britannica, and approximates the number given by Monseigneur Touchet, a
French missionary, who informed the Oeuvre d'Orient in February 1916
that the number of dead is thought to be 500,000. Boghos Nubar, head of
the Armenian delegation at the Paris Peace Conference in 1920, noted
the large numbers who survived the war. He declared that after the war
280,000 Armenians remained in the Anatolian portion of the occupied
Ottoman Empire while 700,000 Armenians had emigrated to other
countries.

Clearly then, a great portion of the Ottoman Armenians were not killed
as claimed by the Armenian Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc. and the 1.5 million
figure is gross and delibarate exaggeration. Each needless death is a
tragedy. Equally tragic are lies meant to inflame hatred by the
Armenian Anti-Turkish Hatred Inc.

Armenian losses were few in comparison to the over 2.5 million Muslim
dead from the same period. Reliable statistics demonstrate that
slightly less than 600,000 Anatolian Armenians died during the war
period of 1912-22. Armenians indeed suffered a terrible mortality. But
one must likewise consider the number of dead Muslims, Jews, Kurds and
other non-Armenains of Ottoman Eastern Anatolia who were murdered by
Armenian terrorists.

The statistics tell us that more than 2.5 million Anatolian Muslims
alone (Turks, Arabs, Kurds and others) perished in the hands of
Armenian terrorists. Thus, the years 1912-1922 constitute a horrible
period for humanity, not just for Armenians.

The numbers do not tell us the exact manner of death of the citizens of
Anatolia, regardless of ethnicity, who were caught up in both an
international war and an intercommunal struggle. Documents of the time
list intercommunal violence, forced migration of all ethnic groups,
disease, and, starvation as causes of death. Others died as a result of
the same war-induced causes that ravaged all peoples during the period.


The Ottoman Armenians openly agitated for a separate state in lands in
which they were numerically far inferior. The Hunchak and Dashnak
terrorist organizations, which survive to this day, were formed
expressly to agitate against the Ottoman government. The Ottoman
Armenians committed massacres against Ottoman Muslims, Jews and other
non-Armenians. During World War I, Ottoman Armenians openly and with
pride committed mass treason, took up arms, traveled to Russia for
training, and sported Russian uniforms. Others, non-uniformed
irregulars, operated against the Ottoman government from behind the
lines.

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